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Vol. I 1 946 


A Theological Formula for Christian Education H. W. Triable 143 

Baptists in the U.S.S.R Louie D. Newton 156 

Beauty for Ashes in Burma Paul Geren 253 

Beginning "Christian Frontiers" Eugene Olive 3 

Call to Moral Research Garland A. Hendricks— 60 

Faith Claude U. Broach 7 

Hubba-Hubba Bernard C. Clausen 25 

Industrialization of the South Lee C. Sheppard 160 

"In Spirit and in Truth" Hubert M. Poteat 232 

My Brother's Keeper J. T. McRae 191 

Patterns of Fascism — Southern Style Raven McDavid 328 

Rural Churches in an Urban Civilization Garland A. Hendricks^ 196 

Set Your Clock at U235 Norman Corwin 56 

Southern Churches and the Negroes Edward A. McDowell __215 

The Baptist Position As I See It Edward Hughes Pruden 150 

The Bible a Progressive Revelation S. L. Morgan, Sr 280 

The Church and Returning Service 

Men and Women Roy A. Burkhart 81 

The Church They Want Hybert Pollard 256 

The Faith of Aldous Huxley William H. Poteat 20 

The Historical Method and Bible Studies Franklin W. Young 111 

The International State R. F. Howes 121 

The Intolerant Baptists George B. Cutten 90 

The Need for a Christian Psychotherapy Talmage Johnson 8 

The World Council of Churches Henry Smith Leiper 47 

They Serve Without Weapons W. M. Hammond, Jr.__ 291 

What Think Ye of the Christ? W. O. Carver 183 

Where There Is No Freedom O. K. Armstrong 246 

Why Christian Missions? Theron D. Price 319 

Why Democracy Fails R. F. Howes 298 

Worker-Management Cooperation Wilson Woodcock 195 


The Negro and the Ballot Das Kelley Barnett 32 

The Southern Baptist P.ulpit and the Labor 

Management Crisis Das Kelley Barnett 181 

Welcome Labor Unions! Das Kelley Barnett 277 

"Balkanization" of Christianity William W. Pinlator 243 

Baptist Faith Put to the Test William W. Finlator 107 

Christians, Period William W. Finlator 212 

Free the Conscientious Objectors William W. Finlator 181 

Labor Unions Southward Ho William W. Finlator 179 

Let's Reconsider: Our Rural Churches William W. Finlator 140 

"Like A Mighty Army" William W. Finlator 317 

More Resolutions, Please, Southern Baptists William W. Finlator 139 

Of Like Faith and Order William W. Finlator 316 

"One World" William W. Finlator 30 

Patriotism Without the Flag-waving William W. Finlator 278 

Radio Committee William W. Finlator 43 

Raison D'Etre Christian Frontiers William W. Finlator 276 

Rethinking Separation of Church and State William W. Finlator 109 

"Shall We Say Grace?" William W. Finlator 180 

Single Blessedness and the Housing Shortage —-William W. Finlator 244 

The Divinity That Hedges the Vatican William W. Finlator 77 

The Radio Conference at Ridgecrest William W. Finlator 214 

The Spectre of Power William W. Finlator 31 

Visitation Evangelism William W. Finlator 318 

"Vox Populi" William W. Finlator 31 

What to Preach About William W. Finlator 315 

Who are the Mobilizers of Violence William W. Finlator 211 

Wisdom in Brobdingnag William W. Finlator 78 

Forty-One Lynchings John Arch McMillan 275 

A Militarized America? Lee C. Sheppard 75 


Bauer, Florence Marvyne: Behold Your King 68 

Brunner, Emil: Justice and the Social Order 97 

Cammaerts, Emile: The Peace That Is Left 304 

Clarke, Maurice: How to Read and Enjoy the Bible 99 

Edited by A. N. Christensen and E. M. Kirkpatrick: Running the 

. Country 267 

Elliott, G. R.: Church, College, and Nation 127 

Heard, Gerald: The Eternal Gospel 267 

Heard, Gerald: The Gospel According to Gamaliel 130 

Hough, Lynn Harold: The Meaning of Human Experience 200 

Johnson, Hewlett, Dean of Canterbury: The Soviet Power 169 

Johnson, Paul E.: Psychology of Religion 66 

Maritain, Jacques: Twilight of Civilization 129 

Maston, T. B.: Of One. A Study of Christian Principles and Race 

Relations 305 

Miller, Helen Topping: Dark Sails 202 

Newton, Joseph Fort: River of Years 303 

Smith, Ruth: White Man's Burden 200 

Straton, Hillyer: Thinking Where Jesus Thought 98 

Street, James: The Gauntlet 35 


A Journal of Baptist Life and Thought 

Das Kelley Barnett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlator, Associate Editor William H. Poteat, Book Editor 

Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 
J. M. Dawson, Waco, Texas Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C. 

H. B. Cross, Nashville, Tenn. J. C. Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia 

George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 


C. Sylvester Green, Chairman Jasper C. Hutto, Secretary 

Claude U. Broach George B. Heaton 

Sankey L. Blanton Fred B. Helms 

J. Glenn Blackburn Norfleet Gardner 

Eugene Olive F. H. Scofield 

Lee C. Sheppard J. Wade Baker 

fc -: 


Beginning "Christian Frontiers" Eugene Olive.... 3 

Faith Claude U. Broach.... 7 

The Need For a Christian Psychotherapy Talmage Johnson.... 8 

The Faith of Aldous Huxley William H. Poteat....20 

Hubba-Hubba Bernard C. Clausen....25 

Editorial 30 

Book Reviews 35 

r News 40 



— Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
, /\ Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laymen, at box 508, Chapel 
•_ « Hill, North Carolina. Circulation office 324 South Blount Street, Raleigh, N. C. 

J_ Copyright 1946 by the Baptist Book Club. Second class mailing privilege pending. 
' Subscription price two dollars a year; twenty-five cents a copy. 

Who's Who? 

BERNARD C. CLAUSEN, D. D., is pastor of the Euclid Avenue 
Baptist Church, Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Clausen brought two addresses 
to the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, meeting in Raleigh 
in November, and participated in a symposium on "The Tasks of 
Churches in the Post War World," held at the Convention on 
November 14th. 

TALMAGE C. JOHNSON, D. D., is Assistant Director of the 
Venereal Disease Education Institute of Raleigh, N. C. Formerly 
he was pastor of the First Baptist Church of Kinston. He is the 
author of a number of books and a frequent contributor to religious 
magazines and periodicals. 

WILLIAM H. POTEAT is a graduate of Oberlin College in Ohio, 
and of the Divinity School of Yale University. He was ordained into 
the Ministry in 1942. Since June, 1944, he has been the Associate 
Secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. He is the Book Editor of CHRISTIAN 

DAS KELLEY BARNETT is the Pastor of the Baptist Church in 
Chapel Hill, N. C, and Moderator of the Mount Zion Baptist Asso- 
ciation. He is a graduate of the Southern Baptist Seminary where he 
received his Doctorate in Theology. In addition to being Editor of 
CHRISTIAN FRONTIERS, he has further qualified himself to re- 
view The Gauntlet through his recent acquaintance with the author. 

EUGENE OLIVE graduate of Wake Forest College and the 
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary is minister of the Wake 
Forest Baptist Church. He is now engaged in the Wake Forest 
Endowment Campaign. 

W. W. FINLATOR, graduate of Wake Forest College and the 
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary is minister of the First 
Baptist Church at Weldon. He is associate editor of CHRISTIAN 



Vol I JANUARY, 1946 No. 1 

Beginning "Christian Frontiers" 

Eugene Olive 

VENTURES INTO the unknown are alluring, whether 
the way be fair or hazardous. The experience is common 
to all who travel beckoning roads, blaze new trails, scale lofty 
heights, or even drag wearily but purposely through desert 

Some stupidly inquire why one should wish to go on a 
journey when comforts of home are real and comradeship 
with friends invigorating. For them customary scenes afford 
solid delights and (hold as by a firm grasp. Why encounter 
unknown hazards, they ask, in search of values remote and 
uncertain? The answer is as old as life. 

"A fierce unrest seethes at the core 

Of all existing things," 
as Don Marquis expresses it, and 
"But for the rebel in his breast 

Had man remained a brute." 

Man's glory lies in the fact that he is never satisfied to stay 
where or like he was or is. That day is tragic in the life of any 
person or people when for him or them there are no more 
frontiers. Then it becomes necessary to settle down and the 
result is stagnation. 

Iq PIONEERING. Months ago an informal, unofficial group 

of Baptists in North Carolina assembled for talk and fellow- 

Iq ship. For two days conversation was fluent, free, stimulating. 


Christian Frontiers 

Comradeship was rich, invigorating. Participants liked the 
experience, thought it worth repeating, planned and held 
other meetings. 

Out of the group emerged the idea of a modest publication 
voicing for pioneering spirits among Baptists something of 
their thoughts and dreams. Hurdles, if not barricades, were 
in the way. Shekels would be needed, time and talent would 
be required, at least some readers would be desirable. 

Sponsors leaped hurdle one by depositing ample funds for 
publishing and mailing initial issues. The second hurdle was 
surmounted (presumably) by naming an editorial committee. 
Promoters themselves agreed to read what might be written 
and make it available to a few thousand other people, to read 
or not to read. Thus the third impediment vanished. 

WHAT'S IN A NAME. A good name would be needed, 
Shakespeare notwithstanding. What pleased the founding 
fathers is Christian Frontiers, and Christian Frontiers the 
name will be. 

Geographical frontiers, unsettled regions on the border of 
settled areas, exist no longer. A Government census in 1890 
made that declaration. But more of the natural wealth of the 
North American continent has been discovered and more 
uses have been found for it in little more than half a century 
since that date than were learned in a million years before. 
Man continues to dream, as he has done for centuries, of 
communication with distant planets, and his quest for hidden 
secrets of the earth and of the universe goes on unabated. 

There are still vast, uninhabited, marginal areas on the 
edge of and far beyond the ordinary experiences of life. Man's 
frontiers include the interminable distances between where 
he now is and where by his own best efforts and God's grace 
he ought to be. He has not yet explored all the possibilities 
of abundant living. Only the hem of Truth's expansive gar- 
ment has yet been touched by man's adventures into the 
unknown. His face must be always toward the frontiers. 

BAPTISTS. Sponsors of Christian Frontiers are under 

Beginning "Christian Frontiers' 

strong conviction that Baptists, by their nature and mission, 
confront opportunities for doing, as they have done hitherto, 
much constructive pioneering. They have it in their blood. 
Anabaptists, their spiritual forebears, came into prominence 
in the sixteenth century through their successive and varied 
efforts to live by principles that gave rise to the Reformation. 
They looked to horizons beyond the doctrines and practices 
of the static Roman Church. To Luther's thunderous tocsin, 
"The just shall live by faith," Anabaptists added the doctrine 
that faith shall live by justice. That was pioneering, and still 

Frontiers were crossed when Baptist groups valiantly pro- 
claimed and practiced baptism for believers only, in a day 
dominated by a powerful and intolerant Church that had de- 
creed baptism of unbelieving infants essential to their salva- 
tion. Pioneering was required of Baptists who began to pro- 
claim and die for such doctrines as the autonomy and inde- 
pendence of the local church, the adequacy of the Holy Scrip- 
tures as a standard of faith and practice, liberty of conscience 
for every man, the maintenance of the essential purity of the 
church, and emphasis upon the necessity of holy living, 
springing from a renewed heart. 

Baptists and their spiritual precursors have been from the 
beginning of their history inspirers and leaders of revolt 
against churches and social orders that were based on prin- 
ciples and practiced ways of life which they believed to be 
hostile to the spirit of the gospel. When society became pagan 
and when the church became tyrannical, there were Baptists 
who occupied the vanguard of protest, revolt, and renovation. 

Christian Frontiers seeks the light of day, therefore, because 
of its faith in the genius of the Baptist people to extend into 
the marginal areas of current life principles that are liberating 
and enduring. This journal holds with Harris Franklin Rail 
that "the function of religion can be nothing less than to 
secure for man the highest and fullest life .... that no aspect 
of man's life can be foreign to it." 

6 Christian Frontiers 

Nobody believes that the highest and fullest life has yet 
been achieved by or for man. Nor are the champions of rich- 
ness and completeness of living altogether lacking, even 
among Baptist journals. 

Why, then, should there be another? Most Baptist publica- 
tions are related organically to conventions, boards, or institu- 
tions to which they are properly accountable. Christian 
Frontiers would be staunch friend and supporter both of 
them and of the organizational life of Baptists, even when 
finding it necessary to take issue with them at points or to 
blaze lonely trails. As ally and comrade of all whose motives 
are high and whose methods are sincere and generous, this 
journalistic venture would be limited in its freedom by noth- 
ing save the demands imposed upon it by truth and the 
Christian spirit. 

PREVIEW. Pioneers cannot see what lies on the other side 
of the hill. They cannot create new lands to discover, nor 
fashion with their hands treasures of earth and sea and air. 
They only probe and search and examine and make such use 
as they can of what they find. Sometimes they guess or reason 
with accuracy concerning things that are hidden. But the 
physical universe is not of man's own making and his quest 
for its secrets remains only a quest, rewarded sometimes by 

Across spiritual frontiers it is possible for man to look. He 
even possesses resources for determining the contours and 
claiming the wealth of those unsettled areas. He sees them to 
be a goodly land and knows that it is largely of his own mak- 

So, Christian Frontiers sees beyond our present land of 
poverty in the midst of plenty; beyond a country of crime and 
corruption in a day demanding discipline and integrity; be- 
yond a world of racial and religious antagonisms in a day de- 
manding world cooperation and unity; beyond this great arena 
where man seems to be arrayed against man to destroy the 

Beginning "Christian Frontiers' 

last vestige of life in a day crying aloud for fraternity; be- 
yond a state of widespread spiritual poverty and the indiffer- 
ence of otherwise good people in an age summoning man- 
kind to enjoy the freedom of the sons of God. 

Christian Frontiers looks beyond the present world, clutter- 
ed with wreckage and ruin, marred by the stain and the 
bruises of man's wickedness and folly, to the completeness 
which Jesus called the kingdom of God. To the high purposes 
of pioneering in the direction of man's true Canaan this 
journal would dedicate itself, joining heart and hand with 
all who seek such a Land of Promise. 


Faith is no craven surrender 

Of the creative passion 

For truth — 

Nor is it the clamorous babbling 

Of ancient shibboleths which yet 

Spawn strife and harsh division, 

Sundering the Body of Christ. 

Faith is a quest for knowledge 
Of the fulness of the glory 
Of God- 
It is the willingness to follow 
The radiant Pioneer of Life 
Without seeking, to drive a bargain 
Nor asking cheap praise of men. 

Claude U. Broach. 

Christian Frontiers 

The Need For a Christian Psychotherapy* 

Talmage C. Johnson, D.D. 

PROGRESS in understanding and curing the mental ills 
of man has been slow. It cannot be said that they are 

yet viewed as intelligently as are the physical ills. Widespread 

ignorance as to their origin, their nature, their prevention and 

cure remains, and a kind of social stigma is still attached to 


People are quick to recognize in themselves and in others 
any symptom of physical ill-health; they are likely to ignore, 
or to deny, symptoms of mental ill-health. An individual who 
is sick of body seeks the best diagnosis and treatment avail- 
able, and is heartily urged to do so by his family and his 
friends. But the person who is sick of mind knows not that 
he needs help, and his family and friends postpone as long as 
possible committing him to expert care. Many tragedies could 
be averted and many mental illnesses might be shortened 
were it not for the notion that mental illness is a shameful and 
disgraceful condition. 

The whole social attitude toward mental sickness tends to 
aggravate it. When the only observable symptoms are in the 
body, a patient receives sympathy, encouragement, and help- 
ful care. But when mental symptoms appear, a patient is 
likely first to be blamed and exhorted. Even the pity which 
comes later may be tinged with reproach, distrust, and fear. 
When such a patient recovers, he is handicapped and hinder- 
ed because he is known to have once had "a mental break- 
down." The convalescent from physical sickness is encouraged 
to believe that his recovery will be complete and permanent. 
But the person struggling back to mental health can hardly 

* The author acknowledges indebtedness to Dr. G. F. Meadors, of 
the United States Public Health Service, for helpful suggestions and 
criticisms of the contents of this article. 

The Need For a Christian Psychotherapy 

fail to know that others expect for him only a partial or 
temporary recovery. 

Civilization has counteracted in the main its own hazards 
to physical health; or at least it has made it possible for them 
to be offset. Not so with the hazards which civilization adds 
to mental health. The more complex life is the greater is the 
strain put upon the human mind. But civilization has not 
succeeded thus far in developing additional strength of mind 
proportionate to this additional strain. As a result, the in- 
cidence and the prevalence of mental disorders has so in- 
creased that it is estimated at the present time that approx- 
imately forty or fifty percent of all physical illness is of 
psychic origin, sixty percent of all patients in the hospitals 
of the country are mental patients, and multitudes outside 
of mental institutions are suffering from neuroses, psycho- 
neuroses, and psychoses not readily recognized as such. 

Indeed it seems that civilized man is more likely to go mad 
than were his barbaric ancestors. Improved standards of liv- 
ing do, to some extent at least, increase the number of mental 
disorders. A higher economic level demands a correspond- 
ingly higher degree of psychic integration. Hence psychic ills 
are usually more common among the economically privileged 
than among the economically underprivileged. Economic pro- 
gress may produce the factors of personality deterioration. 

Certainly no one would be so foolish as to suggest that pro- 
gress be stayed, or that man should content himself with as 
low a standard of living as possible. Rather must we seek 
some way of developing minds adequate for the problems 
which come with economic progress. In other words, progress 
must be made in the whole of life and not in a limited sector 
of it; improvement must be made in adaptation to total en- 
vironment rather than to selected portions of it. As Norman 
Vincent Peale puts it, "The inner braces of a man's heart 
must be equal to the outer pressure of life's circumstances."' 

i Norman Vincent Peale, Jou Can Win, Abingdon-Cokesbury Press. 
p. 11. 

10 Cheistian Frontiers 

A traveler among primitive people tells of how his safari 
was halted one day by natives who refused to go on. For two 
or three days they would not move forward. When questioned 
as to the reason for the delay, they said that they had been 
traveling so fast that their souls had been unable to keep the 
pace and that they must wait for these souls to catch up. Now 
something like that has really been happening to civilized 
man; his soul has not kept up with his body. It is not progress 
which causes personality deterioration, but unbalanced pro- 

Mental patients, therefore, are entitled to more considera- 
tion and more help from society than those whose maladies 
are physical. They are less responsible for their own ills. 
There is little excuse in these times for a child's having 
diphtheria, whooping cough, or any other contagious disease. 
There is little reason for an adult's acquiring such diseases as 
tuberculosis, typhus, or typhoid. The means for their preven- 
tion are known, and the failure to make them generally avail- 
able, or to use them when available, is little short of criminal 
negligence. But it is not so with the mental disorders, for 
little has been done to make them less prevalent while much 
has been done to increase them. 

For a long time, religion believed that all the ills of man 
were supernaturally caused and might be removed only by 
supernatural intervention. Somewhat against its will, it was 
convinced by medicine that physical diseases have natural 
causes and may be cured by hygienic care, drug therapy, and 
surgical intervention. But it went on believing that mental 
abnormalities had only supernatural causes and could be cor- 
rected only by supernatural action. Certain symptoms of 
mental disorder it interpreted as signs of divine favor, and it 
listed among its prophets those who manifested them. Other 
symptoms it explained as signs of demoniacal possession, and 
it bound in chains these victims or burned them at the stake. 

For a long time medical science accepted theological ex- 
planations of psychic ills, and was well content to leave their 
treatment to religion. Its realm was the body of man, and it 

The Need For a Christian Psychotherapy 11 

would trespass upon no other. The physician of Lady Macbeth 
looked with some pity upon the mental anguish of his patient, 
but he had no physic and no treatment to offer. With a mea- 
sure of true insight, he diagnosed her malady and said : 

" unnatural deeds 

Do breed unnatural troubles; infected minds 

To their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets; 

More needs she the divine than the physician." 

This royal physician was asked; 

"Can'st thou not minister to a mind diseased, 
Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow, 
Raze out the written troubles of the brain, 
And with some sweet oblivious antidote 
Cleanse the stuffed bosom of that perilous stuff 
Which weighs upon the heart?" 

But he could only answer, 

"Therein the patient 
Must minister to himself." 

Contemporary physicians and priests would probably have 
unanimously concurred with his verdict, both as to etiology 
and as to therapy. 

But neither Jesus, the founder of Christianity, nor Hippo- 
crates, the father of medical science, would have concurred. 
They held no such view of man's mental ills. Yet the religion 
which Jesus founded and the science which Hippocrates 
fathered long failed to minister, separately or together, to 
minds diseased. 

It remained, for psychology, the youngest of the sciences, 
to declare that mental ills have natural causes and may be 
treated with some considerable measure of success on the 
human level. Religion saw in this claim a new threat to itself. 
It had agreed reluctantly to divide man with medical science, 
yielding up his physical body while retaining his spiritual 
nature. It viewed with alarm the new psychology invading 
its sacred province, and offering heretical explanation of the 
nature and functioning of soul. Medical science, secure in 
its own peculiar province, saw no reason to take sides or be 

12 Christian Frontiers 

concerned. It thought to let religion and psychology compete 
for the soul of man, if he had one, so long as they left to it the 
body of man which he certainly had. 

The new psychology, however, was not content with in- 
vading the realm of religion and challenging prevaling the- 
ological opinion. It insisted upon invading also the realm of 
medical science and challenging prevailing opinions there. To 
take on two mighty opponents at once was surely a presump- 
tuous thing. But by so doing psychology rediscovered man as 
an organic entity which may not be divided. This rediscovery 
is pregnant with meaning for both religion and medical sci- 
ence, and it makes imperative a working alliance between 
them. If man is what psychology shows him to be, a psycho- 
biological entity, then physical ills and mental ills do not 
exist apart except as symptoms of organic illness. And they 
may be altogether cured only by psychosomatic treatment. 
Medical science has been as loathe to accept these findings as 
religion has been. 

Neither religion nor medical science has reason to fear 
psychology. Properly understood it is a substitute for neither, 
but an instrument, or methodology, for both. It formulates, 
correlates, and applies principles which both have always 
used. What was formerly done without understanding may 
now be done the better with understanding. 

So recent is this new and better understanding that it does 
not yet appear what miracles of healing may be achieved 
through it. Dr. Gregory Zilboorg finds that at the beginning 
of the twentieth century "Medicopsychological theories ap- 
pear to have become more an intellectual pastime than a re- 
search for the practical solution of a problem." He declares 
that at that late date: "Therapy in psychiatry was not even 
empirical; still less was it causal. In this respect psychiatry 
was in a rut of the past and lagged far behind general med- 
icine." Fortunately for mankind both scientific medicine and 
religion are now ready to make larger and larger use of 
psychology. Medicine is rapidly developing both curative and 
preventive psychiatry. Religious leaders like Fosdick, Stolz, 

The Need For a Christian Psychotherapy 13 

Weatherhead, Bonnell, May and many others have demon- 
strated the value of sound psychology technique in pastoral 

There is some danger that medical science may limit psy- 
chiatry by making it a speciality, whereas every physician 
and surgeon needs to understand and practice it. The tend- 
ency toward specialization in a particular branch or field of 
medical science has already gone so far as to impair some- 
what the services a physician may render to the whole of an 
individual. The old-fashioned family doctor was aften able to 
do for his patients what a whole battery of specialists are now 
unable to do; namely, help them to achieve wholeness. If 
medical science refuses to require of all its practitioners 
knowledge of basic psychiatric findings and procedures, and 
if it insists that every mental ill be referred to those who are 
specialists in that field, it will not be able to meet existing 
human needs. So general is the modern need for help in 
personality integration that there can never be enough spe- 
cialists to meet it. 

On the side of religion, there is danger that too much may 
be attempted by those who have only a smattering knowledge 
of the new psychology and no training in its methods. It is 
certainly true here that "a little knowledge is a dangerous 
thing." Thomas Hywel Hughes sounds a needed word of 
caution when he says that there are grave and subtle perils 
associated with the treatment of mental ills and only those 
who have been sufficiently trained and have in addition ade- 
quate medical knowledge should undertake it. The minister 
of religion who poses as a psychiatrist, or sets himself up as an 
expert in the treatment of mental ills, unless he has indeed 
had training in a reputable medical center, is not only a quack 
but a fool; for he is playing with dynamite which may destroy 
both him and his unfortunate patient. It is doubtful that the 
term, "pastoral psychiatry" ought to be used at all, for psy- 
chiatry presupposes a medical degree which few if any pastors 

It does not follow that the minister may not make excellent 

14 Christian Frontiers 

use of whatever little or much knowledge he has. And it cer- 
tainly does not follow that religion as such is not an essential 
element in sound psychotherapy. The psychiatrist who as- 
signs it no value and who discredits what the minister of 
religion can do for his patients is perilously near to quackery, 
for he has assumed more knowledge than he has. There is 
cumulative evidence that the best psychiatric results are ob- 
tainable only when the resources of both religion and medical 
science are fully employed by psychotherapeutists. Certainly 
magnificent results have been achieved by Harry Emerson 
Fosdick, Norman Vincent Peale, and other ministers, work- 
ing with Thomas W. Salmon, Smiley Blanton, and other psy- 
chiatrists, as well as by Carl J. Jung, Thomas Rathbone Oliver, 
and Leslie Weatherhead, psychiatrists who are themselves 
deeply religious and use the resources of religion in all their 
work with mental patients. 

The pastor may have a better opportunity than the physi- 
cian to recognize the earliest symptoms of mental disease. 
Without being presumptuous, he can administer an elemen- 
tary sort of psychotherapy which may prevent serious mental 
disorders. The basic need of the human mind is for truth. If 
a person can be brought to face reality and to adjust himself 
to it by accepting truth, he develops resistance to mental dis- 
ease just as he develops resistance to physical disease when 
he takes into his body elements which counteract disease 
germs. Truth is the only immunization against maladies of 
mind. Jesus was psychologically right when he said, "Ye shall 
know the truth and the truth shall make you free." Ministers 
of His church can and should furnish such truth as frees the 
mind from anxiety, worry, and fear, the principle causes of 
mental illness. 

Serious mental cases always require hospital care, and must 
always be referred to a psychiatrist. But for full recovery, 
religion is required. The minister has not performed his whole 
duty to the mental patient when he brings him to psychiatric 
treatment. Religious truth is an essential part of the therapy. 
Of course, the minister is free to administer it only when per- 

The Need For a Christian Psychotherapy 15 

mitted to do so by the psychiatrist and only under his direc- 
tion. But he must offer it. The psychiatrist who rejects it is 
unworthy of his calling. There is never a case of mental sick- 
ness in which all the resources of both religion and medical 
science are not needful, although there is a time when one 
should take priority over the other. 

The New Testament story of how Jesus healed a Gadarene 
demoniac (Mark 5:1-20) reads almost like a modern psy- 
chiatric case history. While it is set forth within the limita- 
tions of a pre-scientific nosology, it can readily be reconstruct- 
ed, without violence to it, into an account of a successful 
treatment of a serious mental disorder. 

The symptoms of the patient justify a probable diagnosis 
of schizophrenia. The first question which Jesus addressed to 
him amounted to asking, "What are you?" Intended to lay 
bare the nature of his illness, it did exactly that. The patient 
answered, "I am not one but many." This answer meant that 
the man had a split personality. He was no longer an entity; 
he had become a disunity. He was being torn apart by conflict- 
ing drives which he could not integrate. A legion of competing 
desires, appetites, and purposes had driven the poor fellow 
insane. He had come to despise himself for his inability to 
harness them and make them do his bidding. They were now 
his masters, he their victim. He no longer had a frame of 
reference, but yielded himself to first one compelling motive 
and then another. He wanted at one and the same time salva- 
tion and self-destruction. 

How like many a modern man was this wild inhabitant of 
the Gadarene tombs! Reason always topples when a center of 
reference is lost, when the mind is unable to face its problems, 
when the personality is split by drives which it cannot master 
and harmonize. Without an integrating factor, one losses his 
sense of worth and dignity, and the self breaks up. There is 
no meaning to life when psychic chaos prevails. 

The treatment of such patients must begin with the therap- 
ist himself. He has to become their center of reference. Until 
he can focus the wandering find upon himself and impress 

16 Christian Frontiers 

it with his own integrated personality, he can do nothing. 
Such cases require more than the rapport between patient 
and therapist called for in treating less serious mental dis- 
orders; they call for domination. It is generally understood 
that the psychiatrist must permit himself to become the substi- 
tute for every person with whom the patient should have nor- 
mal relations, but no longer does have. In major personality 
disorders, it must go even further. The therapist has to be- 
come a substitute for God himself, or at least the symbol of 
God. Now that is what Jesus was for the Gadarene demoniac, 
who hailed him as "Son of God." In this connection, we need 
not concern ourselves with any doctrine about the divinity 
of Jesus. We merely note that for this man at least he was 
divine, nor does it matter how he came to be so recognized. 
It is always a heavy responsibility to play God. The ordinary 
man, such as are all modern psychiatrists and preachers, dare 
not play the part longer than is necessary to transfer the 
patient's submission from himself to the real God, but he has 
to play it long enough to do that. Nor is it as presumptuous 
to do so as may first appear, for surely God is in man. But so 
long as the therapist, be he physician or minister, stands in 
the place of God for a patient, he had better be certain that 
he is Indeed as much like God as possible. 

The trouble with many psychiatrists is that they know too 
little about a real God to represent Him in the first stages of 
treatment, or to transfer their patients to Him in its later 
stages. Some have gone so far as to counsel releasing inhibi- 
tions in directions which no sort of deity could approve, and 
have led their patients into the morass of moral lawlessness 
and chaos. The resulting improvement in symptomatic con- 
ditions, if such occurs, can never be more than partial and 
temporary; it is inevitably followed by an illness of greater 
gravity. Psychiatrists of this sort are correct in thinking that 
repressions of inhibitions must be somehow released; they are 
wrong in thinking that it makes no difference how or through 
what channels they are released. They are correct also in 
believing that many notions about morality and what con- 

The Need For a Christian Psychotherapy 17 

stitutes it are entirely false and produce a needless sense of 
guilt; they are mistaken in believing that there are no sound 
moral concepts or that life can be lived normally without 
them. Familiar only with abnormal psychology and abnormal 
religion, they are unable to appreciate the normal in either. 

Nor can it be said that the average minister of religion does 
much better, especially the average Protestant minister. He 
agrees that theoretically he is the representative of God, but 
he seldom dares play the part. The firm and positive note with 
which the deity should speak through his representatives 
has been largely absent from modern Protestant preaching 
and pastoral counseling. Catholic priests at this point take a 
stronger position; they hear confessions and absolve from sin; 
they speak with authority on what God requires; they assure 
ultimate salvation. This difference between the Catholic priest 
and the Protestant minister may account for the fact that 
Catholics generally magnify the church more than do Pro- 
testants. But the history of Catholicism, and the practices of 
some of its priests, indicate that the Catholic clergy has no 
more right to pose as divine representatives than the Pro- 
testant clergy. The point is that it does so claim. Protestant 
ministers ought to make the same claim and the better justify 
it by their fruits! 

Jesus made no effort to reason with the insane man of 
Gadarea. He made no plea for him "to get hold of himself." 
That can come only when the cure is far advanced. Instead 
Jesus demonstrated to him, in a way that he could not mis- 
take, his importance as a person. Feeding nearby was a herd 
of swine. The deranged mind of the patient held the illusion 
that the hogs were worth more than he, and nothing less than 
the sacrifice of them would have proved to him the contrary. 
Jesus did not hesitate for a moment. He sacrificed the hogs. 
The mental shock of seeing that done was fully equivalent 
to modern electric, insulin, or metrazol shock. The patient fell 
in convulsions, but arose with a mind clear of illusions. We 
may be confident that never again was he overwhelmed by 
the consciousness of utter worthlessness. If the God he now 

18 Christian Frontiers 

recognized cared more for him than for a herd of swine, per- 
haps He cared enough to make worthwhile the reorganization 
of personality around Him as the center of a new frame of 
reference. At any rate, this man who had been beside himself 
came to himself in the presence of God. He would thereafter 
always be himself, not a legion of warring demons. Lest any 
modern therapist be tempted to destroy the property of others 
to achieve such a result, let it be noted that Jesus was im- 
mediately exiled from Gadarea! 

Unfortunately the gospel narrative gives only a hint of any 
further psychotherapy. But from what we know of Jesus, we 
may believe that it was thorough. Doubtlessly the man was 
allowed to talk out all of his problems, until mental catharsis 
was complete. His fears were supplanted by faith in the de- 
pendability of the universe. Whatever feelings of guilt he 
felt were banished by a positive assurance of pardon. His 
natural appetites were shown to be holy and capable of being 
satisfied in some suitable manner. Whatever instinctive drives 
he had were shown to be of divine origin and capable of mo- 
tivating creative activity. When once an organizing principle 
was found, an integrating factor was discovered, no conflicts 
remained; everything fitted into the healthy whole; adaptation 
could be made to the total environment. Inhibitions disap- 
peared; only sublimation remained. The man was sane. 

One thing, however, remained for the therapist to do. Had 
it not been done, the cure might not have been permanent. 
It is not enough for a mental patient to become sane in isola- 
tion or in an artificial environment. He must be returned to 
his own natural social environment and there demonstrate 
his sanity. Jesus did that for his patient; he sent him back to 
his family to take again his place among his loved ones and 
meet his obligations to them. Some men Jesus allowed to 
leave their homes in order to follow him, but not this man. 
For him to do so would be an escape from the realities of his 
own life, to become always dependent upon his therapist. 

Neither religion nor medical science can ever let itself be- 
come merely a means of escape, a crutch upon which to lean. 

The Need For a Christian Psychotherapy 19 

Both must seek to help man, particularly those who have 
mental ills, to make normal responses in normal situations, 
to bear whatever burdens life imposes, and to live with what- 
ever has to be lived with. Both may well seek to improve the 
individual's surroundings, but after all there are inevitable 
things, there are limitations which must be accepted, there 
are duties which must be performed. And no man is wholly 
sane who cannot live within his own surroundings whatever 
they be. Insulin is no cure for diabetes; it simply enables the 
diabetic to live with his disease. So are mental ills cured when 
the patient learns to live with the things which cause them. 
For the mental patient, therefore, true religion is indicated 
as the one thing which must not be lacking. It alone supplies 
the dynamics of sane existence, eases tensions of life in a 
complex social order, and provides energy for creative activ- 
ity. By all means let diseased minds be examined, studied, 
and treated with all the skill that medical science has develop- 
ed. Let every possible physical cause be looked for and re- 
moved, and every possible improvement be made in the 
immediate environment and the patient's adaptation to it. 
Then let religion be summoned to complete the cure and 
make it permanent. 

"Whenever the voice of Truth is heard demanding allegiance, it is 
the voice of God. Whenever Mercy bends over the prostrate and 
feeble, and calls to us for help, it is the voice of God. The Jews re- 
jected Christ for reasons of political prudence, social selfishness and 
religious orthodoxy. Whenever we resist God or any of his mes- 
sengers for those reasons, we link our lives with those who stoned 
the prophets and crucified Jesus and righteous blood is upon us. 
Men are always rejecting the stone that God designed for the head 
of the corner." 

Walter Rauschehbuseh, as quoted in The Social Gospel of Walter 
Rauschenbusch and Its Relation to Religious Education by Vernon 
Parker Bodein, Yale University Press. 

20 Christian Frontiers 

The Faith of Aldous Huxley* 

William H. Poteat 

O 1 

>NE CAN either go on listening to the news — and of 
course the news is always bad, even when it sounds 
good. Or alternatively one can make up one's mind to listen 
to something else." Thus Sebastian Barnack, one of Huxley's 
progeny, summarizes the dilemma of a young poet caught in 
the vice of Modern life. It is startling to realize of how many 
men of letters contemporary with us this weary confession 
of confusion is an accurate description. The turn of the Cen- 
tury saw its heroic revolt against the "shopkeeper" mind. 
New wine was to come not from the fruit of the vine, but 
from broken wine-skins. The ferment of this revolt turned to 
vinegar after the first World War, and moribund despair and 
cynicism was the response of sensitive and sophisticated 
writers. Ferdinand Celine plumbed the depth of this mood 
in his exilic novel, Death on the Installment Plan. 

But — 'Man is not made better by constantly gazing into 
chaos'. Many of these men who survived revolt and exile came 
full cycle — from revolt to affirmation. The movement has been 
from The Wasteland to Four Quartets; from Buddenbrooks 
to Joseph the Provider; from The Hairy Ape to Days Without 
End; from Point Counter Point to Time Must Have a Stop. If 
these men have not altogether stopped "listening to the 
news" — they at least have sought to "listen to something 
else." Increasingly, the recurrent theme of contemporary 
writing is the question: Why not try God? 

Perhaps Huxley embodies in his own pilgrimage a history 
of the pathology of contemporary man more worthy of study 
than that of any living writer. In few have the extremes of 
delirium and repose been so marked. In none has such sophis- 
ticated denial led to such exalted affirmation. 

In this latest of his prodigious works, Aldous Huxley makes 

* The Perennial Philosophy. By Aldous Huxley. New York: Harper 
& Brothers, 1945. pp. 301. Bobliography. $3.00. 

The Faith of Aldous Huxley 21 

explicit the credo that has shown itself through his always 
clever, sometimes profound fiction. Sebastian Barnack has 
emerged from Time Must Have a Stop to write The Perennial 

To Huxley the perennial philosophy asserts : that Time and 
the Human Situation are fragmentations of the unitive 
Ground of all existence; that man's true good is to return from 
multiplicity to unity; that this can be done through direct 
communion with the Divine by the discovery of the immanent 
unity in the self that exists on the other side of the refractory 
and refracted world of the senses. The perennial philosophy 
is, in short, mysticism. 

This book is a collection of excerpts from the writings of 
the great mystics, both Eastern and Western, with an incisive 
and tendencious analysis of the nature of the "perennial 
philosophy" in the form of a running commentary by the 
author. To those who have not yet realized that Huxley is 
one of the most voracious readers among modern novelists, 
this volume itself should be sufficient proof. What ever may 
be the opinion of the reader as to the philosophy — he will be 
forced to admit that this is a major piece of research and 
possesses great merit on this account alone. The author brings 
erudition and a literary style with clarity and wit to the 
execution of his task. Probably no better introduction to 
mysticism is to be found. 

It is an odd circumstance that, while commending a book, 
one should feel it necessary to issue a warning against it. 
There is a perennial seductiveness about mysticism that has 
captured a large following among the intellectuals in our time. 
Many, who like Huxley have been appallingly ignorant of the 
main stream of Judeo-Christian thought, have turned to 
religion and have come up with various forms of Buddhism. 
Always anxious to enlist the intelligentsia in their ranks, the 
leaders of Christian thinking have embraced to their bosoms 
all who are even mildly sympathetic. Often they have shown 
more enthusiasm than discrimination. An examination of this 
book, which the publishers call "a common denominator of a 

22 Christian Frontiers 

faith for today," in terms of its relation to Christianity, seems 
quite relevant. 

Huxley nowhere explicitly states that when the gold which 
goes to make up the perennial philosophy has been extracted 
from all religious thought, the dross which remains is of no 
importance. However, the reader is left with the impression 
that this is the author's view. One may plausibly ask: What 
have you said when you have observed that there are mystical 
elements in all religions? It is very much like the old cliche: 
"People everywhere are, after all, pretty much alike." 

The truth is that Huxley gives no evidence of knowing 
anything at all about Biblical religion. (In his introduction 
he dismisses the Bible from consideration because of its 
"familiarity.") More than this — he does not even seem aware 
that cosmological presuppositious condition mysticism in so 
profound a way as to make a qualitative difference between 
Eastern mysticism and Christian mysticism. 

To be sure, the elements of mysticism are always present 
in Christian thought. But it must be remembered that this 
element entered the mainstream, on the Greek side, from the 
Eleusinian and Orphic mysteries through Pythagorus, Soc- 
rates, and Plato; and, on the Hebrew side, through the Es- 
senes. Mysticism in the Judeo-Christian tradition has always 
been disciplined by a persistent affirmation that the manifold 
world is "very good" — even though fragmentary — because 
even it is God's world. There is no opposition between Mani- 
fold Reality and Divine Reality such as is implied in Huxley's 
introduction. The difference between the world as man ex- 
periences it and Reality as it has its Being in God is, in 
Christian thought, a moral difference. That distinction is not 
obliterated by sense-haunted man — even in the "dark night 
of the soul." It is given meaning through the Christ who is 
the mediator. 

Again, the author glibly dismisses the efforts of Empirical 
Theology, "despite the subtlety of its argument," to come to 
terms with Reality. He seems to assume that the only alter- 
native to Empirical Theology is mystical union with Godhead. 

The Faith of Aldous Huxley 23 

What about Biblical theology — which is neither mystical nor 
empirical — but practical and moral? The religions of the Far 
East are metaphysically minded. Mystical union becomes cen- 
tral to their quest for God. Judaism is moral-minded. Are not 
Amos and Isaiah fit company for St. John of the Cross and 
Shankara? Huxley betrays the oriental bent of his mind at 
this point — which bent he is perfectly well entitled to. But 
let us not accept him, unqualified, as a Christian thinker. 

The assumption implied in many of the textural comments 
is that the religious problem is always primarily a metaphys- 
ical-epistemological one. That the content of Divine Reality 
could be fundamentally moral, as with the Hebrews, seems 
never to have occurred to Huxley. It is this blind spot that is 
responsible for his dismissal of the Bible without apparent 
qualm. Biblical Religion is seldom bothered by metaphysics, 
almost never by episemology. Jesus meets the problem of 
religious knowledge quite directly. "If ye have seen me, ye 
have seen the Father." Metaphysics, either that of mysticism 
or of empirical theology, is always in danger of becoming life- 
denying because it easily eliminates the moral pathos of man 
from its systems. The formed either cuts or anaesthetizes the 
moral nerve. 

Ultimately the difference becomes that between a dualistic 
consciousness and a prophetic-ethical monism. The Christian 
Godhead is one who is revealed in History — not in some spe- 
cious "eternity" where the distinction between self-assertion 
and self-immolation is lost. 

At one point Huxley remarks that for the "exponents of 
the Perennial Philosophy . . . the important thing is that in- 
dividual men and women should come to the unitive knowl- 
edge of the divine Ground ..." This is quite different from 
the Christian belief that the "obliteration" of individuality 
ought to be achieved at the level of creative response to God 
the Creator. The old self is cast off and man, forgetting what 
is past, presses on toward moral creativity. To be sure, by 
faith are we saved. But it is always a faith conferring an 

24 Christian Frontiers 

The "faith for today" which is here advocated is a reaction- 
ary one. It seeks to return to some primitive wholeness, an 
innocence before our senses fractured Reality. Christianity 
is a call to find wholeness at a new level, to go beyond good 
and evil. 

It would be ungrateful to end on such a note. Huxley has 
made an emphasis which is sorely needed by all who are call- 
ed — both Greek and Jew. The Christian consciousness has 
always existed in that dialectic tension between "fear and 
trembling" and "quietness and confidence." The Perennial 
Philosophy calls us to the latter. 


When a great call is heard and when it seems really worthwhile 
embarking upon any noble venture, men will respond as they have 
always done. The unfortunate thing is that the problems of today 
seem so colossal and the difficulties so numerous that the man who 
wishes to make some contribution to human well-being and to insert 
a lever by which he may raise ever so little the burden of the world's 
distress, does not see what positive good would follow from his 
action. Religion seems to mean little, whereas it ought to present 
us, and more particularly the young men and women of our time, 
with a call to a life of noble effort and of heroic self -giving. We need 
to make up our minds that the frontier line of the Kingdom of God 
can be advanced or retarded by each individual, whether we live 
obscure lives or whether we have many opportunities of influencing 

What we require to guard against today is not always open antag- 
onism to Christ's teaching, but rather that attitude of mind which 
recognizes that the Christian ideal is the best and at the same time 
does nothing to apply the method of the Master. It is in the crisis 
that the true temper of men is revealed, and for crisis those who 
seek the Christian way must be prepared. No ideal, however exalted, 
is likely to assert its authority over men until some have been found 
to sacrifice themselves and, if need be, to die, in loyalty to it. Such 
sacrifice has a unique power to change human hearts and to redeem 
men from self-seeking. 

Bill Chafin, President, B.S.O. 
University of North Carolina. 

Hubba-Hubba! 25 

Hubba-Hubba ! 

Bernard C. Clausen 

"OW THESE things get started is a mystery. Suddenly, 
with the speed of light, they spread across the country, 
and before we older people realize what is happening, every 
youngster in the country is using a new item in the vocabulary 
of youth. Just now the current rage is "Hubba-Hubba." 

When we begin to ask what it means, the boys and girls 
are tempted to reply with scorn that we do not even know 
how to spell it. It should have one "b" rather than two, they 
claim. But here we have a right to contradict them. "Huba" 
would be phonetically understood to rhyme with "Cuba" and 
this is not the way the new word sounds, when young people 
say it. We can insist upon "Hubba", as being right for us. 

There is a clue to its meaning in a musical prelude which 
usually precedes the use of the mysterious syllables. There is 
a long, swooping whistle, first up and then down the scale, 
expressing startled, pleased surprise. Then follow the ex- 
clamation, "hubba-hubba" in awed and unbelievable delight 
at the sudden recognition of a wonderful personality. 

The sounds may be new, the mood is old. Yesterday's slang 
used for the same purpose words like "0, you beautiful doll", 
or the utterly simple tribute "Baby!" But the habit reaches 
far back across the centuries. Always there has seemed to be 
this same need for an incoherent and untranslatable expres- 
sion, stirred by deep delight in a surprising person. It can be 
discovered as far back as the New Testament, in the young 
people who felt their whole lives being changed forever by 
the blessed influence of Jesus. 

Doubting Thomas, finally convinced against his will, let his 
repressed enthusiasm explode in wonderful outburst, "My 
Lord and my God!" This was not careful and exact theology, 

*A sermon preached to the North Carolina Baptist State Con- 
vention on Wednesday, November 14, 1945. 

26 Christian Frontiers 

it was the unbounded enthusiasm of undefined superlatives. 

This awed surprise is reflected at its worst in current pro- 
fanity. When a workman whispers under his breath, "Jeez!", 
or a soldier shouts in the agony of brutal battle "Jesus Christ", 
they are not knowingly blasphemous. They are using syllables 
which have come down to them in an inherited tradition, for 
use only in the most deeply felt moments of their lives. And 
they originated in the "Hubba-Hubba" of the overwhelmed 

At the other and finer extreme, are the poetic superlatives 
with which men have always tried to express their wonder 
before the Savior of men. If he lived the glorious life they 
saw in him, surely he must have been different from them all 
through his days from the very beginning, and even his birth 
must have set him off from ordinary mortals. If he made it 
possible for them to feel cleansed and renewed, in spite of 
their sin and failures, whenever they were with him and he 
told them of the Father, surely there must be some real trans- 
action with God by means of which Jesus does obtain our 
redemption and take our sins upon him. If he meant so much 
to them in friendship and encouragement, surely they could 
not let him be surrendered to death, and thus lose him for 
themselves and for all mankind who would need him too, — so 
he must never die, death must have no dominion over him, 
they must be sure that he lived forever, beginning with their 
lives. These compelling emotions about him, provoked by 
their experiences with him, demanded a complete commit- 
ment to his teachings, and a patient dedication to his task. 
But the words they spoke about him were not intended as 
careful philosophical discrimination, — they were the almost 
incoherent "hubba-^hubba" of incredible delight. 

Only long afterwards were these blithe tributes hardened 
into records, stiffened into prose texts, examined, botanized 
with prying exactitude. Precisely how could the Son of God 
be born of God? How could any kindness of heart, any sub- 
stitution through Jesus, appease the righteous justice of an 
offended and holy God, without throwing out of balance the 

Hubba-Hubba! 27 

whole moral universe? How can one who is killed live again? 
Does he claim again the limbs and the lips which he seemed 
to leave behind? Who rolled away the stone at the tomb door? 

Then the wonder disappeared in the process of analysis 
and argument. The soul-stricken exclamatory glory of "hub- 
ba-hubba" was silenced. The warning of Jesus himself was 

Once as he talked with his friends, he toyed for a moment 
with their thoughts as he asked what people were saying 
about him. When they told him, "John the Baptist", "Elias", 
"Jeremias", "one of the prophets", — he brought them up short 
with the query, "But whom say ye that I am?" It was Peter 
who replied, "Thou art the Christ, the son of the living God". 
As the hot and glorious words came pouring out, Jesus 
recognized them for the "hubba-hubba" which they really 
were. "Blessed art thou, Simon. Flesh and blood hath not re- 
vealed it to thee. Upon this rock, will I build my church!" 

What rock did Jesus mean? Not Peter, the rock, the pope, 
the first of a hundred popes with power to transmit supreme 
authority through the centuries! Surely not that. Not those 
burning words, cooling into a creed, spreading out with a 
thousand theological implications! Surely not that. But that 
glorious uprush of unstudied tribute, that spontaneous joy 
in the beautiful fellowship of the Kingdom, that boundless, 
glorious awe before the presence of Jesus, on this was the 
church to be built! How can we be so sure? Because at once 
Jesus warned them not to go out telling men that he was 
Jesus, the Christ. The words could not be taught, and then de- 
manded of others, without spoiling the whole beauty of the 
fresh experience. We have been guilty of disobeying him. We 
have taken the forms of ancient words and made them into 
requirements. We have taught our "39 articles", and adminis- 
tered our catechisms, and put a premium on the correct an- 
swer to the carefully devised question. And the "hubba-hub- 
ba" of wordless wonder before the beauty of Jesus has been 
driven out before us. 

There is no one task for the church, — there are many tasks. 

28 Christian Frontiers 

We must reach down into the dregs of society and save to the 
uttermost. We must reach out into the furthest reaches of 
society and everywhere Christianize the social order. But we 
must also strip away the scaffolding which conceals and 
obscures the Jesus we have tried to adorn. We must explain 
the process of debate, and defense, and elaboration, and ex- 
planation, by which his simple teachings have become en- 
veloped. We must free ourselves from the deadliness of formal 
compliance, and speak of him in language which will be to us 
as honest as the language of the daring poets. 

Dekker could call him "The best of men — the first true 
gentlemen that ever breathed." Tennyson could pay him this 
tribute — "His loveliness of perfect deeds more strong than 
all poetic thought." Emerson could say, "His name is not so 
much written as ploughed into the history of the world." 
This is the "hubba^hubba" of the poets who loved him. I do 
not ask the repetition of these words from you. I ask for 
words as honest and sincere, which will express your own 
praise of a Christ you yourself know. 

Then lift him up, free and clear of argument and analysis, 
for all of us to see. He will draw all men unto him. Nothing 
has faded, with the centuries, in his life. He has not fallen be- 
hind, — still he leads, far on ahead. His courage, his patience, 
his poise in suffering, his infinite compassion, his daring de- 
fiance, his dauntless dream for the God-like life of men, — all 
these things continue to beckon us out of ourselves up toward 

We cannot put the presence by of Christ the crucified. 
Who draws men's spirits by his love as does the moon 
the tide. 

There was a little boy looking into a store window in our 
city where pictures were displayed. A man behind him point- 
ed to a picture, and asked in feigned ignorance, "What's that?" 
"That is Jesus dying on the cross for us," the lad replied. "Oh, 
so that's it!" said the man, and walked away. Then the lad 
caught up with him, and stopping him said, "I thought I 
ought to tell you. He is still alive!" 

Hubba-Hubba! 29 

The Christ whose friends have played him false, whom 

dogmas have denied, 
Still speaking to the hearts of men, — though shamed and 

The Master of the Centuries who will not be denied! 
Use your own words, but mean them. Some say in earnest 
confession "My Lord and my God." Some say with respectful 
awe "Hubba-Hubba!" What do you say about Jesus, who is 
called the Christ? 

"Jesus neither taught nor endorsed any social system, but He will 
not stand for any injustice or oppression. He will not stand for 
exploitation or for indifference to suffering. He will tolerate no 
religion and no economic system that countenances these. It is our 
business to get that spirit of Jesus glowing in us and all the world. 
That is not the whole of His teachings, but if that spirit is left out 
of His doctrine, we are caricaturing the rest." 

Walter Rauschenbusch, as quoted in The Social Gospel of Walter 
Rauschenbusch and Its Relation to Religious Education by Vernon 
Parker Bodein, Yale University Press. 

"In my efforts to secure more freedom and justice for men I acted 
under religious impulses. I realized that God hates injustice and 
that I would be quenching the life of God within me if I kept silent 
with all this social iniquity of the world around me. 

My life has been physically very lonely and often beset by the 
consciousness of conservative antagonism. I have been upheld by 
the comforts of God. Jesus has been to me the inexhaustible source 
of fresh impulses, life and courage. 

My life would seem an empty shell if my personal religion were 
left out of it. It has been my deepest satisfaction to get evidence 
now and then that I have been able to help men to a new spiritual 
birth. I have always regarded my public work as a form of evangel- 
ism, which called for a deeper repentance and a new experience of 
God's salvation." 

Walter Rauschenbusch, as quoted in The Social Gospel of Walter 
Rauschenbusch and Its Relation to Religious Education by Vernon 
Parker Bodein, Yale University Press. 

30 Christian Frontiers 

"One World" 

RECENTLY a group of the scientists responsible for the 
production of the atomic bomb made an eloquent plea 

before a congressional committee for international control of 
their product. The revelation of the possibility of igniting the 
"nitrigen chain" which would convert this planet into another 
flaming star was enough to bring a change of heart to the most 
isolationist of the law-makers. More recently The Association 
of Oak Ridge Scientists condemned the destruction of the 
Japanese cyclotron as "wanton and stupid," likening the act 
to "the sacking of the Louvain library by the Germans in 
1914 and 1940." The cyclotron, they insisted, is a research 
instrument and not an atomic bomb production machine. 
These men, it becomes increasingly apparent, have won the 
public's ear while unimaginative congressmen have kept 
both of theirs to the ground. 

In an article published in the Nation, Richard Schlegel of 
the research staff of the Palmer Physical Laboratory at 
Princeton University, reminds us how fortunate it is for the 
world "that scientists are probably more international-minded 
than any other professional group. They can be expected to 
be on the right side In the coming critical months." Heading 
the article, "Scientists of the World, Unite!" he writes: 
" clearly scientists must .serve as advisers to an atomic- 
energy control body and to a large extent determine its policy, 
since it is they who understand the possibilities and dangers 
of atomic power, as well as the requirements for development 
and manufacture. I suggest that an international scientific 
council be established for the purpose of advising the inter- 
national control authority." To all of which we breathe a 
universal Amen. Yet, when we read the declaration that 
scientists are more international-minded than any other pro- 
fessional group — and that includes the ministry — we think 
of the lines from a great hymn, 

"One World" 31 

Like a mighty army moves the church of God. 
Are twentieth-century scientists forced by dark necessity to 
appeal for that which it has been our duty for twenty centuries 
to proclaim as God's truth? Is it more important as we face 
the global issues of our "one world" for the scientists to get 
together than for the Christians of the world to unite? 

The Spectre of Power 

IT HASN'T been so long since we were being regaled with 
the daring idea that this is the American Century. Many 
of us suspected at the time, and still suspect, that this im- 
pressive phrase was a euphemism, that what really lay be- 
hind it was an organized movement to give the United States 
unparalleled economic and military influence throughout the 
world. Now for a barefaced, un-camouflaged expression of 
American Centuryism at its worst look at these words from 
an official bulletin signed by Col. Harry P. Cunningham, 
assistant chief of staff, Fifth Air Force (dated August 15): 
"We, the conquerors, have the obligation to impress our 
superiority upon the conquered enemy. The enemy is an 
Oriental .... Such a demonstration of superiority requires 
that the shirtless legions which have driven forward from 
Moresby to Okinawa must now find their shirts and wear 
them .... The Pacific Ocean must remain, what it now is, an 
American lake, just as American and just as purely and singly 
American as — for example — Cayuga lake in New York, Cass 
Lake in Minnesota, Great Salt Lake in Utah." All of which 
reminds us of the old debunker: "Call it what you want to 
but it's still spaghetti." To call it the American Century is 
nice and dignified, but to us it's just plain imperialism, ex- 
pansionism and white man's burden. 

'Vox Populi" 

SINCE, as has been stated, this journal is an organ for 
free and frank expression of the truth as we are given 

to see the truth, it is inevitable that differences of opinion, 

and sometimes sharp differences of opinion, should arise. We 

32 Christian Frontiers 

believe that truth can be arrived at in no better way than 
through a frank avowal and an honest statement of these 
differences. Christian Frontiers therefore invites its readers to 
send correspondences to the editors many of which, as space 
and judgment permit, will be published. Such letters should 
not exceed 300 words. It is assumed, of course, that the letters 
will be written in a fine spirit ("speaking the truth in love") 
and will be literally acceptable to the general public. Fur- 
thermore, it must be modestly stated, the editors and contrib- 
utors will need the checks and balances of a discriminating 
and sympathetic responding public. 

The Southern Baptist Pulpit and The 
Labor Management Crisis 

TOWERING above all the domestic problems of recon- 
version in this country is the increasing tension be- 
tween management and labor. 

Marked for heavy industrialization the South will tomorrow 
be the home of the new Pittsburghs and Detroits. The momen- 
tous decisions and solutions now being made in the Northern 
industrial centers and on the floor of Congress will be our 
future. However difficult it is to speak or write dispassionately 
of a labor -management crisis, the time has come for the 
Southern Baptist pulpit to make a realistic appraisal of the 
fundamental issues involved. 

Has the Southern Baptist pulpit a prophetic interpretation 
of this crisis? Judging from the records of the past, save for a 
few notable exceptions, the Southern Baptist Ministry has 
been apathetic toward economic and social issues of this 
nature. Many sermons are preached on the "Christian law of 
giving;" few sermons are preached on "the Christian law of 
getting." A survey of preaching in a large Southern city re- 
vealed that out of 178 sermons preached by Baptist ministers 
not a single sermon dealt with the problem of social and 
economic security. The economic theories of the pew, the 
barrage of the anti-labor propaganda, and an uninformed 

The Southern Baptist Pulpit and The Labor Management Crisis 33 

social conscience, have either silenced the pulpits of Southern 
Baptists on the labor question or else reduced its pronounce- 
ments to impotent generalizations that the church is for the 
right and that capital and labor ought to love each other. 

The people who have the poorest health in the nation, the 
people who are the poorest housed, the people who are the 
poorest fed and poorest clothed, the people who have the 
poorest educational facilities and the highest illiteracy rate, 
the people whose average annual income before Pearl Harbor 
was $314 as against a national average of $604, are the people 
who live in the South — the members of our congregation. Can 
the shepherd of the flock be indifferent to decisions that di- 
rectly affect the physical welfare of his people? Ought he not 
give serious study and moral support to such bills as the 
Pepper-Hook Bill (S 1349-HR 3914) in popular terminology 
"the 65^ Minimum Bill," which means $26.00 a week for many 
of his people. What will the Southern Baptist pulpit say to 
the just quest of the workers of the South for a decent living? 

If the minister fails to apply the principles of the gospel to 
the labor-management crisis, he denies the relevancy of 
Christianity to the corporate attitudes and actions of men. 
To rightly divide the word of truth is to preach a whole gospel 
and the whole gospel has a message for the issues in this 
controversy. As long as labor is considered a commodity by 
management, the Christian doctrine of the dignity of man 
made in the image of God is denied. Let the pulpit affirm. Man 
for whom Christ died is not a thing! Service is the controlling 
principle of the gospel of Christ. The withholding of goods 
from the market between VJ Day and January 1 on the part 
of management in order to sell on a more favorable market 
is obviously motivated by profit, not service. For the Christ- 
ian, the priceless gift of freedom is secured only by a corres- 
ponding sense of social responsibility, yet this sense of social 
responsibility seems lacking when Mr. Harry Anderson, Vice- 
President of General Motors declared, "that we will not 
negotiate with our union regarding our selling price and our 
profits" and that "we don't even open our books to our stock- 

34 Christian Frontiers 

holders." On the other hand if it is the purpose of labor to 
control the economic policies of the United States, then we 
are only substituting one tyranny for another. When the 
Christian principle of democratic cooperation is ignored then 
the besetting sin of all groups, the lust for power overtakes 
both capital and organized labor. Let the pulpit affirm. Power 

Difficult as it is for the minister to interpret this crisis, he 
cannot escape his prophetic responsibility. In assuming the 
mantle of the prophet, the minister will do well to remember 
that allowing for the excesses of the bargaining process and 
speaking in general instead of particular incidents, history 
and an informed social conscience have justified the demands 
of organized labor in this country since 1875. 

In declaring the will of God on economic questions, the 
minister must exert his independence as a messenger of 
Christ. He must not become the hireling of capital nor the 
spokesman of labor. Yet this independence must not tempt 
him to maintain a comfortable neutrality. Where sin exists 
either in its individual or corporate forms, the church cannot 
be silenced; when the right is involved, the minister remains 
neutral at the price of his own integrity. Nevertheless, the 
minister is not a soapbox orator nor an economic theorist. 
He is God's prophet. As the custodian of Amos's passion for 
righteousness of Christ's good tidings to the poor of a more 
abundant life, the minister is responsible only to the Father 
God who through his own Son called the church into existence 
and to humanity to whom the redemptive message is spoken. 

Let the Southern Baptist pulpit apply with courage and 
intelligence those cardinal Biblical principles of righteousness 
enunciated by the prophets and incarnated by Jesus Christ 
to the labor-management tension. Above all things let the 
Southern Baptist pulpit not be silent. 

Christian Frontiers 


Book Reviews 

The Gauntlet. 

By James Street. 

Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co. 

311 pages. Price $2.75. 

The present mood, character- 
ized hy Van Wyck Brooks as "a 
hunger for affirmations", is find- 
ing increasing articulation in 
modern literature. Authors mo- 
tivated either by William Rose 
Benet's challenge "It is up to 
writers to show us very clearly 
what God we have today," or by 
the opportunity to capitalize on 
the spiritual hunger of modern 
man as so much grist for their 
mills, have produced a flood of 
religious novels. 

For the most part, the new 
crop of religious novels treat 
either some form of historical 
Christianity or the Roman Cath- 
olic Church. In the former cate- 
gory, The Robe by Lloyd Doug- 
las, The Apostle by Sholem Asch, 
and Blessed Are The Meek by 
Zoffin Kossak are representative. 
In the latter category, A. J. Cro- 
nin's The Keys of The Kingdom, 
Franz Werfel's The Song of Ber- 
nadette, and Bruce Marshall's 
The World, The Flesh and Father 
Smith are typical. Save for a few 
notable exceptions such as One 
Foot in Heaven by Hartzell 
Spence, which is biographical, 
there is a paucity of novels deal- 
ing with Protestantism. Modern 
Protestantism in general and 
Baptists in particular are indebt- 
ed to James Street for The 
Gauntlet, which has been char- 
acterized as the Going My Way 
of Protestantism. 

Essentially The Gauntlet is the 
story of Reverend London Win- 
go, ("candidate for Master of 
Theology, former schoolteacher, 
plow hand, cowpuncher, and 
train butch",) and his quest for 
spiritual certainty, and of Kathie 
Wingo, his wife, ("a tiny merry 
raindrop of a girl" who had found 
the balm of spiritual peace and 
bothered not at all about the 
crossed ts and dotted is,) and of 
her fight for individuality. 

The story of London and Ka- 
thie, beginning at the South- 
western Baptist Theological Sem- 
inary at Fort Worth, Texas, is 
soon transplanted to the First 
(and only) Baptist Church of 
Linden, Missouri. Here life in 
the small Baptist Church is pre- 
sented with photographic clarity, 
sympathetic understanding, and 
a convincing realism free from 
vulgarity and debunking carica- 

London Wingo's spiritual pil- 
grimage, beginning at the Sem- 
inary, is a journey from naive 
skepticism to Humanism, and 
from Humanism through the val- 
ley of despair to Christian cer- 
tainty. In the journey London is 
frustrated by the recalcitrant fac- 
tion in the Linden congregation; 
encouraged by the retired Minis- 
ter Brother Honeycutt, and heart- 
ened by Kathie's sacrifice of her 
personal freedom. 


Christian Frontiers 


To reconcile "the soul's invinc- 
ible surmise" with the mind's 
relentless probing of the accept- 
ed dogmas, is the perennial prob- 
lem of and tough-minded semi- 
nary student. This reconciliation 
constitutes London's dilemma. 
"It seems to me", says London, 
"that at times my mind, my 
reason, is challenging my spirit, 
throwing down a gauntlet and 
daring my spirit to pick it up." 
Unfortunately, his own aware- 
ness of his tough-mindedness 
gives him a certain smugness 
which his less gifted contempo- 
raries at Southwestern find irri- 

To his quest the Seminary con- 
tributes little. London's spirit is 
chafed by long assignments in 
the Hebrew Lexicon by Bush- 
master, Valentine, and Danger- 
field, which he brazenly dubs Lex 
by B.V.D. Doggedly he wrestles 
"with the boulders of orthodox 
theology and gulped in cold, 
stringy heaps, the bleak wisdom 
of dead philosophers." In vain. 
The soul affirmed, the mind 

Discussions in the late hours 
with fellow students over cups 
of black coffee and hot tamales 
add more heat than light to the 
quest. The career minister, De- 
van Schuyler, is free from Lon- 
don's dilemma and has nothing 
to offer. Page Musselwhite, his 
best friend, tells him to "pray 
it through — don't worry about 
logic and all that." Page's con- 
cern is genuine, his advice sin- 
cere. Still London's mind throws 
down the gauntlet, still the spirit 
must pick it up. 


Seminary days are brought to 
an abrupt close when London 
and Kathie accept the call of the 
First Baptist Church at Linden, 
Missouri. Here the quest for 
spiritual certainty is submitted to 
the impact of reality and to the 
inevitable shock awaiting all 
young ministers who attempt to 
translate dreams born of cloister- 
ed seminary days into negotiable 
spiritual coinage. Soon London 
discovers that a preacher must 
have "the tact of a diplomat, the 
strength of a Samson, the pa- 
tience of a Job, the wisdom of a 
Solomon, and a cast iron stom- 

In his journey through the val- 
ley of humiliation, London is 
guided by Brother Honeycutt, 
the retired minister, who wants 
to "keep him until he is season- 
ed." And by Kathie who teaches 
him to pray: "Lord give me the 
Courage to try to change things 
that should be changed for the 
good of mankind, serenity to ac- 
cept things that should not be 
changed, and sense enough to 
know the difference." 

London does not travel alone 
to the City of God. Kathie shares 
his quest and pays her full fare 
at the toll gates marking the 
milestones of their ministry at 
Linden. Kathie has a fight of her 
own, a fight for individuality. 
Babbie, the wife of Gavin Dis- 
hart, Sir James Barrie's Little 
Minister, wore a new hat for the 
good of her soul. Kathie wages a 
pathetic struggle to keep her 

Christian Frontiers 


bobbed hair and to be called 
Kathie instead of Katherine. "I 
can't even have my own name," 
exclaimed Kathie, "this is not a 
home. It's a goldfish bowl." The 
jettisoning of Kathie's individual 
quest, for the sake of London's 
ministry assumes tragic propor- 


Prematurely London concludes 
that the end of his quest is hu- 
manity. "Religion is humanity 
and Jesus is love," said London 
to Kathie in a moment of quiet 
desperation. The seminary ideals 
evaporate in the heat of contro- 
versy. "People don't want the 
'truth. It's too simple." What do 
they want then? London decides 
that "They want the privilege 
to hate without losing the luxury 
of love." 


"I don't see any use of staying 
in the ministry. I'm through." 
What minister has not spoken 
these words in tears on his knees. 
Here for London the quest fal- 
ters. The words of Jeremiah, "I 
will not make mention of Him 
nor speak anymore in His name," 
set the mood; but "I'm through" 
is not the final word. 


"You've got to go on," said 
Kathie, "until you find what you 
seek." London does go on, for 
was not "the word of his heart 
like a burning fire." "No, Wingo," 
said Brother Honeycutt, "you are 
not through. You've touched the 

Cross and the sign is there. The 
imprint is on your hands and 
you can't wash it off." 


London learns that Humanism 
is not enough. When "deep calls 
unto deep" his experience affirms 
that "Humanism without God is 
like a beautiful catherdral built 
on sand." London the Humanist: 
"Death is final. It is the servant 
of eternity." London the Christ- 
ian: "Truth? Look up and you 
will see truth. The grave is not 
the end. It is only a wayside rest 
on a long trail." 


James Street's gallery of char- 
acters in The Gauntlet: Cliff Car- 
ter, the undertaker, with three 
telephones; Tamar Duckworth 
and Josie Hoffett, the fat and the 
lean, self-appointed arbiters of 
Kathie's destiny and petticoat 
dictators of the church; Dr. Tho- 
reau Bean, flying kites with to- 
bacco crumbs on his best; and 
Newt Upjohn, the man from the 
other side of the tracks, are sym- 
pathetically and vividly drawn. 

Familiar scenes of Baptist life 
are faithfully reproduced with an 
accuracy that almost amounts to 
reporting. London's journey to 
preach his "trial sermon", attired 
in a borrowed overcoat, carrying 
a borrowed grip, and shining his 
shoes on the back of his trouser 
legs, is a picture familiar to every 
Seminary student. London's and 
Kathie's trip to the Baptist State 
Convention, "luxuriating in the 
adventure of eating on a diner," 


Christian Frontiers 

staying in a hotel, hearing Tru- 
itt's* inspirational sermon and 
eating "tenderloin of trout with 
tartar souce" is a scene equally 
familiar to Baptist ministers and 

In drawing a realistic picture 
of the pettiness, bickering, nar- 
rowness and spiritual shallow- 
ness which so often characterize 
the life of a small village church, 
or for that matter any church, 
Street's pen at times becomes 
satirical, but it is a kindly satire 
without bitterness and is not to 
be attributed to autobiographical 
experience. Some Baptists will 
no doubt resent this public wash- 
ing of their linen, but to those 
Baptists, both ministers and lay- 
men who are more concerned 
about the cleanliness of their 
linen than they are about the 
opinion of their neighbors, will 
find in The Gauntlet a revelation 
of conditions which demand a 
sound constructive self-criticism 
on the part of Baptists of their 
denominational life. 


As has been indicated, The 
Gauntlet is timely, interesting 
and unsurpassed as a portrait of 
Baptist life. Yet with all these 
obvious qualities, as a religious 
novel The Gauntlet misses great- 
ness. The deficiency of the book 
as a religious novel is not to be 
attributed to the limitations of 
the author; it is to be found in 
his choice of its theme. Having 
chosen as his subject a minister 

* As Street spells the name in The 

of the stature of London Wingo 
and a congregation with the 
limitations of the First Baptist 
Church of Linden, Missouri and 
having honestly treated this 
theme, it was impossible for 
Street, under the circumstances, 
to produce a truly great religious 
novel, for a great religious novel 
must of necessity assume epic 
proportions and treat of Christ- 
ianity's eternal warfare with its 
foes. Had it been possible to de- 
velop the original theme of The 
Gauntlet, "my mind my reason, 
is challenging my spirit, throw- 
ing down a gauntlet and daring 
my spirit to pick it up", the im- 
portance of the book as a relig- 
ious novel would have been 
greatly enhanced. But at the Lin- 
den church the quest for truth 
disintegrates into a skirmish for 
power. London fights for the 
privilege of naming the preacher 
for the revival meeting, for the 
questionable right of dominating 
the appointments of the officers 
and teachers of the church and 
its auxiliary organizations and 
for personal spiritual security. 
Although these strifes were of 
personal import to London and 
no doubt provided a source of ex- 
citement for the dull prosaic life 
of Linden Baptist, they did not 
contribute to the epic warfare of 
Christianity "against principal- 
ities, against the rulers of the 
darkness of this world, against 
spiritual wickedness in high 
places." London splintered his 
lances against the windmills of 
congregational opposition and 
left the enemies of Christendom 
unscathed. For the sins of the 
"roaring twenties", materialism, 

Christian Frontiers 


hypocrisy, cutthroat competition, 
religious bigotry and selfish iso- 
lationism the minister of the Lin- 
den Church had no prophetic 
judgement. True London made a 
valiant personal pilgrimage a- 
cross the wastelands of despair 
and indifference to the gate of 
the City of God, but he arrived 
alone. His flock remained in the 
wilderness. Cliff Carter, the un- 
dertaker, will still be primarily 
concerned with the business ad- 
vantages that accrue from hav- 
ing three telephones. Josie and 
Tamar will still wage their selfish 
fight for power, and for Linden 
Baptists, winning a basketball 
game over Milford will still be 
more important than thhe King- 
dom of God. Because the flock 
will not reach the level of Spirit- 
ual insight gained by the minis- 
ter, and since London is to re- 
main with them, the tragic con- 
clusion is inevitable. His own 
quest will sooner or later be con- 
ditioned by the tyrranical triv- 
ialities of the Linden congrega- 
tion. His individual insights 
which constitute at once his 
chance for greatness and a source 

of constant irritation to the con- 
gregation will be reduced to the 
common denominator of the 
herd. In this process, his accept- 
ibility as a minister will increase 
in direct proportion to the inno- 
couseness of his sermons and 
soon he will be ready for $4800.00 
a year in the Immanuel Baptist 
Church of Kansas City. 

Das Kelley Barnett 

The Meaning of Human Expe- 
rience. By Lynn Harold Hough. 
New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury, 

The Trumpets of God. By N. M. 
Ylvisaker. Minneapolis: Augs- 
burg Publishing House, 1945. 
Christus Emptor. By T. F. Gullix- 
son. Minneapolis: Augsburg Pub- 
lishing House, 1945. 
Strictly Confidential. By Alice M. 
Hustad. Minneapolis: Augsburg 
Publishing House, 1945. 
Behold Your King. By Florence 
Marvyne Bauer. New York: 
Bobbs Merrill, 1945. 
Dark Sails. A tale of old ST. Si- 
mons. By Helen Topping Miller. 
New York: Bobbs Merrill, 1945. 

"Because the Kingdom of God has been confounded with the Church, 
therefore the Church has been regarded as an end instead of a 
means, and men have thought they were building up the Kingdom 
when the were only cementing a strong church organization." 
Walter Rauschenbusch, as quoted in The Social Gospel of Walter 
Rauschenbusch and Its Relation to Religious Education by Vernon 
Parker Bodein, Yale University Press. 


Christian Frontiers 



Pastor of the First Baptist 
Church of Owensboro, Kentucky, 
for eighteen years, Dr. Robert E. 
Humphreys, the Baptist Hour 
speaker for Sunday, January 13, 
is a most effective preacher, as 
announced by the Radio Com- 
mittee of the Southern Baptist 
Convention, S. F. Lowe, Director, 
Atlanta, Georgia. 

The Kentucky pastor is recog- 
nized for his insight into the 
Scriptures and his grip on the 
spiritual needs of men every- 
where. He is thus eminently 
qualified to discuss his subject, 
according to Mr. Lowe. 

The programs of the Baptist 
Hour originate from Atlanta 
again this year, and the broad- 
casts cover the territory from 
the nation's capitol to the Gulf 
and westward to include Texas, 
New Mexico, Oklahoma and Mis- 


A campaign to raise funds for 
the basic maintenance of South- 
ern Baptist in CPS camps and for 
the dissemination of information 
concerning their needs is now 
being conducted by a voluntary 
group of ministers and laymen. 

Aims and purposes of this 
group are set forth in "Baptist 

Fellowship News Letter" edited 
by W. M. Hammond, Jr. and re- 
leased from Columbia, Missouri 
on October 15, 1945. Stating that 
the Southern Baptist Convention 
give it recognition to religious 
objectors within its membership, 
and that it makes provision for 
the receiving and transmission 
of voluntary contributions for 
Southern Baptist C.O.'s through 
its executive committee, the news 
letter appeals for contributions 
for the basic maintenance of men 
in CPS camps and for funds to 
support a ministry of fellowship, 
service and visitation among the 
Civilian Public Service Men. 


The February issue of CHRIS- 
TIAN FRONTIERS will carry 
an article on The World Council 
of Churches by Dr. Henry Smith 
•Leiper, our guest writer for 
February. An article by Rev. 
Garland Hendrix, Pastor of the 
Mt. Olive Baptist Church, Apex, 
North Carolina, entitled "Call to 
Moral Research" is another fea- 
ture of the February issue. A- 
mong the books reviewed in that 
issue of the book Psychology of 
Religion by Paul E. Johnson. 
This book is reviewed by Rev. 
Wayne Oates, Director of Clinical 
Studies at the Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary. 


A Journal of Baptist Life and Thought 
Vol.I FEBRUARY, 1946 No. 2 


Das Kelley Barxett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlator, Associate Editor William H. Poteat, Book Editor 

Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 
J. M. Dawson, Waco, Texas Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C. 

H. B. Cross, Nashville, Tenn. J. C. Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia 

George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 


C. Sylvester Green, Chairman Jasper C. Hutto, Secretary 

Claude U. Broach George D. Heaton 

Sankey L. Blanton Fred B. Helms 

J. Glenn Blackburn E. Norfleet Gardner 

Eugene I. Olive Fon H. Scofield 

Lee C Sheppard J. Wade Baker 


Editorials 43 

The World Council of Churches Henry Smith Leiper 47 

Set Your Clock at U235 Norman Corwin 56 

Call to Moral Research Garland A. Hendricks 60 

Book Reviews 66 

News 70 

Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laymen. Address all corres- 
pondence to Box SOS, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Circulation office: 324 South 
Blount Street, Raleigh, N. C. Copyright 1946 by the Baptist Book Club. Second 
class mailing privilege pending. Subscription price, two dollars a year; twenty- 
five cents a copy. 

Who's Who In This Issue 

HENRY SMITH LEIPER, secretary of the World Council 
of Churches, is a graduate of Amherst and the Union Sem- 
inary, New York. He served with the Army YMCA in Siberia 
in 1918 and was later missionary to China under the auspices 
of the A.B.C.F.M. Dr. Leiper received the D.D. from Amherst 
in 1935. 

NORMAN CORWIN, author, radio producer and director, 
ex-newspaper reporter and columnist, is the first radio crafts- 
man to have been honored by the American Academy of 
Arts and Letters. He is the author of three books of plays 
written and produced for radio. 

GARLAND HENDRICKS is a graduate of Wake Forest 
College and the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He 
is now pastor of the historic Olive Chapel Baptist Church 
near Apex, North Carolina. Mr. Hendricks is a student of the 
rural church and has published several articles on that sub- 

WAYNE OATES is a graduate of Wake Forest College. 
At the present time he is Director of Clinical Studies at the 
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Ky. 

JOSEPH MARTIN DAWSON is a graduate of Baylor 
University and for many years has been pastor of the First 
Baptist Church, Waco, Texas. He is an author of several books 
and a staff correspondent for the Christian Century. Recently 
Dr. Dawson became chairman of the Executive Committee of 
the Southern Baptist Convention. 


Radio Committee 

SOUTHERN Baptists owe a lasting debt of gratitude to 
their resourceful and energetic Radio Committee. Un- 
der the able leadership of its director, Mr. S. F. Lowe, the 
committee has submitted a report for 1945 which should 
bring cheer and encouragement to the general Baptist heart. 

During the three months in which The Baptist Hour was 
being broadcast, the fan mail received in response to the pro- 
grams averaged 3,583 pieces per week, an 18% increase over 
the fan mail of last year. This amount of mail, based upon the 
usual estimate of the radio world, would indicate that our 
audience each Sunday morning was approximately three and 
one-half million souls. 

The committee was efficient in publicizing The Baptist 
Hour, by sending out 20,000 news releases announcing the 
programs, and by mailing more than 70,000 cards to churches 
and other groups. Much praise is due the committee for its 
work in building up a splendid Transcription Library which 
includes series of addresses by men in our convention chosen 
because of their special abilities and interests. 

CHRISTIAN FRONTIERS, applauding to echo the wis- 
dom of having all programs originate from one point (WSB 
in Atlanta), where the same musical unit and the same an- 
nouncer and engineers assure smoothness and finish in the 
programs, suggests that another step in this direction be 
taken. We look with great admiration upon the perfection of 
The Catholic Hour, especially when so gifted and compelling 
a speaker as Monsignor Fulton Shean is delivering his annual 
series of addresses. 

It is our understanding that the Roman Church relieves 
this orator of all other responsibilities during the interim of 
his radio addresses and provides him with the ablest of radio 
technicians and entertainment experts. Could not our com- 
mittee discover as spokesman for Southern Baptists one man 
whose radio voice and radio personality and general oratorical 

44 Christian Frontiers 

abilities fit him peculiarly for a task similar to that of Mon- 
signor Shean? 

In writing of the Bible Study Series, the committee has this 
to say of Dr. Harold W. Tribble: "Southern Baptists do not 
have a better radio personality and a more effective radio 
speaker than Dr. Tribble. He is also a good Bible student and 
knows how to present the truth in a popular way." Why not 

CHRISTIAN FRONTIERS joins the thousands of other 
voices in expressing gratitude to the twelve men who de- 
livered such timely and stirring addresses in the 1945 series, 
yet at the same time wonders if a single voice with which the 
millions would become familiar would not give sharper edge 
and greater objectivity to the message of Southern Baptists. 
And, mindful of the new discoveries and inventions in the 
field of radio, the coming of frequency modulation and tele- 
vision, and the challenge and necessity of getting in on the 
ground floor, CHRISTIAN FRONTIERS would add: More 
funds to the committee; loose it and let it go. 

Atheism In Russia 

THE Hill Difficulty offered Bunyan's Christian no 
greater barriers, or short cuts, than those that face 
the United States in arriving at an abiding understanding 
with Russia. Only a patience and a perseverance not yet dis- 
cernible will prevent the stalemate that will spell disaster. 

General Eisenhower's suggestion that the atomic bomb 
can "blackmail the world into peace" seems not enough. For 
one thing, the American economy is still capitalistic — we are 
the last great capitalistic power — from which communism 
is different in extremis. 

Furthermore Russia remembers an ugly chapter, little 
read here, in American history when our military might was 
lent to suppress her revolution and restore her ancient regime. 
Again, Russia and the United States have emerged from the 
Second World War as unquestionably the two most powerful 
nations in the world, mutually uncertain and suspicious of 

Atheism in Russia 45 

each other. Sovietizing the Balkans and fortifying the South 
Pacific islands have not served to dispel these suspicions. 
Then there is the constant charge, largely inspired by the 
Roman Catholic hierarchy, that Russia is atheistic, that the 
Kremlin is godless and that communism and Christianity are 
forever irreconcilable. 

Just how atheistic Russia has become or how successful 
her inquisitions to stamp out the last vestige of religion were, 
no one seems to know. Nor is the recent announcement of the 
official recognition of her established church reassuring, since 
it may be only political window-dressing. However, Dean 
Hewlett Johnson, who, because of his espousal of the prin- 
ciples of the Soviet Union, has come to be known as "the 
Red Dean", said something about religion in a recent ad- 
dress, which has not received the publicity it deserves, to a 
crowd of 21,000 people jammed into Madison Square Garden. 
After picturing the terrible devastation of the land by war, the 
wonderful vitality of its people, and the enormous problems 
of reconstruction, he said: "In Tashkent — a clean, healthy, 
vital city — I saw a people professing atheism acting as if they 
believed in God, whereas in any village you could name on 
the southern slopes of the Himalayas you will find a Christian 
people acting as if they didn't." These impressively sobering 
words remind us of the parable of the father who commanded 
his two sons to work for him. One bluntly refused but later 
repented and obeyed. The other assented immediately but 
did nothing. Perhaps it is time for self-styled Christian na- 
tions to see the point. Strictly speaking, there are no Christian 
nations and there are no atheistic nations. Barriers there are 
aplenty to Russo-American friendship, but a little honest self- 
searching and a modicum of humility will go a long way to- 
ward eliminating the barrier of religious and non-religious 

"Bless Them That Curse You" 

NO news from Europe since the war is so inspiring as 
the pulpit message which was read in all Dutch 
churches, Protestant and Catholic alike, on October 28th. In 
this message Dutch Christianity has risen to prophetic heights 

46 Christian Frontiers 

to speak a solemn and rigorous warning against the spirit of 
revenge. The letter declares in part: 

"It is known to you, church people, how the Churches in 
the Netherlands have resisted the German oppressor in the 
period of occupation, and have repeatedly protested against 
the inhuman actions perpetrated by him. 

"The Churches now repeat their summons to the people 
of the Netherlands. 

"They make an earnest appeal to office-bearers and con- 
gregation to impress upon all that the prestige of our people 
stands or falls with the answer to the question whether in 
the Netherlands action is according to justice or according 

to vengeance and hatred The Churches consider it a 

shame upon our people if after five years of suffering under 
the most cruel methods of the German barbarism now a 
similar evil spirit should have obtained a grip upon our peo- 

"The Churches now call upon the Netherlands people in 
their attitude toward the political prisoners and their children 
to show that they have not been infected with the evil German 
spirit, but to give evidence of the understanding that with 
the strict maintenance of right the mercy of Christ must also 
be exercised." 

Such a spirit of Christian magnanimity seems not to have 
infected too much of American Christendom. The prevailing 
attitude is still largely that of the self-righteousness of General 
McNarney, General Eisenhower's successor, when, after re- 
versing the plan to give some food and candy to German 
children at Christmastime remarked, "There is to be no 
sentimental nonsense about brotherhood and good will this 

The World Council of Churches 47 

The World Council Of Churches 

Henry Smith Leiper 

THE underlying conviction of those who have brought 
their varied insights to the founding of the World 
Council is that they are under the divine imperative of the 
will of the Great Head of the Church. They feel themselves 
to be in accord with his mind when they recognize the con- 
nection between the divided witness of the contemporary 
Church and the unbelief of the majority of mankind. They are 
impressed with the fact that the simile which to Jesus was 
most congenial was that of the family. The unity to be sought 
collectively in the Church is like that of the ideal family. It is 
not uniformity. It is not dependent upon outward organiza- 
tion, legal forms, intellectual formulae, or governmental pro- 
cedures. It is something far deeper. It involves the sense of 
common origin, common destiny, common need of salvation 
from sin, common trust, common allegiance to the same 
Father and Elder Brother, and common possession of the 
same family inheritance of spiritual treasure in Christ Jesus, 
our Common Lord. 

Every historic Church according to the Constitution of 
the World Council can take its part in that body without 
modifying one iota its distinctive witness. The World Council 
is a fellowship of the Churches. It does not have any authority 
over the churches. It is conceived in freedom. It does not 
propose to compromise the faith or the practice of any. It 
does try to bring together those who accept "our Lord Jesus 
Christ as God and Saviour," to use a phrase which has had its 
historic relationship to the ecumenical movement despite its 
non-historical or theological form. Many had hoped, and some 
still hope that the phrase might be "God Incarnate and Sav- 
iour of the World," which, of course, is the real meaning. 
However, since no inquisition was set up to decide in what 
sense the Church accepts this description, the difficulty is not 
a practical one. 

Said William Temple, late Chairman of the World Council: 
"Our first duty as Christians is to make evident to the world 

48 Christian Frontiers 

our unity in Christ as something far greater than our differ- 
ences of interpretation. The differences between those to 
whom Jesus Christ is Lord and all others is far greater than 
any differences which can arise among His disciples." 

This striking statement from the late Archbishop of 
Canterbury would be hard to refute. To those who know the 
nature of the modern world and its enmity against Christ the 
necessity for the witness of a united Christian fellowship the 
world around stands forth in dramatic clearness. 

"Have this mind in you which was in Christ Jesus," wrote 
Paul to the Church in Corinth. And Jesus had prayed fervently 
for His followers just at the end of His earthly ministry — "that 
they all may be one that the world may believe." Surely in 
His mind there was an emphasis upon the necessity of spirit- 
ual unity which no one who cares about doing His will can 
afford to disregard. 

There must be first of all a response of the individual to 
that prayer. Jesus expected it. He said: "I pray not for these 
alone but for them that shall believe on me through their 
word, that they may all be one." This is not the place to dis- 
cuss the meaning of that individual response. We are here 
concerned with the collective response of the Churches. 

It is only the recognition of historic fact to admit that a 
part of the present growing sense of familyhood in the 
Christian Church is the result of common recognition of 
common dangers. What the love of the brethren could not 
accomplish, the fear of a common foe has accomplished in 
wide areas of the life of the Church. Barriers which seemed 
very high indeed have been no hindrance to spiritual unity 
when the incentive to overpass them derived from a common 
experience of persecution and martyrdom. In the areas of 
critical danger to all that Christians hold dear, there is a 
growing appreciation that the World Council is not an option- 
al luxury but a life-and-death necessity. 

The world is one world, and Christendom is one Christen- 
dom. Christianity can have a decisive impact upon the world 
only if its scattered and divided forces speak with a united 
voice in those areas in which they are in substantial agree- 

The World Council of Churches 49 

ment. The World Council of Churches may become an effective 
agency for that purpose, a rallying point for the Christian 
conscience, an instrument in the hand of God for the accom- 
plishment of His will. 


What does this particular expression of the wider ecumen- 
ical movement offer as a collective response to Christ's prayer 
for unity? 

First, a symbol. No student of history need be told the 
importance of a symbol. Many forget that a symbol is a visible 
concrete thing which is "bowled" together with an invisible 
idea. A disembodied spirit is never impressive to the general 
public. A disembodied spirit of unity in the Church through- 
out the world would not convince, persuade, or impress many 
doubting ones. The World Council, even in its provisional 
organization, is a visible and concrete evidence of an inner 
and spiritual grace. It is a symbol of the World Church that 
is to be. 

Second, an instrumentality. "Through it," said William 
Temple, at his consecration as 98th Archbishop of Canterbury, 
"we take our part in providing for the Spirit of Christ the 
agency by which He may transform our world." 

Third, a demonstration of the meaning of world commun- 
ity. The one organization in our time which has not lost con- 
tact across the chasms of political enmity and strife is the 
Christian Church. And only through its ecumenical organiza- 
tion has this proved possible. Without the two chief embodi- 
ments of the ecumenical idea — the International Missionary 
Council and the World Council of Churches — that contact 
would very largely have been lost. 

Fourth, a focal point for the lines of organizational life 
within the Christian Churches acting on a world scale. It is 
significant that the ten major families within the total family 
of Christendom have advanced greatly toward a definite 
sense of world-wide fellowship. Each has its appropriate or- 
ganization as Presbyterians have in the alliance of churches 
holding the Reformed Order. There are ten functional bodies 

50 Christian Frontiers 

which have grown up in recent years each to express some 
major function of the Church. Examples would be the World 
Sunday School Association, the International Missionary 
Council and the World Student Christian Federation. But 
until the World Council was conceived none of these lines 
met. They were all parallel. Twenty outreaches toward world 
Christian unity did not give the impression of unity but of 
diversity and bewildering multiplicity. 

In a strictly constitutional sense it is hardly true to say 
that the World Council draws these lines into focus. But it is 
a plain matter of fact that it has tended to do so and will 
doubtless do so in notable ways as time goes on — not by 
compulsion or authority but through a process of spiritual 
development. Three of the functional bodies of world out- 
reach have already been integrated with the structure of the 
Council. And most of the major confessional bodies are see- 
ing their relationships to it as a common meeting place. 
(Under the Constitution of the World Council provision is 
to be made for representation of the Confessional organiza- 
tions. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility to suppose 
that the time may come when at the World Assembly a 
special world congress of world confessional bodies might take 
place. There Anglicans, Presbyterians, Methodists, Lutherans, 
Baptists and others who have achieved world confessional 
organizations might look together at their total task and find 
ways of closer cooperation.) 


What is meant by the statement that the World Council 
is a symbol, an instrumentality, a demonstration (of world 
community), and a focal point for otherwise unrelated world 
Christian organizations will, I think, become clear if a simple 
account be given of what the Council is now doing in this 
critical period. 

It is well to recall that in 1937 the Provisional Committee 
was set up by the Conferences of Oxford and Edinburgh in 
order "to provide for the continuation of the work of the 
two conferences and to bring into being the proposed World 
Council of Churches." The Committee contained fourteen 

The World Council of Churches 51 

original members and fourteen original alternates — seven 
principals and seven alternates having been selected by each 
of the two conferences for the so-called "Committee of Four- 
teen." The Provisional Committee was accorded the right to 
add six further members, three from each of the two move- 

From the time of the meeting in Utrecht, Holland, in 
1938, when the Constitution was drafted and sent to the 
churches for their approval, the Provisional Committee has 
had the full use of the staff and offices and assets of the 
Universal Christian Council for Life and Work. It has like- 
wise had in effect, although not in strict legal fact, the use 
of the staff of the Continuation Committee of the World Con- 
ference on Faith and Order. 

When the war came, therefore, in 1939, the Geneva and 
London and New York offices of the Provisional Committee 
were functioning under the direction of the three secretaries 
appointed at Utrecht — Dr. W. A. Visser 't Hooft (whose name 
is Dutch for "head fisher"); Dr. William Paton; and the 
author, all of whom were officials not of sections of the 
Council in the first instance but of the world body itself. 

Almost instantly demands began to be made upon the 
Council for special types of service rendered urgent by the 
war emergency. There was the problem of religious ministry 
to the prisoners of war which at the present writing number 
nearly nine million men. By mutual agreement with the 
Y.M.C.A. which was appealing to the churches for war 
prisoners' aid funds, the financial support of the work was 
consolidated in that single appeal. But the World Council's 
Commission for Chaplaincy Service to Prisoners of War be- 
came the agency for all but the Roman Church in the camps 
made accessible. (Not all camps have been accessible and 
there are areas of great need which are unreached even yet. 
But the greater part of the vast company of military prisoners 
has been reached with this service in Western Europe, North 
Africa, North America and parts of the Far East.) 

The story of this ministry when it can be fully told will 
be fascinating. Only neutrals could be used in the camps 
and the contribution of the Swedish and Swiss Churches 

52 Christian Frontiers 

at this point has been absolutely indispensable, although 
in the early days of the war when America was still a 
neutral, men from this country engaged in the service on 
the Continent and elsewhere. It is highly significant that it 
was the World Church which reached out to the millions 
caught in the boredom and discomfort of barbed-wire prison 
camps. Here in America, for example, the third of a million 
prisoners from Axis lands have had made available to them 
the sort of ministry which the Christians among them would 
find most congenial. The secretary for this work, attached to 
the Commission for World Council Service in the New York 
Office, is a Swedish Lutheran pastor formerly on the staff of 
the Stockholm Cathedral. There has been so much response 
to his work that he had to request additional chaplains, two 
of whom have been sent over from Sweden. 

If people outside of prison camps do not appreciate the 
significance of this united approach the men inside do. And 
it is safe to assume that they will remember it as long as they 
live. They will be part of that much vaster company of men 
in the armed forces who have in the most critical period of 
their lives experienced the ministry of a united Church — for 
obviously denominationalism has no part nor lot in service 
to them. They can see in the ecumenical movement — even 
though they may not know it by that name — not only a 
symbol but an instrumentality of the universal love of God 
in Christ for the souls of His children. 

Out of this ministry to prisoners of war and men in the 
armed services has grown a further united service. I refer to 
the supplying of Bibles and religious literature of all kinds. 
The American Bible Society and the British and Foreign 
Bible Society in particular made possible the setting up of a 
Bible Department of the World Council at Geneva. Its work 
has rapidly and steadily grown. The response to it on the 
part of those served has been beyond all expectation. The 
universal book has a universal message and its coming to 
men in need at the hands of a united Christian Church is a 
good omen of future ecumenicity. 

Yet another need arose out of the war which could be met 
only by the united action of the churches across the world. 

The World Council of Churches 53 

I refer to the problem of the refugee. One in ten of the whole 
human race has been removed from his home, by the way — 
forcibly or otherwise. One hundred and twenty million of 
these are called technically refugees. Of this vast company 
the majority are Christian, or at least non- Jewish. (The total 
number of Jewish refugees is estimated at about four million 
out of the twelve million Jews on the earth.) Thanks, first 
of all, to the insight and the generosity of the British Churches 
led by. Dr. George Bell, Bishop of Chichester, former Chair- 
man of the Universal Christian Council and member of the 
World Council's Provisional Committee, a Commission on 
Refugee Service was set up at Geneva under the able leader- 
ship of Dr. Freudenberg, a former member of Martin Nie- 
moeller's Church in Dahlem, Berlin. 

The Refugee Commission has served to correlate the serv- 
ices of joint Christian committees in many lands. It has been 
able directly to serve refugees in many European countries 
and to a degree even so far away as China. From the first it 
was entirely obvious that the problem was not a denomina- 
tional one. It sprang from a universal calamity. It called for 
a unified world-wide approach. That it has in a measure been 
met is due to the fact that there was a central agency capable 
of undertaking it in the name of the more than 90 Churches 
which have joined the World Council. It is likewise a matter 
of record that the joint committees in England, Switzerland, 
Germany, Scandinavia, and the United States, which sought 
to secure aid for the Christian Refugees were in the main set 
up through the activity of World Council staff members or 


When we look ahead to the post war era it is clear that 
there will be now that the war is over a task of reconstruction 
and inter-church aid of staggering proportions which must be 
undertaken. In the twenty-five countries that constitute 
Europe, there are on the average only about seven denom- 
inations. The exigencies of persecution, privation and war 
have brought them to such a measure of spiritual unity as 
would have been quite unthinkable a few short years ago. 

54 Christian Frontiers 

This I have already pointed out. They are with united voice 
pleading that in the work of reconstruction a united approach 
be made. 

By mutual agreement the work of the former Central 
Bureau is being correlated with that of the new Department 
of Reconstruction and Inter-Church Aid. The plan for the 
Department was formulated at the request of a number of 
the constituent churches at a meeting of the Provisional 
Committee in Geneva three years ago at which Dr. Samuel 
McCrea Cavert, first Secretary of the Committee of Fourteen 
and General Secretary of the Federal Council of the Churches 
of Christ in America, represented the U.S.A. 

The structure resulting is noteworthy. Here in America 
the sponsoring agency for all inter-Church aid overseas is 
the Church Committee on Overseas Relief and Reconstruction. 
It links the giving churches in America with the work of the 
World Council and that of the International Missionary 
Council as well. It is a correlating and promotional agency 
pure and simple. One of its recommendations was the correla- 
tion of the former American Office of the Central Bureau for 
Inter-Church Aid with the other various services being ren- 
dered by the World Council — as outlined in the foregoing 
pages. Action by the American Committee for the World 
Council, on the basis of this suggestion, brought into being 
the Commission for World Council Service with Dr. Robbins 
Wolcott Barstow, formerly President of Hartford Theological 
Seminary, as Director. 

That is in America. In Geneva a corresponding move has 
resulted in a strong Department of Reconstruction and Inter- 
Church Aid as already indicated. Its chairman is Dr. Alfonse 
Koechlin, head of the Reformed Church of Switzerland. Its 
senior secretary is Dr. James Hutchison Cockburn, recently 
Moderator of the Church of Scotland. To it are being assigned 
a number of strong staff members who will be going to Geneva 
in due course. Eight American denominations have decided 
either to supply staff members or to allocate (for cooperation 
with the Geneva staff) members of their own designation and 
under their authority. There are other representatives from 

The World Council of Churches 55 

other lands, so that the resulting staff is of remarkable quality 
and ability. It functions in a score of countries. 

To facilitate effective work in each area of need, National 
Reconstruction Committees have been set up as each area was 
liberated. They are responsible for general surveys of the 
needs of all churches. Upon their recommendations to Geneva 
decisions are taken as to suggested allocations of funds. It is 
understood, however, that acceptance of these suggestions by 
the respective denominations will, of course, be voluntary. 
There is no contemplation of arrogation of authority to the 
Geneva office. 

Here is a symbol, an instrumentality, and a demonstration 
of community on a significant scale. It is without precedent 
in post Reformation times. 

Thus runs the brief history of the most comprehensive 
effort since the Reformation for unity among the Churches 
outside of the Roman Communion. It is larger than Protes- 
tantism, since many of the Orthodox Eastern Churches have 
shared the development and some of them have already joined 
the Council. It is symbolic, instrumental, a demonstration of 
effective spiritual unity. And because it is, it provides some 
promise of the development of real Christian world com- 
munity under the Lordship of Jesus Christ who is either 
"Lord of All or not Lord at all." 


Among the outstanding features of the March issue of 
Christian Frontiers will be two articles on significant con- 
temporary problems by the Rev. Roy A. Burkhart, pastor of 
the First Community Church of Columbus, Ohio, and author 
of The Church and the Returning Soldier; and Dr. Gordon 
W. Blackwell, Director of the Institute for Research in Social 
Science at the University of North Carolina. The Burkhart 
article will discuss the responsibility of the Church in minis- 
tering to returning soldiers; the Blackwell article will examine 
the role of the minister in the life of his community. 

56 Christian Frontiers 

Set Your Clock At U235 

By Norman Corwin 

Now we are in it together: 

The rich with their automatic comforts, and the family bunk- 
ing seven in a room: 

The highly trained, who understand the poems and the en- 
gines; and those whose culture measures five hundred 
words across the middle: 

Old people tired of wars and winters, and children who do 
not yet know they are made of matter: 

The famous face in four colors, nationalized on the cover of 
the magazine ; and the crowd face, the background face, 
gray, nameless, out of focus: 

Now we are in it, in it together. 

The secrets of the earth have been peeled, one by one, until the 

core is bare: 
The latest recipe is private, in a guarded book, but the stink 

of death is public on the wind from Nagasaki: 
The nations have heard of the fission of the neutron, and have 

seen the photographs: skies a-boil with interlocking 

fury, mushrooms of uranium smoke ascending to where 

angels patrol uneasily. 

There have been improvements since: the atom can be far 
more sullen than has yet been shown. 

Attack it with another thrust of algebraic symbols and the cut- 
ting edge of an equation, and there will be the grand 

The first news of it will arrive in your precinct as a shudder- 
ing in the sky: 

A glow, far-off, brightening, heat beating outward in concen- 
tric waves; the atmosphere a band of fire: the seas 
•themselves, the wet seas, tinder: 

The hills which looked on Christ will heave and crackle, and 
quarries vaporize as eagerly as the dust of Pharaohs: 

The earth, the tamed and tonsured earth with all its gardens 
and substances, its places, breeds and patterns, its let- 

Set Your Clock at U235 57 

ters and its airs, will plummet out of grace; will fail 
its orbit; 
And soon enough will be a blistered ash, its moon trailing 
lonely and ungoverned, like a dog after his master's 

Do not smile, do not smile as though knowing better. 

It could happen. 

The model is any suicide. 

The model is Samson, destroying the temple and himself. 

We are all in the zone of danger: we are in it together: 

Hang a red lantern on your pillow. 

The crackpot prophet in Pasadena stands at last within rea- 
sonable prospect when he picks a date and says, "On 
this Day, the World will End. Selah. Repent ye Sinners, 
and Prepare." 

It could happen, for man's time will not outride another war. 

As for the latest war, what's to become of its victors and their 

Their dear-bought, blood-begotten, towering and grave vic- 

Need the laurel wither? 

Need the sword go blunt again with the rusting disease of 
men and metals? 

Need the worker be lucky to work? 

Need an epoch hang on the tailored charms of a diplomat? 

Need there be guts and gore on every map again? 

Do not search the broad-minded sky for answers to these and 

kindred questions, 
Nor trust the editorials in picture weeklies. Tea leaves and 

ouija boards are more reliable. 
The answers are in us together. 
For only if we've learned that every multiple of one comes but 

to ONE in the arithmetic of nations. 
Then only was the long trip back from Munich necessary. 

58 Christian Frontiers 

Then only can it be explained to echelons of airmen who left 
their mark in air 

And to marines whose faces rubbed off on the cinders of Iwo. 

Then only was it worth the concentration in the camps, and 
what it was that happened to the little and the lost 
and unremembered. 

Unless we work at it together, at a single earth, 

Then do not bother to lay wreaths for sailors who went down 
burning in winter seas, 

Nor mourn privates anonymous, who bled their names and 
all they knew and were, into the mud of Europe. 

For there will be others out of the just-born and the not-yet 
contracted for, who will die for our invisible daily 

There will be others, yes, but with this difference: Next time, 
the fighting heart shall be unemployed: shall be re- 
placed by a coil of wire: 

The secret weapons of the spirit rooted out by an ounce or 
two of restless elements. 

Valor no more shall be the truss of armies. 

The regimental banners, the Order of the Day, the skill of 
killing drilled into the recruit, the encampments, the 
massive embarkations — they have arranged them- 
selves and withdrawn to the museum, they have re- 
tired next to pikes and arrows. 

Now the control board and its buttons, the air-conditioned 
laboratory, dustless and remote, by the waters of the 
wired lake: these are the armed forces. 

But alarm is easier than pride to point with: 

We are in it together, and that, when held up to a proper 
light, gleams good as much as ill. 

Oneness is our destination: has long been: is far the best 
of places to arrive at. 

The signs along the way, at Gallilee and Philadelphia and 
Gettysburg, said ALL CREATED EQUAL 

Set Your Clock at U235 59 

Beneath the loud and glooming auguries of doom are modest 
noises of beginning, keenly awaited as the cry of the 
newborn, or the first cuckoo of spring. 

It can well be an entrance, not an exit that we made between 
pillars of flame arising from bombs one and two. 

The chemicking that could destroy us together with our pots 
and pans and allies, can also do as bidden by us; out- 
perform whole teams of genii: be servile to the meek; 
reform our wayward systems peacefully. 

The choice rests in the trusteeship of victory: 

One or nothing: wealth, or laying waste: 

Men, or Jew and gentile; men, or the color of men; 

Jobs above profits, or profits above jobs: 

These are the choices, and we make them daily. 

What will it be, sir? Madame? 

Make up your minds, please, and the sooner much the better. 
Your children are growing. 
They want to know. 

From UNTITLED AND OTHERS by Norman Corwin to be 
published by Henry Holt and Company. Originally written for the 
New York Herald Tribune Forum on October 29, 1945. 

60 Christian Frontiers 


Call To Moral Research 

Garland A. Hendricks 

"N a little more than one hundred years man has made 
more progress in scientific discovery and technological 
development than in all previous history combined. George 
Washington could travel no faster than Moses, for the horse 
was man's fastest means of travel until Stephenson developed 
the locomotive in the year 1814. But by 1941, just 127 years 
later, a train had travelled 126 miles per hour, and an auto- 
mobile 370 miles per hour. Now an airplane moves through 
space faster than sound. Distance is almost annihilated. 

As late as 1865 war was a man-to-man struggle. But now 
an airplane rises 25,000 feet above the earth and drops a 
single bomb which in an instant wipes out 100,000 lives and 
destroys a great city which it took generations to build. 

During this century and a quarter the masses of the peo- 
ple on earth have become impatient and have revolted against 
accepted social and moral customs, standards, values, and 
systems. The late Dr. Alexis Carrel wrote a few years ago, 
"Men cannot follow modern civilization along its present 
course, because they are degenerating." There is widespread 
confusion about the nature of spiritual reality, the value of 
moral standards, and the purpose of human existence. For in 
our thinking in recent years we have majored upon the vast- 
ness of our newly explored universe, the wonders of our 
recently developed sciences, and the marvels of our newly 
invented machines. Thus we have made the telescope, the 
microscope, and the whirling wheel the symbols of our mate- 
rialistic age. 

In our quest for new values and standards we have tried 
all kinds of experiments, seeking ways and means which are 
adequate to meet the needs of human life panting under the 
stress and strain and excitement of a world gone mad. At 
last we see the shadow of a cross lengthening over our course. 
The blood of innocent millions cries out from the soil of 
Russia, Europe, India, China, Japan, and the islands and 
waters of the seas to condemn the leadership of this genera- 

Call to Moral Research 61 

tion. We have turned the eye of cold, critical analysis upon 
every value and institution brought to us from the past, and 
have been hasty and destructive in our judgments. We rele- 
gated moral law to what we considered the dead past, but 
failed to rid ourselves of the necessity for it, and now we 
stand condemned in our own stupidity. We made light of 
the reality of sin and tried to reason hell out of existence, 
only to discover in bitter experience that "the wages of sin 
is death," and that hell has broken loose all around us and 
within us. Now we are beginning to understand that "all 
have sinned, and come short of the glory of God," and that 
"if we say that we have no sin we deceive ourselves, and the 
truth is not in us." 

So we face the future in silent terror of our own scientific 
achievements, searching for moral and spiritual insights and 
powers which may yet save civilization from chaos and ruin. 


The problems of our time are so numerous, complex, and 
inter-related that it is difficult to distinguish one from another. 
But some of them stand out in significance. Let us look briefly 
at five: 

First, man is seeking a pattern for world society. We know 
that ours is "one world" — to be bound together by good will 
or blown to bits by men of evil motives. Now we are striving 
to shape a pattern for world community life. This is no easy 
task. In this pattern there must be a place for every race, 
creed, color, tongue, custom, and tradition. Men do not readily 
give up old ideas and habits to accept new ones. But at least 
for the first time in human history men everywhere are being 
awakened to world consciousness. 

Second, the world's masses feel that they have a moral 
right to access to the natural resources of the earth. The 
systems of economics, commerce, and industry combine with 
the political policies of nations and empires to deny most men 
their rightful share in the products of the good earth. One- 
half the people on earth make a livelihood by cultivating the 
soil. Most of these are still denied the benefits of modern 
science or a fair share in the growing wealth of mankind. But 

62 Christian Frontiers 

they are awakening, looking out over the world about them, 
and raising questions. As each day passes by Edwin Mark- 
ham's question from "The Man with the Hoe" becomes more 
prophetic : 

masters, lords and rulers in all lands, 
How will the future reckon with this Man? 

When this dumb Terror shall rise to judge the 

After the silence of the centuries? 

Three-fourths of the world's folk live in the country, but 
modern life is dominated by those who live in a few large 
cities. The awakening masses in India are working their lives 
away to support a system of empire which is a hundred years 
out of date. Everywhere the common people are awakening. 
Already the masses in Russia have revolted against the hoard- 
ing of wealth and power by the few. Around the world there 
is a growing demand that all men share fairly in the riches 
of God's earth. The stewardship of the earth's resources is 
one of the major social and moral problems of our time. 

Third, the world must have a new philosophy of work. In 
a large part of the world today we place a premium upon not 
working. We offer the greatest security to the man who is 
clever enough or crooked enough to manipulate his signature 
on papers which give him a share in the profits made from 
those who do work. Consequently many are striving to get 
away from work rather than do creative work. We are torn 
between capitalistic monopoly on one extreme, radical state 
socialism on another, and such schemes as the non-hoardable 
money system tried by Silvio Gesell when he was Minister of 
Finance in Bavaria in 1919. The money systems of the world 
are fluid. The laboring people everywhere are in an ugly 
mood. The hour is ripe for almost anything to take place. 

Fourth, the welfare of the world's helpless and irrespons- 
ible becomes more and more a social problem. Mental sickness 
increases rapidly under the strain of the fast tempo of modern 
life. Accidents in a machine world multiply the disabled. War 
leaves millions broken in spirit, body, and mind. We must 

Call to Moral Research 63 

create adequate methods and build institutions to take care 
of such people. 

Fifth, the white man is under moral obligation to practice 
the brotherhood of man. About two-thirds of the earth's in- 
habitants have colored skins, but the white man controls 
their world. The colored races are awakening and making de- 
mands. If we cannot lead them along the way of brotherly love 
we may rest assured that the place of the white man will soon 
change from "master" to "slave." 


What should our churches undertake to do about the 
social and moral problems of our time? As any church goes 
about fulfilling its mission, it makes a distinctive contribution 
to moral and social life by way of the individual whose impact 
upon society helps determine its moral nature and social 

Christian morality is concerned with at least four aspects 
of life. First, with harmony within the individual — the rela- 
tion of impulses and motives, ideas and ideals, attitudes and 
habits. Herein is the source of life's powers and our sense of 
direction and goals. Second, with relations of the individual 
to God his Creator. This determines the purpose of human 
existence, the place and value of the individual in the higher 
meaning of human endeavor and the larger pattern of human 
behavior. Third, with relations of the individual to other in- 
dividuals and groups of individuals in society. These relations 
determine the place of the individual and the group in shap- 
ing community life and world civilization. Fourth, with the 
relation of the individual and the group to the material things 
of the world. This determines the ends to which man utilizes 
the resources given by God in the air, the earth, and the 

A moral man, then, is one who possesses within his heart 
the "peace that passeth all understanding," believes and 
trusts in God his Father, lives within the social structure as 
a brother with all others, and is a good steward of the re- 
sources of the Father's world. The church is to lead men and 
women in this kind of development. A far-reaching develop- 

64 Christian Frontiers 

ment along this line will permeate the very nature and pur- 
pose of human society and save civilization from the powers 
of destruction. 


How can the church do this? By learning to harness the 
revolutionary energies of modern man so as to use them for 
good. When man is in a state of unrest and revolt as he is 
today, he may very quickly bring about chaos or he may 
launch great movements for the betterment of world life. 
His energies are about to be expressed. The direction in which 
this expression is turned will determine our future. It is 
our mission to win people to God in Christ that he may supply 
them with wisdom and use their capacities in bringing the 
kingdom of heaven to earth. 

Will the churches take up the challenge of the hour? Have 
we sufficient vision and insight? A generation ago student 
volunteers set out to win the world to Christ in one generation. 
We said they were foolish, that theirs was an impossible ideal, 
and our churches refused to provide them with working re- 
sources. John R. Mott came back from the Orient and told 
us that if we did not send ten thousand missionaries to Japan 
we would later have to send a hundred thousand soldiers. 
We paid no attention to pleas like that. But now we have 
learned at the cost of the blood of our own loved ones what 
can be done by a single unschooled man with evil motives, 
ideas, and determination. How much greater is our Christ 
than Germany's Hitler! The key to desirable social and moral 
life in the future lies in catching the imagination and harness- 
ing the stirred up energies of modern man for Christ. 

How shall we go about harnessing this great power? A 
few years ago Henry Ford found that his automobile was 
losing its appeal. He took a drastic step. He shifted from 
production and distribution to research. The cost was great, 
but he soon regained his market with a much improved pro- 
duct. Modern man is not accepting moral law and spiritual 
reality in the models we are distributing today. It is time for 
us who constitute the church to take a drastic step. We need 
to do some research: search our own lives honestly, study 
the mind of Christ, study the mind and the mood of modern 

Call to Moral Research 65 

man, explore the teachings of the Bible, get in closer touch 
with God in sincere prayer. Then we may be able to come 
forth with an approach to moral and social problems which 
will rally the people of our world to Christ's way of life. 

We in the pulpit and pew have been too much concerned 
about defending worn-out systems, and not enough concerned 
about discovering and releasing into the main stream of hu- 
man affairs the dynamic powers of God which are forever 
available to those who will use them aright. Too many of us 
have been content to peddle a few conventional thought pat- 
terns picked up in some second-hand idea shop on a special 
bargain counter marked: "Save your brain from stress and 
strain." Mental laziness and moral cowardice curse the life 
of much of the spiritual leadership of the world. We have been 
afraid to do moral research lest it involve new and dangerous 
adventure. Now v/e stand condemned under the judgment of 
God and under the bitter attacks of a world warring against 
God. The most damnable heresy of our modern Christendom 
has become the divisive practice of tagging our brothers 
"radical," or "conservative," or otherwise, and so confessing 
the sins of others while our own souls rot in the sin of self- 
righteousness. While we argue over details and methods that 
do not matter a great deal, we are leading our confused world 
into hell by negligence. We might as least realize that church 
leaders cannot neglect their world into hell without landing 
there, too. 

God help us to take up the challenge of our day. Let us 
explore the mind of Christ and the infinite resources of our 
Father. Let us move forward unafraid of man or evil power, 
giving ourselves in such complete surrender to Christ that 
he may use us as human channels for the release of divine 
wisdom and power into human affairs. Thus we may be 
assured that the social and moral problems of our time will 
be adequately solved. As far as the Christian can see this is 
the only way forward. 


Christian Frontiers 

Book Reviews 

Psychology of Religion. 
By Paul E. Johnson. 
New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury 
Press, 1945. Price $2.00. 

The psychologists of religion 
have specialized in one area of 
investigation or another with 
such zeal that they have too often 
lost historical and cultural per- 
spective. Thus they have brought 
significant information and in- 
sights to light without having 
integrated these truths into the 
total context of man's interper- 
sonal relationships. The author 
of this book sees the need for 
such an integrated perspective. 
He says that a "great deal of val- 
uable information has been gath- 
ered . . . (and) the time has ev- 
idently come for a systematic in- 
tegration of methods and data to 
see what has been discovered." 
Therefore, he states his point of 
view as follows: "The dynamic, 
interpersonal psychology of re- 
ligion here presented follows . . . 
holistic . . . trends." He adds a 
historical point of view to this 
psychological perspective: "Four 
hundred years ago the battle of 
science and religion was in as- 
tronomy . . . Fifty years ago it 
was in biology, in the Darwinian 
controversy over the question of 
evolution and creation. Today the 
battle is in psychology . . . Dyna- 
mic life is the issue at stake in 
the scientific efforts of psych- 
ology to assay the meaning of 
religion in personality and so- 
ciety." His purpose, then, is two- 
fold: 1) to correlate and interpret 

the scientific findings of the field 
of psychology with reference to 
religion 2) to make a construc- 
tive application of these findings 
to the search for a mature re- 
ligious experience in both the 
lives of individuals and groups. 

The author exhibits excellent 
workmanship in accomplishing 
his purpose. His manuscript 
shows exacting care for detail 
and a deep appreciation for clear 
language and straight-forward 
sentences. His use of metaphor 
and simile makes his work both 
readable and convincing. He is 
faithful in the use of primary 
sources, the production of an 
identifiable source for every 
statement, and the careful com- 
pilation of a complete bibliogra- 
phy. Each chaper consists of an 
inductive study of the work that 
scholars have done on the sub- 
ject, a critical evaluation of these 
findings, and the author's reflec- 
tive conclusions on the subject. 
His conclusions are carefully 
wrought out and do not reflect 
the dogmatism characteristic of 
hasty assumptions drawn to 
prove a prejudice. The book as 
a whole may be characterized as 
being unified, comprehensive, 
and satisfying. Again and again, 
I found myself saying: "This is 
what I have been striving to 
articulate but could not." In 
other words, the book answers a 
felt need. 

In one or two places, however, 
the author may be criticized ad- 
versely. He does not deal realis- 
tically with the place of fear in 

Book Reviews 


the stimulation of religious emo- 
tion. He assumes the ideal to be 
the actual in this case. To say 
that the Old Testament word 
"fear" really means "reverence" 
is to dilute the meaning, especial- 
ly when we know that men were 
said to have died for having 
touched sacred objects. Neither 
history nor clinical experiences 
in parishes, hospitals, and psy- 
chopathic institutions give us 
any permission to undervalue 
fear in religion by the mere use 
of words. Again, the author in 
the last chapter takes cognizance 
of man's aggression in the pre- 
sent international crisis, but in 
his chapter on "Religious Expe- 
rience," he does not take note of 
the close relation between the 
aggressive behavior and the re- 
ligious experience of man. Psy- 
chology of religion has yet to 
make a contribution concerning 
the role of aggressions in relig- 
ious experience. Academic dis- 
cussions of instincts in this re- 
spect will not suffice. 

But these weaknesses in the 
book are outweighed by the con- 
tribution which the author has 
made. In the first place, the au- 
thor uses the psychology of re- 
ligion positively rather than neg- 
atively. This is a departure a- 
mong scholars as careful as Pro- 
fessor Johnson. Too often psy- 
chology has been used as a so- 
phisticated means of avoiding 
the inconvenience of having a 
personal religious experience 
that will lay claim upon the so- 
phisticates' affections, abilities, 
and behavior. Between the lines 
of this book we see an author 
who talks about religion from a 

first-hand experience and out of 
a positive conviction. He makes 
his mind correspond with the 
facts of experience that the psy- 
chologists have brought to light, 
but he uses these facts to con- 
struct a positive psychology of 
religion rather than to prove an 
isolated point or to moralize a- 
bout what religion is not. He re- 
flects his religious conviction in 
the following excerpts: 

A deeper understanding of 
human nature is needed. The 
psychology of the nineteenth 
century was too superficial to 
reveal the irrational forces that 
control much of human con- 
duct .... The basic causes of 
behavior are the psychological 
motives that urge to action. No 
matter what geographical situ- 
ation, economic resources, poli- 
tical forms or social status men 
have, they are likely to want 
them otherwise . . . Whatever 
remedies may be attempted ex- 
ternally will fail until there 
are inner changes in the mo- 
tives of men . . . The religious 
requirement of regeneration 
applies to societies as well as 
to persons. Nothing less than 
rebirth will reconstruct the 
world order to the design of 
justice and good will. This is 
not a new idea, but it is a 
fundamental one. It has been 
uttered before, but it will have 
to be comprehended anew in 
each crisis, including the pre- 
sent one. 

The author has made another 
contribution in his critical anal- 
yses of the work of the major 
psychologists from a religious 
point of view. Especially help- 

Christian Frontiers 

ful is his analysis of Freud's 
works. At least a religious writer 
•has evaluated the work of Freud 
in its complete context rather 
than throwing up his hands in 
horror and crying: "Sex!" The 
significance of the work of Freud 
for evangelical religion is here 
comprehended and appreciated 
for its real worth. This is a step 
toward the appropriation of psy- 
choanalytic insights to the min- 
istry of the churches. 

A third contribution of this 
book is made through the valu- 
able footnotes and bibliography. 
Thus it reveals not only the thor- 
ough scholarship of the author, 
but also suggestive paths for any 
student wishing to become well 
read in the field. This book can 
very easily be used as a text in 
colleges or seminaries, and will 
prove a ready sourcebook for the 
teacher of the psychology of re- 

And finally, this book is an in- 
spiration to the preacher. The in- 
sights into the dynamics of hu- 
man conduct will deepen the 
preacher's sympathy, mellow his 
criticisms of his people, and 
equip him with abundant illus- 
trative material. He will find his 
preaching more forceful through 
the use of the facts here pre- 

This is a book that preacher, 
pastor, teacher, layman, and par- 
ent will do well to "weigh and 

Wayne Oates 

Behold Your King. 

By Florence Marvyne Bauer. 

Indianapolis & N. Y.: The Bobbs- 

Merrill Co., 1945. 
408 pages. Biography. Price $2.75. 

In the year 1945 many impor- 
tant books on Jesus augmented 
the teeming thousands of titles 
which have accumulated on the 
subject through the centuries. 
This new novel has been acclaim- 
ed as the most dramatic which 
has appeared since Lew Wallace's 
Ben Hur. It is indeed a sprightly 
story, is thoroughly well written 
and has many original counts to 
its credit. 

The effort of the author is to 
show the conflict in the Jewish 
mind between the conception of 
a power-Messiah and a suffering- 
Messiah. The two conceptions 
are embodied in Bar Abbas on 
the one hand and in Jesus on 
the other. It falls out, therefore, 
that approximately as much at- 
tention is devoted the robber- 
chieftain as to the Son of Man. 

The moving episodes in the 
novel conform to the Scripture 
narrative with entire fidelity, 
though the liveliest imagination 
is used in the manipulation of 
the incidents. The milieu of Jew- 
ish palaces, homes, shops, inns, 
synagogues, customs, manners, 
intermingled races, classes, 
creeds is faithfully adhered to. 
The spirit is reverent, believing. 
The delineation of character is 
particularly well done. In the 
choice of characters, preference 
is shown the aristocratic, intell- 
igent, wealthy individuals, such 
as Nicodemus, Joseph of Ari- 
mathea, Jairus, Chuza and his 
household, the inmates of the 

Book Reviews 


Bethany home, Nathaniel, and 
those of Zebedee's fish house, to 
the extent that the reader is 
almost ready to conclude the fol- 
lowers of Jesus were to be found 
among the fortunate and favored 
rather than among the poor and 

The emphasis on the Kingship 
of Jesus — a deliverer from Rome 
— is pronounced, as would be sus- 
pected from the statement above. 
This handicaps the careful au- 
thor in evoking any distinct pic- 
ture of the Christ. He is nowhere 
presented with clear convincing- 
ness as the Son of God, though 
that is evidently intended to be 
the conclusion. The evidence of 
his Messiahship is confined al- 
most completely to external signs 
and wonders, to miracles of heal- 
ing. The Personality of the Sav- 
ior is but slightly shown, and 
that for the most part through 
second-hand reports which could 
never be as vivid and satisfying 
as a close-up, direct portrayal. 
The teaching of Jesus is but 
meagerly exhibited and too thin- 
ly interpreted. The failure to de- 
lineate inward effects of contacts 
with Jesus, such as the Great 
Conversation with Nicodemus 
would suggest, leaves the reader 

One looks in vain for light on 
controverted persons, such as 
Mary of Magdala; but is interest- 
ed in the small detail concerning 
Judas Iscariot, a Zealot, along 
with his fellow disciple, Simon 
the Zealot, who sympathizes with 
Bar Abbas, the power-Messiah 
aspirant. Apparently Judas grew 
discontented with the prospects 
of Bar Abbas for seizing the 

Kingdom in a sort of Maccabaean 
attempt, and then tried to force 
Jesus to adopt the power pattern. 
We shall have to say that 
while the book is severely limit- 
ed by its theme requirements 
and sorely disappointing in its in- 
adequate account of the Person 
of Jesus as he deserves to be of- 
fered, it nevertheless is very ab- 
sorbing, quite rewarding, and by 
no means ordinary. 

Joseph Martin Dawson. 


Those of the Way. Willard L. 
Sperry. New York: Harper & 
Bros., 1945. 

The Gospel According to Gama- 
liel. Gerald Heard. New York: 
Harper & Bros., 1945. 
Event in Eternity. Paul Scherer. 
New York: Harper & Bros., 1945. 
The Saints that Moved the World. 
Rene Fulop Miller. New York: 
Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945. 
Church College and Nation. G. 
Roy Elliott. Louisville: The Clois- 
ter Press, 1945. 

How to Read and Enjoy the 
Bible. Maurice Clarke. Louisville: 
The Cloister Press, 1945. 
Thinking Where Jesus Thought. 
Hillyer H. Straton. St. Louis: 
Bethany Press, 1945. 
Evangelism for Today. Lin D. 
Cartwright. St. Louis: Bethany 
Press, 1945. 

A Man Stood up to Preach. Edgar 
DeWitt Jones. St. Louis: The 
Bethany Press, 1945. 
There is a Spirit. Kenneth Bould- 
ing. New York: Fellowship Pub- 
lications, 1945. 

Erasing the Color Line. George 
M. Hauser. New York: Fellow- 
ship Publications, 1945. 


Christian Frontiers 



"The most pressing needs of 
the Filipino people, who are sick, 
homeless, sorrowful and hungry 
and torn still by internal conflict, 
despite the end of the war, are 
clothing, medicines, food and 
shelter," according to Dr. E. K. 
Higdon, executive secretary of 
the department of Oriental mis- 
sions, who is concerned with the 
ways in which the church may 
be able to aid the people of the 
Philippine Islands, now that 
world peace has been reestablish- 
ed. Yet more than the satisfaction 
of material wants, Dr. Higdon 
feels the need for restoration of 
the spiritual values of the Fili- 

Dr. Higdon quotes Professor M. 
Gamboa in stating that "the maj- 
or task of the Evangelical church 
is to recapture that sweetness 
and fineness of character for 
which the Filipinos are noted." 
He further quotes a letter from 
the islands in which a woman 
writes, "We lost all our precious 
possessions, but the thing I miss- 
ed most was my dialect Bible 
which I loved and they tore up." 

Emphasizing his statement of 
the impoverished conditions of 
the people of the Philippine Is- 
lands, Dr. Higdon declares that 
the islands have lost a billion dol- 
lars in buildings resulting in the 
gigantic problem of a tired peo- 
ple forced to restore homes for 

some 18,000,000 homeless persons. 
He adds that the Filipinos are 
suffering from malnutrition, and 
nervous depletion and are faced 
with high prices, lack of food 
stuffs, late rice plantings and lo- 
cust infested crops, as well as a 
scarcity of work animals which 
were taken by the Japanese in- 

He states that the government 
is nearly bankrupt and that, as 
a result, its duties to its people 
are seriously curtailed. Filipinos 
show such hatred for the Jap- 
anese that prisoners of war must 
be guarded to prevent attacks on 
them by the civilians, and "col- 
laborators" and "patriots" are 
still in conflict, Dr. Higdon con- 
cludes. — From Worldover Press. 


Announcement was made re- 
cently in the bulletin "Between 
the 'Lines" of the establishment 
of the Protestant Film Commis- 
sion, whose chief aim will be to 
"promote the interests of Pro- 
testant Christianity in motion 
pictures, through direct produc- 
tion and by stimulation of sym- 
pathetic aid in Hollywood stu- 

The organization has set up a 
committee to select an outstand- 
ing motion picture executive to 
direct the new venture. One mil- 
lion dollars will be raised to get 
the commission started and to 
carry out its future plans. 

Supported by forty Protestant 



church organizations, the fledgel- 
ing film commission "will prov- 
ide films with a distinctly Christ- 
ian message, promote and facil- 
itate a coordinated approach by 
Protestant churches and agencies 
to the motion picture industry 
and suggest to the industry sub- 
jects worthy of treatment." 

All motion pictures will be 
rented to the churches, and mo- 
ney from rentals will be used to 
forward the movement. The com- 
mission will not censor commer- 
cial films but will endorse all mo- 
tion pictures of special interest 
to Protestant churches, the bul- 
letin stated. 

"The commission shall produce 
short subjects based on Biblical 
stories, on the story of the Bible, 
itself, and brief biographies of 
eminent divines and evangel- 
ists," a spokesman for the organ- 
ization is quoted in the pamph- 


In New York State the serious 
crime rate has increased 12 per- 
cent since June 1945 and officials 
see no hope for relief of the prob- 
lem, since a still greater increase 
in crimes is expected to come in 
the next few years, it was learn- 
ed in a recent Worldover press 
bulletin. J. Edgar Hoover, chief 
of the Federal Bureau of Invest- 
igation also has warned the 
American people of an impend- 
ing crime wave. 

According to the English mag- 
azine, "John Bull," 500 cases of 
beatings, robberies with violen- 
ces and other serious offenses 
were reported during the months 

of June, July and August of 1945 
and similar crimes are ever in- 
creasing. In Russia, the bulletin 
states, officials are perturbed ov- 
er the rise in juvenile delinquen- 
cy and serious offenses. The dis- 
patch adds that the Russians 
have taken measures to stop the 
crimes and have put into use a 
Cossack division in Moscow. 

With the statement of Hoover 
and the reports of crime trends 
in foreign countries, the press 
bulletin concludes that a rise in 
crime has followed the end of 
this war as was the case after 
the American Revolution, the 
War of 1812 and the succeeding 


"That 15,000 students are now 
enrolled in the university in Pra- 
ha, Czechoslovakia, more than 
twice the pre-war enrollment, is 
proof enough that young men 
and women of Central Europe 
are hungry for more education," 
states Robert Root, Worldover 
press correspondent, in a recent 
dispatch from Geneva, Switzer- 

"Students," he declares, "are 
pouring in from surrounding 
countries, and it is estimated that 
5,000 more would attend the uni- 
versity if they were able to get 

Root states that in Austria the 
situation is the same. Using A. C. 
Breychvauthier, assistant secre- 
tary of the International Federa- 
tion of Library associations, as a 
source of his information, Root 
further states that pro-nazi pro- 


Christian Frontiers 

fessors in all of the Austrian 
universities have been eliminat- 
ed and in some instances nazi 
students have been dismissed, 
while those with nazi records 
have been refused admission al- 

In speaking of the spirit of the 
people Root quotes Mr. Breycha- 
Vauthier as saying that though 
his countrymen "lack everything 
and suffer much misery, they 
keep optimistic. For example, 
though some of the train win- 
dows are broken, the remaining 
are carefully cleaned." 

"Medicine and window-glass, 
along with food," reports Mr. 
Breycha-Vauthier, "are the great 
needs of Austria now." He fur- 
ther states that the countryside 
is much better off than the cities. 

"Unlike Germany," he adds, 
"where nazi elimination often 
meant the elimination of compe- 
tent workers, competent anti- 
nazis can still be found in Aus- 
tria." He states, furthermore, 
that Austrians are now conscious 
of the democratic spirit. One 
judge, released from a concentra- 
tion camp, has organized a 
youths' soccer team including 
both pro and anti-nazi students, 
for he is convinced that this is 
the best way to have democratic 
influence," Mr. Breycha-Vauthier 


Wake Forest, N. C. 
January 19, 1946 

Dr. Das Kelly Barnette 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 
My dear Dr. Barnette: 

You and your colleagues have 
my hearty congratulation on the 
first issue of Christian Frontiers. 
You probably know that I have 
felt very strongly the need of 
such a paper for some years 
past. May its success become 
worldwide and of such a financial 
type as to justify its becoming 
a weekly within the course of 
two or three years! 

I like its motto, "speaking 
truth in love," very much. May 
it steer clear always of bickering 
about small things or even stop- 
ping to notice them. On the other 
hand, may it ever go its onward 
way; (1) "speaking" — having 
something to say; (2) "speaking 
the truth" — as God in His Word 
and in His universe has made or 
shall make this known; (3) "in 
love" — always sounding a posi- 
tive note, a kindly note, a note 
of patience and tender considera- 
tion for those who differ from it, 
and never kicking anything ex- 
cept that which is manifestly 
mean, false, and destructive of 
that which our Lord is building 
in the earth! 

Most cordially yours, 

Professor Emeritus of 

Wake Forest College, N. C. 


A Journal of Baptist Life and Thought 
Vol. I MARCH, 1946 No. 3 


Das Kelley Barnett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlator, Associate Editor William H. Poteat, Book Editor 

Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 
J. M. Dawson, Waco, Texas Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C. 

H. B. Cross, Nashville, Tenn. J. C. Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia 

George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 


C. Sylvester Green, Chairman Jasper C. Hutto, Secretary 

Claude U. Broach George D. Heaton 

Sankey L. Blanton Fred B. Helms 

J. Glenn Blackburn E. Norfleet Gardner 

Eugene I. Olive Fon H. Scofield 

Lee C. Sheppard J. Wade Baker 


Editorials 75 

The Church and Returning Service Men and Women 

Roy A. Burkhart 81 

The Intolerant Baptists George B. Cutten 90 

Book Reviews 97 

News 101 

Correspondence 103 

Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laymen. Address all corres- 
pondence to Box 508, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Copyright 1946 by the Baptist 
Book Club. Second class mailing privilege pending. Subscription price, two dollars 
a year; twenty-five cents a copy. 

Who's Who In This Issue 

LEE C. SHEPPARD, who contributes the leading edi- 
torial this month, is pastor of the Pullen Memorial Baptist 
Church in Raleigh, N. C. He is a graduate of the University 
of Richmond and has a B.D. degree from the Yale Divinity 

ROY BURKHART is pastor of the First Community 
Church of Columbus, Ohio and author of the book, The 
Church and the Returning Soldier. In his article in this issue 
he brings sharply to the attention of readers what churches 
may be expected to do for the returning service men and 

GEORGE B. CUTTEN, who is a graduate of Yale Univer- 
sity with Ph.D. degree, was formerly president of Colgate 
University and has done considerable writing in the field of 
the psychology of religion. 

GARLAND HENDRICKS, who appears again in the book 
review section of the magazine, is a graduate of Wake Forest 
College and the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He 
is now pastor of the Olive Chapel Baptist Church near Apex, 
North Carolina. 

J. GLENN BLACKBURN is a graduate of Wake Forest 
College and has his Th.M. and Th.D. degrees from the South- 
ern Baptist Theological Seminary. He has also been a fellow 
in Biblical Theology at Louisville. 

J. WADE BAKER has his B.D. degree from Crozer Theol- 
ogical Seminary and is a Baptist minister at Selma, N. C. 


A Militarized America? 

SHALL WE continue in time of peace military conscrip- 
tion of our youth? Millions of vitally interested citizens 
are answering, "No!" In time of war, (after all efforts to keep 
the peace have failed) we, of necessity, bow before this 
totalitarian technique. But when the last battle is fought, we 
want our boys and our freedom restored to us. The people of 
America must resume control and direction of their destiny if 
our democratic way of life and form of government are to 

This misguided effort to keep our nation an armed camp 
will, we think, fail. But it will not be sufficient merely to de- 
feat this present effort to militarize our nation. We must keep 
on the alert, for "eternal vigilance is the price of liberty." We 
must mark well and watch closely those leaders who enun- 
ciated and supported the current proposal. It is more than 
doubtful if they are to be trusted, as either wise or capable, 
in positions of grave responsibility. The peace was difficult 
to maintain in 1914 and 1917. It was more difficult after 1918. 
It is even more difficult in 1946. But if our civilization is to 
survive, the way to peace must be found and, cost what it may 
— economically, socially, politically — the peoples of the world 
must walk therein. 

Before America will agree to peace-time conscription, her 
citizens must be persuaded to believe that another world war 
is inevitable. No one is envied this difficult and unpleasant 
assignment. Weariness and grief weigh too heavily upon too 
many millions who have not yet recovered from the night- 
mare of pain and horror incident to the war just closed. It is 
altogether too soon to say to debt-ridden, tired and saddened 
America, "Your second attempt was also in vain; the dissipa- 
tion of three hundred billions of your wealth; the sacrifice 
of more than a million casualties — the shedding of the blood 
and impairment of the physical and mental vigor of some of 
the best of your youth — were all in vain. Dry your tears. We 
shall more than likely have to do it all over again." 

76 Christian Frontiers 

There are some sound reasons why we as a nation should 
turn thumbs down on this and other similar proposals: 

1. We want to remain a democracy. Peace-time conscrip- 
tion will not further this last best hope which is America. 
Conceivably it could become a tool of fascist or imperialistic- 
minded Americans of which, fortunately, we have only a few. 

2. We reluctantly become strongly military in time of 
national emergency, but the genius which is America must 
ever be the foe of the militaristic mood and method, in war 
and peace, whether in a class or a nation, within or beyond 
the borders of this free land. 

3. History fails to record that peace-time conscription 
provides either for adequate defense against attack or the 
certainty of victory when war comes. France, Russia, and 
Yugoslavia all had conscription before the present war and 
these countries were not preserved from sudden and vicious 
attacks. Germany's long and careful militarization of all her 
people and all her resources did not insure for those unhappy 
people ultimate victory. 

4. Under existing laws, all men inducted into the military 
services of this nation during the war as they are demobilized 
merely go on inactive status, remaining subject to recall any 
time during the ensuing ten years or until such time as they 
become forty-five years of age. This means that for the next 
ten years we shall have at our beck and call from six to ten 
million highly trained, successfully experienced soldiers, sail- 
ors, and airmen. Do we need to add to this number year by 
year for the safety and security of America? 

5. It is perhaps not too much to say that no amount of 
military preparedness has ever paved the way for anything 
except the break-down of peace and the certainty of violent 
conflict. An individual or a nation usually becomes what he 
(or it) is trained to become. 

If the testimony of the scientists involved is to be accepted, 
it is perhaps not too much to say that the discovery of the 
method of tapping nuclear energy, which made possible the 
atomic bomb, has radically altered realistic military strategy 
and effective national defense, rendering impotent and obso- 

A Militarized America? 77 

lete many cherished traditions and customs. What then can 
we do? What ought we to do? 

We can strengthen and enlarge the effectiveness of the 
United Nations Organization until it really represents the 
voice and possesses the strength of the peoples of the world. 

We can inaugurate a comprehensive, intensive program 
to build up the citizens of this nation physically, mentally, 
and spiritually. This will call for complete hospital and med- 
ical care in a nation-wide effort to cure and prevent sickness 
and disease, thus eliminating most of the physical deficiencies 
which rendered so many of our southern boys unfit for mili- 
tary service. It will call further for the improvement and ex- 
pansion of our entire public school system until all illiteracy 
shall have been banished and until all our people, young and 
old, are properly trained for that service they are best quali- 
fied to render. It will call for the awakening of all our churches 
to the high responsibility which is theirs to proclaim and to 
teach a spiritual interpretation of life which must be the basis 
of a living democracy. 

If in America all our people can become strong physic- 
ally, alert mentally, and sensitive spiritually, we will possess 
a unity and a power which will enable us to deal adequately 
with the problems of peace and make us invincible in the 
event another war should come. 

What America becomes tomorrow will not be determined 
by what has been said and done in the past but by the quality 
of the ideal to which we devote ourselves today. 

Lee C. Sheppard 

The Divinity That Hedges The Vatican 

CHRISTIAN FRONTIERS also registers its regrets and 
offers its protests upon learning that Myron C. Taylor 
has returned to his position as Ambassador — or is he still 
called "personal representative of the President?" — to the 
Vatican. Mr. Truman's Baptist convictions, if any, seem not 
to have been any deterrent in thus continuing this un-Amer- 
ican and un-constitutional relation to which a cautious Con- 
gress will take no exception. The farcical parallel-effort-for- 
peace excuse formulated by Mr. Roosevelt can now no longer 


78 Christian Frontiers 

obtain, so what America must now accept as a fait accompli 
is the State Department's diplomatic relations with the re- 
ligio-political Vatican. Of course it has been just this from the 
beginning, but now it is apparently established firmly enough 
to begin leaving off the placating euphemisms. Catholic fore- 
sight, Catholic strategy, Catholic pressure have won a notable 
triumph. And after all, ballots weigh more heavily with most 
politicians than convictions. 

Protestant opponents of this ambassadorship find them- 
selves at a curiously clever disadvantage. If we raise objec- 
tions to the diplomatic relations on the grounds that it is a 
violation of the principle of separation of church and state, 
we are told that the Vatican is also a political entity and that 
it is only with the political Vatican that the United States is 
dealing. Yet if we criticize the political activities of the Vat- 
ican we are accused of the attacking the Roman Church. Wit- 
ness the hue and cry raised by American Catholics, notably 
Archbishop Spellman, when Harold Laski in a recent address 
in New York City criticized the Vatican for its pro-fascist role 
in Spanish affairs. One may criticize his own government and 
still remain in loyal opposition. One cannot criticize the Vat- 
ican without being branded anti-Catholic or a Catholic-baiter. 
They have us going and coming, brethren. It is a heads-I-win- 
tails-you-lose proposition. Such divinity doth hedge the Vat- 

Wisdom In Brobdingnag 

LILLIPUT, though far the most famous, was not the 
only land that Gulliver visited. This indomitable voy- 
ager also landed in a kingdom called Brobdingnag whose in- 
habitants, in great contrast to the diminutive Lilliputians 
whom he had carried around in his coat pockets, were giants 
twelve times his size. Gulliver's conversation with the king 
of the Brobdingnaggians should be required reading. His 
majesty, with Gulliver placed close to his huge ear, listened 
intently to Gulliver's account of the peoples, soil, government, 
customs, and wars in English history. Instead of being pleas- 
ed, as Gulliver had thought, with this glowing account of his 
people, the king expressed astonishment saying, "I cannot but 

Wisdom in Brobdingnag 79 

conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious 
race of little odious vermin that Nature ever suffered to crawl 
upon the surface of the earth." 

But this reaction of the king seems to have been lost upon 
Gulliver for soon afterwards we find him trying to ingratiate 
himself further into his majesty's favor by offering to equip 
his people with weapons of war using gun powder. He vividly 
described to the king how with such weapons, constructed in 
proportion to the immense size of the inhabitants of that land, 
he could easily batter down the wall of any city, or destroy 
an entire metropolis, and so reduce to subjection any rebell- 
ious people. But, records Gulliver, "the king was struck with 
horror at the description I had given of those terrible engines, 
and the proposal I had made. He was amazed how so impotent 
and grovelling an insect as I (these word his expressions) 
could entertain such inhuman ideas, and in so familiar a 
manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of 
blood and desolation which I had described as the common 
effects of those destructive machines: whereof, he said, some 
evil genius, enemy to mankind, must have been the first con- 
triver. As for himself, he protested, that although few things 
delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature, 
yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy to 
such a secret; which he commanded me, as I valued my life, 
never to mention any more." 

Well, over two centuries of "Christian" civilization have 
elapsed since this strange king spoke these strange words. 
That they are still strange is evidenced by what the War De- 
partment said when on January 24 it announced that the 
Army Signal Corps scientists had made radar contact with 
the moon. The experiment, the War Department assures us, 
promises "valuable peacetime as well as wartime applica- 
tions." One of the possibilities it mentioned is the radio con- 
trol of long-range jet or rocket-propelled missiles circling the 
earth high in the stratosphere. The German V-2 missiles, it 
will be remembered, were supposed to have reached a mere 
hedge-hopping altitude of sixty miles. 

And so the race goes on. We are told that now Argentina 
has learned the secret of atomic energy and has gone furiously 

80 Christian Frontiers 

to work on manufacturing bombs. After all, who was so 
foolish as to believe that only an Anglo-Saxon could crack an 
atom? With something more than mere wistfulness — call it 
faith, for wistfulness is a luxury we cannot afford these days — 
we begin to believe that the strange wisdom of the king of 
Brobdingnag was prophetic. We don't need him to tell us that 
we are "the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that 
Nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth," 
for we have a theology of total depravity that ought to keep 
us humble enough. But to reject utterly any invention of 
annihilation, and to penalize swiftly and completely any in- 
dividual or nation guilty of its manufacture is consummate 
wisdom. And the man who so speaks and acts must be num- 
bered with the prophets. 

Harry Emerson Fosdick, reminding us of the agricultural 
improvements we have made since Ruth gleaned in the field, 
asks, "Have we improved on Ruth? We have come a long way 
since Gulliver discovered Brobdingnag, but have we improved 
on the king of Brobdingnag?" 

The Church and Returning Service Men and Women 81 

The Church and Returning Service 
Men and Women 


Roy A. Burkhart 

^URING the war a total of almost fifteen million men 
and women served at one time or another in our armed 
services. At the peak of military effort nearly thirteen million 
persons were in uniform. According to Army and Navy plans, 
this great force will be reduced to less than one-sixth its war- 
time strength within a year after V-J Day. Already in the 
seven months since the war's end, nearly 70 per cent of the 
personnel have been returned to civilian life. 

The first phase of turning from the sword to the plough- 
share is rapidly becoming past history. In what congregation 
is not some new returnee welcomed home almost every Sun- 
day? The initial reception will soon be completed. Demobil- 
ization in the short-term sense will be over. But the real job 
has hardly been started. 

The veteran is happy to have his hand shaken, but he also 
wants a place in which he can live with his family. He is glad 
his pre-war associates remember him, but he needs a job to 
provide security for the present and promise for the future. 
If he is handicapped, he is glad to be helped by temporary 
benefits, but he wants that kind of training and understand- 
ing which will set him on his own feet in the shortest possible 
time. No handshake alone can accomplish these ends. Patient 
attention and long-range planning are essential. 

The veteran returns from turmoil to find at home not peace 
but more turmoil. The longer and more intense has been his 
longing for peace, the greater may be his disappointment. He 
may discover, as many have done, that his civilian friends 
are so preoccupied with their own postwar adjustment that 
they can give him little aid with his situation. 

We must face the fact that there is a pronounced lag in 
general interest in returning service men and women. This 
increase of indifference is attested to not only by the veterans 
themselves but also by military, civic, and religious leaders 
who have remained in touch with all aspects of demobil- 

82 Christian Frontiers 

ization. They point out not only that there is a drop in 
interest, but that this decline is greatest at those points where 
most help is needed. 

It is true that in many instances veterans are making 
their adaptation to civilian life more easily and successfully 
than had been anticipated. But this fact in no way diminishes 
the seriousness of the unsolved problems. No easy optimism 
can be justified on any score. 


What are some of the major unsolved problems? Faith and 
a way of thinking is one. He needs help in finding the mind 
of Christ in all the areas of his life. 

Housing is one. Millions of veterans are compelled to 
double up with relatives or friends, and thousands can find 
no housing at all. Furthermore, the price of most of the hous- 
ing now being planned is far beyond the probable resources of 
most of those in need. 

Education is another. Veterans in unprecedented numbers 
have decided to take advantage of provisions for continuing 
their education or vocational training, but already the supply 
of facilities seems nearly exhausted. 

Employment is a third. Jobs for all, veteran and civilian 
alike, are important. But it also makes a difference whether 
the particular job is such as to enable a man to derive real 
personal satisfaction from it. Jobs, vocational guidance, and 
the kind of help which can enable a man to think through 
what he wants to make of his vocation — all these are needed. 

Marriage is another. Both the marriage rate and the birth- 
rate have been at the highest level in recent history. But in 
addition to the normal tensions of marriage and family life, 
veterans and their families have had to face long separation 
and separate types of experience. The rapidly rising divorce 
rate is but one indication of the need of special help in creat- 
ing and recreating understanding and mutuality in family 

The handicapped and disabled belong here. They require 
not only financial help, not only technical rehabilitation, but 
also such understanding as will enable them to take their 
place as responsible and self-governing persons. Seldom are 

The Church and Returning Service Men and Women 83 

they receiving full understanding on the part of community, 
church, or family. 

These are but a few of the unfinished tasks which chal- 
lenge the concern and ministry of the church. It is preoc- 
cupied indifference which now threatens the reintegration of 
fifteen million Americans into the life of community, family, 
and church. 


Throughout the war the basis of relationship between 
those who went away and those who remained at home has 
been that fellowship which is the essence of the Christian 
Church. The necessities of war sent men from all over the 
United States to lonely, boring, or dangerous posts in every 
corner of the world; yet along with them went nearly seven 
thousand Protestant chaplains that this fellowship might not 
be severed. Through church clubs, U.S.O., and other special 
services the Christian forces at home met immediate needs 
and demonstrated their concern. It is estimated that 25 per 
cent of the local churches maintained rather close and con- 
stant contact through the mails with their absent members, 
and that an additional 25 per cent maintained some degree of 
contact. Meanwhile, at home pastoral assistance was being 
rendered to families left behind, and as the conflict lengthened 
this service became of increasing importance. 

Now, as the absent members of the fellowship return, 
normal relationships can be reestablished. The church is con- 
cerned with anything touching the welfare of all human be- 
ings as children of God, but it has a special concern for those 
who have endured absence under difficult circumstances. 
Even though some needs of returning veterans can and will 
be met by the various governmental and private agencies, 
there is much that can be done only by the church in action. 

The length and complexity of the war has made for a 
corresponding complexity in matters of personal adjustment. 
The boys who went away have come back young men. Many 
who had but a few weeks or months of living with a new 
wife return to find themselves fathers of children beyond 
babyhood. It is not possible to go backward, to fit exactly 
into the niches which they left, for they have grown to a 

84 Christian Frontiers 

different size. Besides, as many as 30 to 40 per cent of the 
veterans are not returning to the communities in which they 
lived before the war, and hence must find their way in new 
locations. The reestablishment and establishment of Christian 
fellowship in the face of these complexities cannot be accom- 
plished without realistic study and concerted effort. 

Much of the task of helping the disabled in body or mind 
to live again as whole persons, though handicapped in certain 
functions, is spiritual in nature. Here the fellowship of the 
church can be of inestimable value. In addition, the church 
can influence the whole community on the matter of those 
attitudes which will most genuinely aid the handicapped. 

Nor can the church forget the 50 per cent who are return- 
ing from Army posts and Navy ships with no church connec- 
tion. Many of these have had wartime experiences which 
make them receptive to a new consideration of religious 
values if presented in a context they can understand. 

It is most vitally important that the church not lose this 
unique opportunity to enrich its own life and fellowship 
through the rich and varied experiences of its returning 
members. Every effort needs to be made to place veterans 
in positions of church responsibility according to their special 
gifts. In addition, respect is needed toward new points of 
view with which they return. For while these may at times 
jar old conventionalities, these men have often thought more 
deeply about human nature and destiny while in that "other 
world" of the military than ever before. 

The church has a special and obvious concern for the 
four thousand veterans who have recorded with their chap- 
lains the intention of entering church vocations, as well as 
the additional number still considering such a decision. They 
need not only encouragement, but also skilled counsel and 

The church has a great concern for veterans and their 
families, those who have suffered most from the experience 
of war. While rejoicing in the service and help which is 
available to veterans from governmental and other agencies, 
it is vitally concerned that its own distinctive resources and 
fellowship be made available to all who will receive. Only by 

The Church and Returning Service Men and Women 85 

incorporating into its own life and program the strength and 
drive of these returnees will it have sufficient vigor to meet 
the urgent tasks of today and tomorrow. 


Jesus commissioned His disciples "to preach, and to have 
power to heal sicknesses and to cast out demons." Message 
and service are both inherent aspects of the Christian gospel. 
The church does not serve men in order that they may then 
hear its preaching. Service, like message, is itself a Christian 

In relation to the needs of veterans, this central fact of 
Christianity seems to imply the following principles: 

Attention to special needs is essential to the fulfillment of 
the more general needs which all persons have in common. 
The church is, for example, the mother of hospitals — not be- 
cause it was interested in sick persons at the expense of the 
general welfare, but because it was impelled to meet the 
special need of sick people as well as the needs they shared 
with other people. It is in a similar way that the church is 
interested in veterans. It is first interested in veterans as 
persons and in the same way as in other persons. It is then 
interested in individual veterans who have special needs. It 
is finally interested in veterans as a group insofar as they 
have a need in common, which is reintegration to life in the 
civilian community and church. 

While aiding in the immediate reintegration of veterans, 
the church will also give attention to the long-range human 
costs of the war. The requirements for immediate action and 
program are great. While concentrating its energies on meet- 
ing these current needs, the church will remember in its 
planning those who are long-term human casualties of the 
war — the permanently handicapped and disabled, the chil- 
dren of parents who have drifted apart, those who have been 
embittered or disturbed through war experiences, and all the 

While concentrating its attention on meeting religious 
needs, the church is also concerned with the needs of the 
whole man. Religion relates not merely to a segment of life, 
but to the whole of life. The church itself does not profess 

Christian Frontiers 

to meet all the needs of veterans, nor even to have the tech- 
nical knowledge which is often required to say what those 
needs are. But it is vitally concerned that the resources to 
meet needs actually be in existence. Where they are not, the 
church will help to create them. The church will also be 
mindful of the temporary nature of some of the agencies now 
serving veterans, and will be prepared to offer emergency 
service in the future as may be required. 

While centering its action on meeting needs through its 
own program, the church ivill cooperate with other com- 
munity agencies. This principle of cooperation with secular 
agencies is fully in keeping with Protestant tradition provid- 
ed two conditions are present. First, the methods and aims 
of the agencies must be consistent with the aims and methods 
of the church. Second, the cooperation between agency and 
church must be mutual, not merely one-sided. 

The church must be ready to sacrifice details of organiza- 
tion if more men can thereby be won more completely to 
Christ. For example, if the program of activities for young 
men and young adults has become fixed into an organizational 
pattern which prevents many veterans from coming into it 
far enough to discover the values beneath the surface, then 
the form of that program must be changed. Structural details 
or traditions must not be permitted to exclude those who 
might otherwise be won. 

The church must work toward the welfare of veterans 
both through the pastoral channels of direct service to in- 
dividuals and families, and through the prophetic channel 
of influencing necessary change in the social order. These 
approaches are not opposed, but complement each other. 

The church has a special obligation to help veterans to 
understand and clarify, in the light of the Christian faith, the 
meaning of the war and of their own sacrifices in connection 
with it. While such understanding must be rooted in theolog- 
ical reality, it means more than the communication of theolog- 
ical ideas through words. The continuing feeling of guilt on 
the part of a man whose buddy was killed beside him cannot 
be "preached" out of him. Nor can the sense of loss of the 
comradeship of military life be explained away by consider- 

The Church and Returning Service Men and Women 87 

ing it a mere by-product of regimentation. There is a profound 
and long-range task of interpretation to be done — more by 
listening than by words, more by personal understanding 
than by feverish action, more by continued concern than by 
a specific program. 

These seem to be the principles upon which the church 
program to aid veterans must be based. All veterans have the 
special concern of the church because of the hardship they 
have shared in common — separation from home, from normal 
occupation, and accustomed activity in church and com- 
munity. The church is also concerned about those veterans 
with special need, such as the handicapped. It is, finally, 
interested in veterans as human beings, as children of God — 
interested, as with all men, in bringing to them its gospel 
through its message and its service. 

Not all the "veterans" of the recent war are those who 
have been in uniform. Veterans also are those who, because 
of conscientious objection to participation in military service, 
have done civilian work of national importance. The com- 
munity, even parts of the church community, has sometimes 
greeted the return of these men with suspicion and even 
antagonism. The church must accord exactly the same fellow- 
ship and service to returned conscientious objectors as to re- 
turned service men. 

In addition, there are the industrial and farm worker 
"veterans", the older people who came from retirement and 
gave of their diminishing strength during the war, the women 
who worked in the military services and in many essential 
civilian pursuits. In a very real sense they, too, are veterans 
of the war now returning and readjusting to peacetime life. 

It may be stated as a further general principle that the 
church must offer its ministry and fellowship and service to 
this wider circle of veterans of the war, according to need, 
exactly as it does to those who were in uniform. 


Help to veterans by the church is not possible unless there 

is first an effective procedure for getting in touch with them 

upon their return. Experience has shown that such procedure 

includes the exercise both of diligence and imagination by 

88 Christian Frontiers 

local churches, and some cooperative action along with other 

We believe that the following are basic steps in action 
which all churches must take if the needs of veterans are to 
be met and if they are to make their proper contribution to 
the church fellowship. Details and emphases will differ, but 
these elements are fundamental. 

The church will make provision for continuing study of 
the needs of veterans, and for such changes in program as 
the study suggests. While the group or groups with which 
this responsibility is lodged will vary from one situation to 
another, it is vitally important that such continuing study 
and informed concern go forward and that it have a prom- 
inent place in the organizational life of the church. Veterans 
should be included in the membership, and there should be 
sufficient power so that recommendations receive adequate 
consideration. A few of the continuing tasks are: 

A fact-finding and information service on veterans affairs 
for the guidance of pastor, committee and veterans them- 

An educational service to all groups within the church 
membership, that the human costs of the war may not 
lightly be cast out of mind. 

An exploration of ways of teaching veterans with the 
message and fellowship of the church, and of utilizing the 
potentially rich fellowship and service which veterans can 
bring to the church. 

The church will have specific procedures for cooperating 
with other agencies in relation to veterans' needs. It is not 
sufficient for the church to have the spirit of cooperation with 
those governmental and other agencies equipped to meet 
certain specific needs of veterans. It must also establish such 
procedures as to help men utilize these resources when they 
are needed. Some of the tasks involved may be: 

Maintaining competent and up-to-date sources of infor- 
mation on all technical resources which are available. 
Maintaining personal contact with some persons repre- 
senting various agencies, that the referral to other re- 
sources may be in spirit an extension of the church's 
own service. 

The Church and Returning Service Men and Women 89 

Such knowledge of the needs as may result in attempts 
to make available new and needed resources, or to urge 
the continuance of those still required. 

The church will make its own pastoral and religious re- 
sources available to veterans and their families according to 
the particular need. Needs differ, with veterans as with 
others. Though quietly rendered, these religious and pastoral 
services according to need are the life blood of the church's 
ministry and service, and the adrenalin to its fellowship. 
These services may include: 

Personal counseling and guidance on individual and fam- 
ily problems of every kind. 

Group activities — religious, education and social — accord- 
ing to the needs and interests of particular groups, so 
organized as to be vital and mutually enriching. 
Guidance in worship and the devotional life. 
Such special provision as is needed for those in special 
situations, veterans hospitals, new industrial communities, 
and the like. 

The church will consciously seek the fullest possible re- 
integration of veterans, in accordance with their talents, into 
its own program and leadership. This speaks for itself, but 
it must be done speedily and thoroughly, according to the 
gifts of each individual veteran. 

In meeting both the immediate and the continuing needs 
of veterans, the churches may make some errors. But no 
conceivable error can be so dangerous as no program at all. 
The greatest present hindrance to establishment or reestab- 
lishment of fellowship with returning men and women is a 
growing indifference based on understandable but regrettable 
and false causes. There can be no better way to create and 
continue the kind of interest which is required than to trust 
it increasingly to mature veterans themselves. "Return unto 
the land of thy fathers, and to thy kindred, and I will be 
with thee." Where God is, there must the church be also. 

90 Christian Frontiers 

The Intolerant Baptists 

George B. Cutten 

MOST DENOMINATIONS are named by their enemies, 
and the names indicate certain forms of religious ex- 
pression rather than religious beliefs and ideals; note the 
Methodists, Quakers, Holy Rollers, and Baptists. That is un- 
fortunate, for such names rarely express the true nature of 
the denomination. This surely is true concerning the Baptists, 
for, with the exception of the Friends and others who eschew 
all religious forms, there is no religious group which places 
less emphasis on baptism than do the Baptists. If they be- 
lieved that baptism had any saving power, they, too, would 
baptize any person they could capture, which would include 
defenseless babies. Other denominations say, "Why make 
such a fuss over the form?" The Baptist reply is that the 
only significant thing about baptism is the form, and their 
attitude is that baptism is not necessary, but if you are going 
to use it, use a form that means something. 

If baptism by immersion is not the primary tenet of 
Baptists, what is? There is little doubt about the answer. It is 
liberty of conscience and freedom of worship, for all Baptist 
doctrines are built around these. But do not other denomina- 
tions believe in these, too? More or less now, which shows 
that the Baptists have been efficient teachers and may in 
time work themselves out of a job. Take, for example, the 
Baptist position that no priest or any other intermediary is 
necessary, but that each person has direct access to God; this 
demands individual freedom of worship. The belief that each 
one is capable of interpreting the scriptures for himself and 
gets God's message individually also demands freedom of 
worship. Other doctrines are equally closely connected with 
religious freedom. 

Not only is every Baptist independent, but every Baptist 
church is independent, which means that there is really no 
Baptist denomination. No organization, no officer, no person 
has the faintest authority over a Baptist as far as his religion 
is concerned — he takes orders only from God. He is a free 
man. But if he demands this right for himself he must con- 

The Intolerant Baptists 91 

cede it to everyone else. This is the historic Baptist position, 
and Baptists are theoretically the most tolerant of people. 

If the law of tolerance were simply an intellectual exer- 
cise it would he a comparatively easy one. Reason would dic- 
tate that we should be intolerant only of the things of major 
importance and of those things which are diametrically op- 
posed to our own beliefs and actions. Since we are reasonable 
beings, that is naturally our course of action, so that is settled. 
But is it? I fear not. The victims of intolerance are not the 
choice of reason. In fact, the only function of reason in con- 
nection with tolerance is to try to rationalize the choice after 
the victims are selected by other elements of personality. If 
we are perfectly sure of our own position, beyond the shadow 
of a doubt, we can afford to be tolerant toward those misled 
and mistaken persons who disagree with us. However, if we 
are uncertain of our standing, doubtful of our pretensions, 
and fear that we may be unhorsed when we meet our op- 
ponents in debate, then we must violently oppose our antag- 
onists and destroy them if possible. Intolerance is a defense 
mechanism. Tolerance is an attitude of recognized safety and 

While reason correctly insists that matters of minor im- 
portance are not worthy of the rancor of intolerance, it is the 
little things that are always causing trouble. In justification 
of this course of action we hear such expressions as, "There 
are no little things in the Kingdom of God." The little things 
are linked by circuitous means to great and weighty matters 
so as to give them importance. As we read ecclesiastical 
history, we smile over the subjects of controversy and over 
the heat engendered by insignificant matters. But at the time 
it was no smiling matter, and men have gone to the stake 
for a comma. 

As I remember the law of gravitation it was something 
like this: Bodies attract each other directly as their mass 
and inversely as the square of the distance separating them. 
The law of tolerance might be phrased as follows : We tolerate 
other beliefs directly as their mass (importance), and also 
directly as the square of the distance separating them from 
us. For example, as Baptists, we are very tolerant of the 

92 Christian Frontiers 

Hindus, for compared with them we are vastly superior and 
have nothing to fear from them; less tolerant of the Moham- 
medans, still less of the Jews. We are less tolerant of the 
Roman Catholics than of any non-Christians, and far less of 
the Disciples than of the Catholics. We are most intolerant 
of some Baptists whose beliefs parallel our own except in 
some minor details— they might be right, and we unconscious- 
ly fear them. 

While some Baptists would dislike to admit it, we are 
disciples of Voltaire. He said, "I wholly disapprove of what 
you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it." 
That is good Baptist doctrine, but that is not all. Our practice 
demands that we must add, "but if I slightly disapprove of 
what you say, I will hound to the death anyone who has the 
effrontery to say it." Let us recognize that people are not in- 
tolerant because they are contrary or stubborn or mean; they 
are intolerant because they are unconsciously uncertain and 
afraid — intolerance is an emotional not a rational reaction. 

As Baptists, we have what might be designated an ex- 
clusive tolerance which is really commendable and an inclu- 
sive intolerance of high voltage and great explosive power 
for which little good can be said. To other denominations we 
are rather well-mannered and permit them to believe as they 
wish without our interference, but to fellow Baptists we are 
not only ill-mannered but vindictive. We say with consider- 
able heat, "Declare that you believe as we do or get out." 
That accounts for the "dozens of different kinds of Baptists. 

Contrast this with the attitude of the Roman Catholics. 
It is more difficult to escape from the Catholic church than 
from Alcatraz prison. The church claims you before you are 
born, while you are alive, and after you are dead; it never 
lets go. I have always admired this. If some parishioner ap- 
pears and says, "I and my followers believe it is wrong to 
have this world's goods, and our lives are dedicated to pov- 
erty," does the Catholic church say, "Give up that idea or 
get out?" Not for a minute. It says, "Very good, form an 
order inside the church." That does not mean that the church 
is committed to the idea of poverty. Oh, no! A penniless beggar 
may be canonized two or three hundred years after his death, 

The Intolerant Baptists 93 

but he is never knighted during his life. Provided the parish- 
ioner is not prominent and does not defy the church openly, 
he can entertain almost any belief he chooses, the church 
will mother him. The Roman Catholic church is as tolerant 
of those inside the church as it is intolerant of those outside. 
Of course, if you are the one and only true church, and really 
believe it, you do not need to say so. 

If we are correct in our diagnosis of the course of intoler- 
ance, the Baptists are sure of themselves compared with other 
religions and denominations, but fear that their fellow Bap- 
tists who disagree with them may be right and might finally 
triumph. To the contrary, the Roman Catholics, on account 
of their rigid and powerful organization, have no uncertainty 
or fear of those inside the church, but are uncertain and fear- 
ful of the Protestants. At any rate, a Baptist is willing to die 
in order that other denominations may have a right to their 
own beliefs and forms of worship, and is also willing that his 
fellow Baptists may die in order to keep intact his own beliefs. 

It seems hardly necessary for me to call attention to the 
uncertainty and fear expressed by my fundamentalist breth- 
ren in our denomination. A conservative body is always in- 
tolerant, fearing the loss of its historic privileges. The Jews 
were intolerant of Jesus, quoting the traditions of the fathers. 
But I should also like to call the attention of my liberal 
brethren to the fact that there are few persons more hide- 
bound than the professed liberal. He takes a somewhat ad- 
vanced position, holds to it precariously at first, but always 
tenaciously, until everyone else passes him and he becomes 
the conservative, and the cycle starts again. Especially is the 
liberal intolerant of what he thinks of as the crass and wooden 
theology and interpretation of some of his conservative breth- 
ren, and he wonders if they really believe that God is an old 
man with a straw hat, or if they have Him confused with 
Santa Claus or Father Time. There is nothing more difficult 
in religion than to conceive of God as a spirit, and most peo- 
ple cannot accomplish this; if we rob them of their anthropo- 
morphism their religion evaporates and they have nothing 
left. This is one form of intolerance that liberals must learn 
to eschew. 

94 Christian Frontiers 

If the conservatives may be criticized for holding firmly 
to certain beliefs because they are old, the liberals may be 
justly blamed for greedily accepting doctrines because they 
are new. There is this to be said for historical beliefs: they 
have weathered severe gales in the past and their survival 
betrays some merit; beside this, the conservative prevents 
us from picking the fruit before it is ripe. It is not a question 
of new or old but of our judgment as to what is true or un- 
true. While we may recognize a danger in applying relativity 
to truth, there seems to be little doubt but that certain tenets 
have been of value at certain times and to certain people, and 
a change of background and of individual experience causes 
them to be forgotten or discarded. I am sure that some of 
the beliefs of our soldiers under the stress of recent battles 
will not stand the critical examination of a theologian, but 
they were true and real to them at the time and were the 
basis for comfort, persistence, and courage. It seems as though 
we had to take a pragmatic view of the situation and en- 
courage what is religiously effective to people under certain 
circumstances. Older people will remember the Angel of Mons 
in World War I. 

There is, of course, always the danger of mistaking in- 
difference for tolerance. Some people do not care what anyone 
believes, or if he believes anything at all. The really tolerant 
person is one of strong beliefs, not the unbeliever. We should 
also recognize that there are fashions in beliefs as there are 
in women's hats, and some are as bizarre and as transitory; 
they can only have a prolonged existence by being vigorously 
opposed. There seems to be a current tendency to resurrect 
an old or, perhaps, exploded theory or tenet under another 
name, and thus to present it as something new; all of which 
warns us to examine things both new and old before accept- 
ing either, and to give other people a similar privilege. 

The rarest form of tolerance is the tolerance of intolerance. 

What are the prospects for the Baptists? Very good, if by 
success is meant the acceptance of their chief doctrine by 
others, but usually success is measured by the increase of 
numbers in membership. A strong episcopal organization, 
such as the Roman Catholic or the Methodist, has consider- 

The Intolerant Baptists 95 

able advantage in holding divergent parts together; the con- 
gregational form of government is weak in this respect. The 
slow growth of the Congregational Church shows this. When 
church loyalty means loyalty to the denomination rather than 
loyalty to doctrines or tenets or newly revealed truth, there 
is considerable advantage from the standpoint of growth or 
stability. The episcopal form of government tends to stress 
the former, the congregational polity the latter. 

The Baptists are vulnerable for two reasons: in the first 
place, loyalty to truth rather than to a denomination permits 
a wide divergence of standards with varying interpretations, 
and is diversive in its operation. In the second place, in a 
denomination which emphasizes freedom and with a congre- 
gational form of government, second rate leaders with a 
strong urge for power, who find themselves unable to control 
the denomination as a whole, by over-emphasizing certain 
secondary doctrines can split off a fraction which they can 

Notwithstanding these diversive tendencies, the Baptists 
have progressed because of their evangelistic zeal. This is 
where the Congregationalists have evidently failed, and where 
we must never fail if we are to advance. The members of Bap- 
tist churches might well take a position of this kind toward 
their fellow Baptists, in order to maintain the true and tradi- 
tional Baptist position: "My belief is somewhat different from 
yours; I cannot accept yours and I presume you cannot accept 
mine, but we both believe in attacking evil wherever we find 
it. Let us go forward to battle, you with your atomic bomb and 
I with my rifle and bayonet, and shoulder to shoulder as 
Christian soldiers, fight for the salvation of the world." 

Eugene F. Ware was known as the Poet of Kansas. His 
wife and daughter were members of the First Baptist Church 
of Topeka. He was not a member of the church, but attended 
there. He evidently caught the spirit of the Baptists, for it is 
most clearly expressed in his "Song of the Washerwoman," 
from which I quote four of the seven stanzas. 


Christian Frontiers 

In a very humble cot, 
In a rather quiet spot, 
In the suds and in the soap, 
Worked a woman full of hope; 
Working, singing, all alone, 
In a sort of undertone, 
"With a Saviour for a friend, 
He will keep me to the end." 


Sometimes happening along, 
I had heard the semi-song, 
And I often used to smile, 
More in sympathy than guile; 
But I never said a word 
In regard to what I heard, 
As she sang about her friend 
Who would keep her to the end. 


It's a song I do not sing, 
For I scarce believe a thing 
Of the stories that are told 
Of the miracles of old; 
But I know that her belief 
Is the anodyne of grief, 
And will always be a friend 
That will keep her to the end. 


Human hopes and human creeds 
Have their root in human needs; 
And I would not wish to strip 
From that washerwoman's lip 
Any song that she can sing, 
Any hope that song can bring; 
For the woman has a friend 
Who will keep her to the end. 

Book Reviews 


Book Reviews 

Justice and the Social Order. 
By Emil Brunnee. 
New York: Harper & Brothers, 
1945. 304 pages. Price $3.00. 

Dr. Brunner v/rites this book 
in an attempt to meet the need of 
Protestant Christianity for a sys- 
tematic theory of justice, hoping 
that Protestant Christians may 
be instructed by their leaders in 
political and social justice on the 
basis of the Christian faith. 

No age, he says, has witnessed 
such a measure of injustice as 
ours. The totalitarian state came 
as a result of the breakdown of 
the idea of justice in Christen- 
dom. Man has a fundamental 
sense of right and wrong, a real- 
ization that there is an order of 
things which must not be vio- 
lated, which belongs to the do- 
main of the spirit, which is a 
constant factor in history. How- 
ever, the theory of justice which 
emerges in the conscience at any 
time is not constant. Our West- 
ern theory of justice is derived 
from the classical philosophy of 
Aristotle and from Christianity. 
Now we recognize no divine stan- 
dard of justice. 

There is, however, in the very 
nature of things, "a valid criter- 
ion, a justice which stands above 
us all, a challenge presented to 
us, not by us, a standard rule of 
justice binding on every state 
and every system of law." The 
Christian theologian must grap- 
ple with the problem of justice, 
even though "the central teach- 
ing of the divine Gospel as the 

righteousness of God, the mes- 
sage of atonement for the sinner 
by Jesus Christ, is only indirect- 
ly connected with the question 
of just reward for labor, just pun- 
ishment, just polity, and so on." 

Justice is what belongs to a 
man, what he has a right to. It 
is the ethics of systems or insti- 
tutions. It is the ultimate stand- 
ard for law, and is closely akin 
to equality. There is a "primal 
order" which renders to every 
man his due. This order is by its 
nature super-human, super-nat- 
ural, and eternal. Man is made, 
with his equalities and inequal- 
ities, for fellowship. This "primal 
order" gives man primal rights 
to freedom of his body and limbs, 
freedom of property, freedom of 
sexual faculties, freedom of work, 
freedom to develop and grow. 
These rights belong to man in 
all circumstances, may not be 
withheld by the community, but 
must be protected for him by the 
community. Sovereignty belongs 
to God alone, and the individual 
and the state are under law 
which is binding on each. The 
purpose of community is to 
serve individuals in the attain- 
ment of their personal purpose. 

The family is the primal com- 
munity, and takes absolute pre- 
cedence over the rights of any 
other natural community, even 
the state. The state, devoid of 
personality, functions to co-ordi- 
nate and protect. Between the 
family and state are intermed- 
iary links in the social structure. 
"As the trunk of a tree grows in 


Christian Frontiers 

concentric circles, with the out- 
ermost the last and biggest, hu- 
man life grows from the individ- 
ual by way of the narrower to 
the wider community . . . The 
state is the widest, most embrac- 
ing circle of organization." 

Within the social order the 
Christian must consider justice 
in relation to the family, the 
economic order, unearned in- 
come, prices, wages, economic 
power, capitalism and commun- 
ism, economic planning, the mass 
man, the political order, and the 
international order. "Justice is 
nothing but that form of love 
which has currency in the 
world of institutions; that mate- 
rialization of love which is nec- 
essary as long as men live in 
institutions . . . The Gospel of 
Jesus Christ is the Gospel of this 
justice which is identical with 
love. Hence it is the message of 
that which lies beyond all earth- 
ly institutions." 

The principles which Dr. Brun- 
ner discusses and relates to the 
various aspects of the social or- 
der of our time are particularly 
important for Southern churches. 
Our rural, slow-moving, bi-racial, 
one-party, economically poor so- 
cial and economic order is in 
process of radical change. Every 
leader in church and state should 
have a systematic theory of jus- 
tice rooted in love which will 
enable us to take our rightful 
place in world life. We rear a 
large proportion of the nation's 
children, and raise much of the 
necessary food and fiber for its 
life and industry. We do not 
share proportionately in the na- 
tional wealth or in the products 

of science and industry. There 
are many evidences of new life 
here. It will be tragic if the South 
moves out into a period of rapid 
change characterized by gross in- 
justice and inter-groupal conflict. 
Southern Baptists have an im- 
portant religious message for the 
world. It will be tragic if we fail 
to understand and utilize a strat- 
egy for the propagation of our 
faith which would enrich and 
strengthen the testimony of the 
whole Christian family. A thor- 
ough study of Justice and the So- 
cial Order should help any one to 
understand both our present 
world predicament and the fund- 
amental principles of justice nec- 
essary to establish world order. 
Garland Hendricks. 

Thinking Where Jesus Thought. 
By Hillyer Straton. 
St. Louis: The Bethany Press, 
1945. 254 pages. Bibliography. 
Price $2.00. 

Someone has said that "What 
a person sees in life depends on 
what he is looking for." It is very 
often true in regard to books. 
Whether a certain book is "good" 
and you should have it depends 
very largely on what you are 
looking for. 

The minister or layman look- 
ing for good devotional reading 
will be especially glad to get 
Thinking Where Jesus Thought. 
It is a concise presentation of 
the teachings of Jesus as related 
to many significant ideas of our 
day. As one might have expect- 
ed, the author does not go very 
far into the thought of Jesus con- 
cerning Himself. He deals more 

Book Reviews 


with the concern of Jesus for 
others, and the chapters are, in 
the main, an interpretation of 
what Jesus said about certain 
problems. Many important sub- 
jects are treated separately, such 
as: Faith, Wealth, Fear, Temp- 
tation, Sin, Forgiveness, Love, 
and Peace. Each of these is dis- 
cussed not so much from the 
standpoint of basic issues, but 
with an evident desire to give in- 
spiration and encouragement to 

That Jesus thought of Himself 
as the Son of God is clearly in- 
dicated with little new thought 
added. The work Jesus was able 
to do depended not merely on 
His faith in God and in Himself, 
but very significantly it depend- 
ed on His confidence in others. 
He had "a supreme conviction 
that confidence in people would 
finally win." 

However, the reader who is 
anxious for more than devotional 
reading and a passing reference 
to the works of great thinkers 
will find something to his liking 
in the last two chapters. The dis- 
cussion of "Jesus and Biblical 
Realism" is interesting, stimulat- 
ing, and challenging. 

The last chapter is worth the 
price of the book for anyone who 
will carefully consider the con- 
tents. Under the heading "Mod- 
ern Theology's Rediscovery of 
Jesus," the author ably surveys 
present day trends in theology. 
Attention is focused upon a re- 
discovery of the importance of 
Theology and Christology with 
the trend being away from lib- 
eral humanism toward a new ap- 
preciation of the Bible and its 

realistic approach to the deeper 
issues of life. A strong appeal is 
made for a more thorough-going 
theology that will appeal to and 
aid the laymen who are ready to 
follow sincere and courageous 
ministers. Every minister could 
read with great profit this pre- 
sentation and appeal. There is 
much food for thought and mate- 
rial for greater living. 

The author has been pastor of 
the First Baptist Church of De- 
troit, Michigan since 1938. He is 
a native of Texas and attended 
Mercer, Columbia, and Eastern 
Baptist Seminary. With a con- 
servative background, he evi- 
dently has done much of his 
thinking in a liberal and scholar- 
ly atmosphere. This enables him 
to give vital and progressive at- 
tention to the subjects dealt with. 
The book will not be regarded 
by scholars as outstanding, but 
there is a great need it can meet. 
It should have a wide reading. 
Dr. J. Glenn Blackburn. 

How to Read and Enjoy the 

By Maurice Clarke. 
Louisville: The Cloister Press, 
1944. 72 pages. Bibliography. 
Price $1.00. 

In the introduction of this vol- 
ume, the reader is informed that 
"this is not a book to be just 
read," for it is a work book. It 
suggests Bible reading that re- 
quires thoughtful study, reading 
of supplementary material, and 
the answering of specific ques- 
tions. The content is in complete 
accord with all the title suggests. 
In connection with the outline 


Christian Frontiers 

of study, a bibliography has been 
carefully selected as tools for the 
study of the Bible. A directed 
study of individual books and 
characters is presented. The vol- 
ume also traces the development 
of great ideas, such as the con- 
ception of God and other doctrin- 
al views found in both the Old 
and New Testaments. Thought- 
provoking questions are raised. 
Answers to these questions are 
to be found through suggested 
reading, aided by "hints" from 
the author. 

This volume is well-arranged 
and if studiously followed will 
greatly aid in eradicating the 
general complaint among Pro- 
testant leaders concerning the 
Bible "that it is very little read 
and less understood." The author 
replaces random or aimless Bible 
reading with guided and progres- 
sive study. The reader is chal- 
lenged to a broad and analytical 
study of the Bible that should en- 
hance its value, retain the beau- 
ty, and enable him to find in it 
added meaning for the religious 
issues of life. 

When possible, it is advisable 
that trained leadership assist in 
the study of the book, for refer- 
ences and questions are perhaps 
above the understanding of the 
average layman, and suggested 
sources are not generally avail- 
able. J. Wade Baker. 


Churches and Sects of Christen- 
dom. J. 'L. Neve. Blair, Neb.: Lu- 
theran Publishing House, 1945. 
Twilight of Civilization. Jacques 
Maritain. New York: Sheed and 
Ward, 1945. 

Progress and Religion. Christo- 
pher Dawson. New York: Sheed 
and Ward, 1938. 

The Faith of a Liberal. Morris 
R. Cohen. New York: Henry 
Holt, 1946. 

Frank H. Nelson. By Warren C. 
Herrick. Louisville, Ky.: The 
Cloister Press, 1945. 
Introduction to the Christian 
Religion. Dr. Ernst Kaper. 
Blair, Neb.: Lutheran Publish- 
ing House, 1945. 

Hymns and Hymnwriters of Den- 
mark. J. C. Aaaberg. Blair, Neb.: 
Lutheran Publishing House, 1945. 
Four Sermons. Kaj Munk. Blair, 
Nebraska: Lutheran Publishing 
House, 1945. 

In Him is Life. Robert H. Beaven. 
Nashville: Abingdon -Cokesbury 
Press, 1946. 

The Book of Youth. C. Skovgaard- 
Petersen. Blair, Neb.: Lutheran 
Publishing House, 1945. 
By the Rivers of Babylon. Kaj 
Munk. Blair, Neb.: Lutheran 
Publishing House, 1945. 
Light in His Window. Publica- 
tion Committee. Blair, Neb.: Lu- 
theran Publishing House, 1945. 
Light at Midnight. Literature 
Committee. Blair, Neb.: Luther- 
an Publishing House, 1945. 
History of the Church of Den- 
mark. J. C. Kjaer. Blair, Neb.: 
Lutheran Publishing House, 1945. 
A Living Church at Work. Com- 
mitte on Evangelization. Blair, 
Nebraska: Lutheran Publishing 
House, 1945. 

The Home Altar. Publication 
Committee. Blair, Neb.: Luther- 
an Publishing House, 1945. 
The Rich Young Ruler. Gunner 
Engberg. Blair, Neb.: Lutheran 
Publishing House, 1945. 





Anyone who has chanced to 
look through the "Goals for 
Christian Living," the inclusive 
1945-1946 church program of the 
Third Baptist Church, St. Louis, 
Mo., has probably admired and 
marveled at the progressiveness 
of the church and the many ac- 
tivities that it has scheduled for 
one year. Events ranging from 
advisory board meetings to Sun- 
day School rallies crowd the cal- 
endar, and progress such as the 
completion of the church build- 
ing comes to the fore as the 
church forges ahead for another 
twelve months. 

In speaking of the activities of 
the congregation, the church has 
planned for the month of March 
1946 approximately 31 events. 
This agenda not only includes the 
women's society, church circles, 
and board meetings but reaches 
out far beyond the adults to in- 
clude the young people and the 
teen-agers in high school parties, 
carol choirs, young fellowship 
councils, and scout meetings. 
The church has stepped ahead 
again by conducting meetings 
with current social problems as 
the topics for discussion to bring 
to the congregation's attention 
the realization that it must un- 
derstand the difficulties of the 
modern age in order to help in 
making a better world. Under the 
last group of events fall the Race 
Relation Day, the World Alliance 
Day, Juvenile Protection Day and 

Education Day. 

Progress in completion of the 
church building this year is a 
main objective of the St. Louis 
church. Following a two-year 
membership drive to end July 1, 
1946, it is estimated that $150,000 
will have been secured, which is 
about one-half of the cost, and 
that it should require only a few 
more months to raise the entire 
amount needed. The added struc- 
ture will include 15 new class 
rooms, two elevators serving 
four floors and 200 more seats in 
the auditorium. 

From material progress as an 
objective in 1946, the church 
turns to six main spiritual ob- 
jectives for its year's program. 
The bulletin states that the "task 
of the church is to help each per- 
son to move progressively to- 
ward the great goals of Christian 
living. A complete experience of 
spiritual regeneration and grow- 
th includes worship, discipleship, 
leadership, stewardship, fellow- 
ship and world friendship. It is 
expected that each of these six 
goals will be made the definite 
responsibility of some officer in 
every organization in the 

Through its worship objective 
the church hopes to extend guid- 
ance in genuine experience of 
God in relation to personal and 
family devotions, church attend- 
ance and other worship services. 
In discipleship it is the aim of 
the church to reach new mem- 
bers, to build up visitation habits 


Christian Frontiers 

and to increase attendance. Un- 
der leadership the church pro- 
gram wishes to find and train 
religious workers by participa- 
tion in conferences, conventions, 
and retreats. 

In the field of stewardship the 
program hopes, according to the 
bulletin, "to develop Christian 
attitudes of sharing in church 
and family life, personal pledging 
and tithing." Under fellowship 
the church wishes to interest its 
members in social events, and 
through world friendship it 
hopes to have general interest in 
world peace and Christian social 


The National Council Against 
Conscription has issued a state- 
ment opposing compulsory mili- 
tary training in peacetime for 
the United States, listing the fol- 
lowing reasons for its opposition: 

1. Conscription is unilateral 
action and thus threatens the 
United Nations Organization and 
all efforts towards world coop- 

2. Conscription arouses the 
darkest suspicions of all nations, 
provoking them into competitive 
armaments and hostile camps. 

3. Conscription is no protec- 
tion. It is based on obsolete no- 
tions of warfare and has little 
relevance to the atomic age. 

4. Conscription follows the dis- 
astrous pattern of European mil- 

5. Conscription would regi- 
ment our youth and expose them 
to the dangers of barracks life at 
a most crucial and impression- 

able period in their lives. 

6. Conscription would establish 
an undemocratic system aimed at 
unquestioning obedience to mili- 
tary authority and constitute a 
totalitarian threat to religion, 
education, labor, and business. 

The National Council has also 
set up a budget of approximately 
$30,000 to be used from January 
1 to July 1, 1946 in an effort to 
gain widespread public support 
in its fight against compulsory 
military service. 

Among the sponsors of the or- 
ganization are the following: 

Theodore F. Adams, First Bap- 
tist Church, Richmond, Va.; Ed- 
win E. Aubrey, Crozer Theolog- 
ical Seminary, Chester, Pa.; Vic- 
tor G. Reuther, United Automo- 
bile Workers, CIO, Detroit, Mich.; 
F. M. Isserman, American Coun- 
cil of Jewish Rabbis, St. Louis, 
Mo.; Harold C. Phillips, First 
Baptist Church, Cleveland, Ohio; 
Albert Lindsay Rowland, State 
Teachers College, Shippensburg, 
Pa.; Fred P. Corson, Methodist 
Bishop, Philadelphia, Pa.; E. C. 
Lindeman, New York School of 
Social Work, New York; Frank 
C. Caldwell, Presbyterian Theo- 
logical Seminary, Louisville, Ky.: 
Abraham Cronbach, Hebrew Un- 
ion College, Cincinnati, Ohio; 
George Heaton, First Baptist 
Church, Charlotte, N. C; Fred- 
erick D. Kershner, Butler Uni- 
versity, Indianapolis, Ind.; R. B. 
Montgomery, Lynchburg College, 
Lynchburg, Va.; Rex S. Clements, 
Bryn Mawr Presbyterian Church, 
Bryn Mawr, Pa.; Charles A. Ell- 
wood, Duke University, Durham, 
N. C; Clarence Poe, Progressive 
Farmer, Raleigh, N. C; Mrs. Al- 



Ian Knight Chalmers, New York; 
Fred Lape, Esperance, N. Y.; 
Louis J. Taber, Farmers and Tra- 
ders Life Insurance Company, 
Syracuse, N. Y.; Roger W. Bald- 
win, American Civil Liberties 
Union, New York; and George S. 
Schuyler, Pittsburgh Courier, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Christian leaders in Pineville, 
Kentucky, where a recent coal 
mine explosion killed 23 miners, 
report that working conditions 
in these mines violated every 
principle of safe mining, accord- 
ing to a dispatch to the bulletin, 
"Between the Lines," published 
by the Layman's Information 

Rescue workers reported coal 
dust from six inches to two feet 
deep all over the mine and said 
that bad ventilation was preva- 
lent. Within the past two years 
Federal and state mine inspect- 
ors have recommended that the 
mines be condemned as unsafe 
for workers. 

Federal mine inspectors report 
that nearly all the mines in the 
great Kentucky fields are oper- 
ated by dummy corporations and 
that very few can pass a Federal 
safety inspection. All enforce- 
ment of legal responsibility and 
safety lies in the hands of local 
officials who may be a part of a 
corrupt local or state political 


Dr. Duke K. McCall, President 

of the Baptist Bible Institute in 
New Orleans, has resigned that 
position to accept the position as 
Executive Secretary of the Exec- 
utive Committee of the Southern 
Baptist Convention. 

A graduate of the Southern 
Baptist Theological Seminary, 
with the degrees of Th.M. and 
Th.D., Dr. McCall comes to his 
new job with a wide background 
of work in Baptist fields. 

"I am accepting this position," 
he said, "with the vision of serv- 
ice to our Southern Baptist bro- 
therhood. I anticipate that free- 
dom of spirit which is only pos- 
sible when brethren unite in 
common purpose and program 
for the propagation of the gos- 


The Northern Baptist Conven- 
tion has called upon its ministers 
to do all in their power to pro- 
mote and create mediation, arbi- 
tration, and fact-finding bodies in 
local industrial disputes and to 
serve with such groups wherever 

This call to the Baptist minis- 
ters was made through the Con- 
vention's Council of Christian 
Social Progress. 


University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill 
Department of Classics 
January 21, 1946 

~E,d\.tov, Christian Frontiers: 

Please let me thank whoever 
included me on the initial mail- 


Christian Frontiers 

ing list for Christian Frontiers. 
If this journal sticks to its an- 
nounced purpose and does not 
swerve from it for expediency's 
sake, it will fill a crying need. 

I should like to ask you to 
reconsider, and I hope recast, 
one sentence on page 34 of your 
editorials. It is: "Power cor- 
rupts." Knowing you as I do, I 
know that you want to keep the 
emphasis where it belongs and 
the statement as nearly just right 
as is reasonably possible. Power 
does not corrupt, it seems to me, 
but, like many other things, only 
reveals a corruption already pre- 
sent, even though latent. It is 
rather man that corrupts power; 
for power per se, like the other 
goods of life, is neither corrupt- 
ed nor uncorrupted. It could not 
corrupt men like Lincoln and 
Lee, to name just two. It is to 
me one of the glories of Jesus 
that He had so much power, even 
twelve legions of angels He once 
said, and yet refused to misuse 
it or to use it for self-centered 
or provincial ends. 

My earnestness in this matter 
is heightened by the fact that 
this whole philosophy, which has 
been all too prevalent in religious 
literature during the last two de- 
cades or so, is fundamentally 
pessimistic. It attempts to out- 
law all the gifts of God which 
man generally abuses. Such an 
attitude seems to me slander 
against the Creator and treason 
to His will. The strong are more 
powerful than the weak, and to 
demand that power have no 
stronger incarnation in this 
world than the weak is to run 
counter to something fundamen- 

tal in the achievement of any 
better life and world. There are 
few things more discouraging to 
me than the continued effort by 
Christians to derogate and sab- 
otage power rather than the in- 
sistence on achieving that quality 
of character which can have 
power, even great power, and 
yet refuse to misuse it. That is 
the crying need and demand, and 
the universe seems to me ada- 
mant in its demand that we 
achieve such quality of character 
or accept the consequences. It 
will not give us life, it seems to 
me, on any basis of renunciation 
of its gifts. Don't try to annul 
power. Christianize it. Yes, I am 
quite aware of how extremely 
difficult it is and will continue to 
be. But do it, we must. 

And having the Gospel we have 
in the Gospels, we are inexcus- 
able, it seems to me, if we don't 
do it, and get to doing it soon. 
For to assume that there is not 
available to us any dynamic 
which is ready and willing to 
help to the achievement of that 
quality of character requisite to 
the use and the refusal to abuse 
power is to me slander on the 
Gospel and on Him who demon- 
strated it for us. So the universe 
seems to me thoroughly justified 
in demanding that we accept 
power, any amount necessary, 
and use it in a thoroughly Chris- 
tian manner, or it will take its 
case to some one who will meet 
the demand. 


P. H. Epps 



Baptist Faith Put To The Test 

"T HAS been frequently observed with critical fairness 
that Protestant nations are progressive while Catholic 
nations are backward. The Scandinavian countries and Latin 
America are cases in point. This observation has led many to 
believe that Protestantism by its very genius is progressive 
and forward-looking while the genius of Catholicism is re- 
actionary and ultra-conservative. The teachings of the early 
reformers, they tell us, inevitably lead to social and political 
improvement. If it be objected that Catholicism in Britain 
and the United States has kept pace with the Protestantism 
of these two nations, the obvious answer is that here we find 
a quite different brand of Catholicism from that in Spain or 
in Latin America, and that it has received its progressive 
impetus from its proximity to Protestantism which is the 
majority faith of both nations. 

Humility and modesty are not American traits. Nor can 
these words be employed in the description of a Southern 
Baptist Convention. Perhaps we have been too successful — or, 
better, too blessed by Jehovah — in our efforts to possess for 
Him the southland (and south California) to take time to 
be humble. Without being meek we have inherited and still 
are inheriting the earth. Souls we are still winning by the 
tens of thousands; church edifices we shall soon be erecting 
on a prodigious scale; denominational colleges are about to 
enter what promises to a great era of expansion; money 
everywhere is filling our Baptist coffers. It is not an easy 
thing to be so successful and yet walk humbly with thy God. 

And yet an honest acceptance of the implications of the 
first paragraph brings a solemn pause and a distressed search- 
ing of heart to many of us. We have rather unconsciously 
claimed the southern states to be Baptist territory, not of 
course in the sense in which the Roman hierarchy claims 
Latin America exclusively Catholic country, but we have 
nonetheless felt that the South is largely indigenously Bap- 
tist. We are pushing six millions, and there are millions more 
who, if they joined any church, would come over to the 

108 Christian Frontiers 

Baptist camp. And so we are the majority sect here; in fact, 
only here in all the world are we the majority sect. The South 
then for better for worse, for richer for poorer is Baptist land. 

However the worse and the poorer seem to have been the 
fate of the South. It is in the South that people are the poorest 
fed, poorest clothed and poorest housed of any group in the 
nation. It is in the South that family incomes are the lowest, 
people are the most illiterate and the death rate the highest 
in the nation. It is in the South that diseases, especially those 
of malnutrition, are most prevalent, and superstition, preju- 
dice, exploitation are most entrenched. And all the while we 
of our faith who claim this South grow bigger and richer. Is 
it entirely unthinkable that such a condition should suggest 
the bright splendor of a magnificent cathedral erected on a 
high hill of an ancient Catholic land while below in the valley 
toil the peons in their ignorance, disease and squalor? 

But we know in the deeps of our hearts that Baptist 
majority must not, like Catholic majority, spell reaction and 
static society. Though many of us for some reason object to 
being called Protestants, no group in the literal sense of the 
term has protested more than the Baptists. A John Bunyan 
protesting in an English prison for the right to preach the 
Word as God gives us to see it; a Roger Williams, in colonial 
America, protesting for complete religious freedom and for 
the separation of Church and state; a Walter Rauschenbusch 
protesting against the glaring social and industrial inequities 
of his day . . . these men were Baptists, and their spiritual 
descendants are they who, following in their train, still pro- 
test against every encroachment on human liberty, every 
economic injustice, every exploitation of one race by another, 
every condition that makes a man less a man and a true, 
responsible son of God. Souls we must continue to win, 
churches and schools build, missions extend, but the minds 
and the bodies and the homes and the wages and the material 
happiness of men we must also seek in the name of Him who 
went about doing good. And wherever any of these is en- 
dangered, compromised or denied we must exercise to the 
fullest our God-given Baptist right to protest. To fail here is 
to fail the faith of our fathers. 

Rethinking Separation Of Church And State 


FRESH appraisal of the time-honored and, to Baptists, 
sacred principle of the separation of church and state 
is long overdue. To preserve this constitutional guarantee the 
price has been, and still will be, eternal vigilance. No group 
has been so uncompromisingly zealous for its complete en- 
forcement than Baptists, and perhaps no group has so in- 
stinctively sensed to what its violation leads. Here we are 
Protestants to the core. 

Dean William Ralph Inge recently astounded the world 
and brought down upon his head its vituperations when he 
traced the rise of Hitler and Nazism to Martin Luther and 
Lutheranism. "If we wish to find a scapegoat on whose shoul- 
ders we may lay the miseries which Germany has brought 
upon the world," he writes, "I am more and more convinced 
that the worst evil genius of that country is not Hitler or 
Bismarck or Frederick the Great, but Martin Luther . . . 
Lutheranism . . . worships a God who is neither just nor 
merciful . . . The law of nature, which ought to be the court 
of appeal against unjust authority, is identified with the 
existing order and society to which absolute obedience is 
due." This is a terrible indictment, yet Baptists should be 
the first to see its justice, for they have perhaps suffered 
most at the hands of Protestants who, like Luther and the 
majority of his followers, were unwilling to make more than 
a half break with the government, and often none at all. And 
thus have we become, for very good historical reasons, watch- 
dogs for the preservation of the separation of church and 

However, any virtue pushed to extremity can become a 
vice. A man can become so humble as to be proud of his 
humility! Perhaps in rejecting so uncompromisingly the 
slightest rapprochement of church and state we have laid 
ourselves open to other ills, like the man in the parable who 
studiously cleansed himself of one demon only to be invaded 
by seven more. One of our American humorists has reminded 
us that in his opinion it would do both politics and religion 
good if there were a little mixing. At any rate the stand we 
have taken has induced a detached, laissez-faire attitude on 

110 Christian Frontiers 

the part of the church toward the activities, or lack of activ- 
ities, of the state and society. This in turn has served to 
bring about the very thing against which Protestantism 
initially inveighed, namely, the compartmentalization of life. 
All life, said the reformers, whether work or play or home or 
church, is religious, and any division of life into sacred or 
secular areas is arbitrary and unnatural. 

Consider one example of how easily such blind loyalty 
can betray us. With few exceptions the gentlemen from the 
South who represent us in the Congress in Washington are 
churchmen with varying degrees of ecclesiastical respect- 
ability. Some of them are prominent in their denominations. 
Yet these churchmen -congressmen, with a few notable 
exceptions, have teamed up consistently to block and defeat 
social and humanitarian legislation by which the people, the 
common people, of the South would have benefited most. And 
all the while the church in her aloofness has kept silent, has, 
like Gallio, "cared for none of those things." Clearly the 
Baptists churches and our Baptist convention, do have a 
mission here and we must find it. A church that does not 
change society will be changed by society. When we cease 
to transform we begin to conform. 

Here are some words written by Dr. W. E. Hocking and 
appearing in the February 2 issue of the Saturday Review of 
Literature which deserve deep pondering: 

The church should be in its own life, not a kindly reproach, 
but an authoritative denunciation of the compromises and cruel- 
ties of our massive national self-righteousness, of the hideous 
indiscriminacy of our own methods of warfare, of the abysmal 
wickedness of revenge among nations, of punishment inflicted 
on the wrong generation, of seeking security through the death 
of an ex-enemy nation, of the lingering brutalities of maintain- 
ing racial dominance at home and abroad through racial deg- 
radation, of the radical sin of failure to love one's neighbor 
across group boundaries. The church is "good", but what it has 
still to do for human morality is to touch moral necessity, far 
below the level of sagacity: it needs the courage of its own 
function . . . 

The courage of its own function! Will anyone deny that this 
function is to turn the world upside down until the kingdoms 
of this world become the kingdoms of our Lord? 

The Historical Method And Biblical Studies 

Franklin W. Young 

The Origin of the Historical Method 

THE HISTORICAL method is a term which has been 
used to designate the scientific approach to the study 
of the events of history. It had its genesis in the period of the 
Renaissance and Reformation. During the classic and medie- 
val ages historians and people in general were not conscious 
of the progressive element in the course of human history. 
The former were primarily concerned with interpreting the 
meaning of events, but in terms of their own particular mind- 
set. There was no conscious effort to discern the meaning of 
these events for the participants. Looking in retrospect upon 
the civilization of the past, the tendency was to project the 
ideologies and social patterns of their own day upon the 
earlier societies which they sought to study. If they were at 
all conscious of differences between their own society and 
those of previous eras, they did not recognize in these dif- 
ferences evidences of a more profound development and 
change which had carried them along to a world greatly 
different in environment and tradition. 

With the Renaissance came the rejuvenation of the in- 
quisitive instinct in man. The motivating urge was his desire 
to learn more about himself and his nature — human nature. 
The fetters of scholasticism which bound the Medieval Church 
had in many ways diverted man's attention from himself. 
Man, as his religion and social institutions, had been regarded 
as static. But in the surge of the Renaissance, the charm of 
staticism was broken. Scholars vigorously turned their gaze 
to the records of the past to enrich their knowledge and under- 
standing of themselves. The ancient treasures of Greek and 
Roman literature once more were scanned to deliver up their 
testimonies to the nature of man and the life around him. The 
creature they discovered in the past was quite different from 
themselves in many ways. His politics, dress, ethics, religion, 
and economics all differed markedly. And then the inevitable 
question was asked. Why? 

112 Christian Frontiers 

In seeking to answer this question, scholars sought to 
describe and analyze the environmental factors which entered 
in to produce an Alexander or an Augustus or a Roman Em- 
pire. They did not always agree in their designation of the 
facts of history which contributed most largely toward the 
creation of a particular person or institution. Nevertheless, 
by the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, increasingly more 
historians were coming to the conviction that to understand 
men and social institutions it was necessary to recognize, 
describe and analyze the events of history which converged 
to form varying patterns of life and thought in history. Each 
succeeding event was investigated, not as an isolated phe- 
nomenon in history, but as the outcome of a series of previous 
events which determined the direction succeeding events 
were to follow. History came to be viewed dynamically as an 
ongoing stream of the reactions of human beings to the in- 
creasingly complex pattern of events in which they found 
themselves. The result was a growing awareness of the fact 
that man and his institutions had undergone a development. 
At each stage of the way, by analysis of events, an explanation 
of the causes for certain changes could be given. There was a 
passion to view "objectively" the past history of mankind in 
the hope of understanding him in the light of the "objective 
facts" of history. In other words, to accurately portray all of 
the factors, social, economic, political, religious, etc., which 
played upon any individual in any age was to approximate 
an understanding of what he was and why. Furthermore, 
since individuals were the products of factors in human 
society which were constantly changing and amalgamating 
to form more and more complex patterns, it became increas- 
ingly more evident that these products themselves in any age 
possessed a different outlook. 

With this change in perspective came the development 
of the historical method. The controlling discipline of this 
method was the requirement that the historian to the best 
of his ability recreate the past untainted by the prejudices of 
his own outlook. For him the historical facts were the only 
stage properties available for the recreation of the particular 
scene. Every person, event, or cultural institution was to be 
seen as the momentary culmination of a series of succeeding 

The Historical Method and Biblical Studies 113 

culminations in the pyramiding of related historical facts. 
Historians sought to understand these facts and the develop- 
ment revealed wherever such facts were available. 

The Application of the Historical Method to Biblical Studies 

It was not until very late that the historical method was 
employed in the study of Scripture. The reason is obvious: 
man believed it not only unnecessary but a violation of 
sanctity to seek for development in a book of divine revela- 
tion. It is true that in the break with the Catholic Church, 
the Protestants did condemn the hierarchy as unhistorical in 
the sense that it was a development of the second and third 
centuries rather than a divine institution created full-blown 
by Christ. Their authority they took from the Bible, which 
gave no support to Catholic claims. However, they in turn 
placed the Bible in the same position that the Catholics had 
placed the hierarchy. The book, as the norm of faith and 
order, was to be immune to questioning or investigation. 
Denying the possibility of development within its pages, no 
need was felt for examination. 

However, the die was cast. It took time, but by the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, historians turned their 
attention to the Bible. The first part to fall under their eye 
was the Old Testament. As early as the seventeenth century, 
Spinoza found contradictions in the series of books from 
Genesis to II Kings. About one hundred years later, a French- 
man, Jean Astruc, discovered that in Genesis there were two 
main sources which could be distinguished by their pref- 
erence for the divine names, "God" and "Yahweh." This was 
merely the beginning of a study which carried over into all 
the books of the Old Testament. 

By the nineteenth century, attention had finally been 
focused on the New Testament. A sudden wave of energy 
drove men to the task of recovering the historical Jesus. 
Later, interest was aroused in the study of the first great 
interpreter of Jesus, Paul. For centuries the practice had been 
to place in Jesus' mind the thoughts of Paul and in Paul's 
mind the thoughts of Jesus indiscriminately. Likewise, all 
of the New Testament books were thought to present iden- 

114 Christian Frontiers 

tical evidence for all doctrines. Now historians with new per- 
spective recognized within the various books obvious diver- 
gencies of thought resulting from varying intellectual and 
social environments which affected their message and out- 
look. Jesus was a Jew of Palestine, conditioned by the environ- 
ment of his own home, relatively unaffected by the thought 
currents of the Gentile world. Paul was a Jew, but a Jew 
from Tarsus. He was a man who had been exposed to the 
cross-currents of thought in the Grseco-Roman world. Surely 
the outlook of these two men differed. With endless enthus- 
iasm, scholars applying the historical method set out to 
understand these men as products of the particular world 
in which they lived. No longer could they interchange so 
facilely the concepts of Jesus and Paul. 

One of the first requirements for a true understanding of 
the New Testament was the establishment of an accurate 
text. Fortunately, in the nineteenth century numerous dis- 
coveries were made, some consisting of bits of papyri and 
parchments, but others including large portions of the Scrip- 
ture. Many of these Greek fragments were dated as early as 
the third, fourth, or fifth centuries. However, there were 
many variations in the text. It, therefore, became necessary 
to set up certain principles to govern the selection of the text 
and a group of scholars dedicated to the recovery of the 
original text arose. They were called textual critics. Their 
study was usually called lower criticism. Their task was and 
is to present us with the best text of the Greek New Testa- 
ment which can be provided. 

Once better texts had been provided, scholars could pro- 
ceed to investigate the texts themselves in the endeavor to 
understand what Matthew, Mark, Luke, Paul or any of the 
New Testament writers meant by his words. This study has 
been called higher criticism. The higher critic receiving the 
best text available from the lower critic must attempt to tell 
us, among other things, whether the writing is what it pur- 
ports to be, the conditions under which it was written, for 
whom it was intended, and in view of these facts what it 
means. As an efficient student, he must approach the writings 
with the keen intent to let them speak for themselves. This 
is his duty in making use of the historical method. As a result 

The Historical Method and Biblical Studies 115 

of this effort, the last hundred years has brought a tremendous 
change in our understanding and appreciation of the New 
Testament books and the characters who walk their pages. 
It has been necessary not only to study the Bible, but to 
delve into the history of the peoples and cultures in which 
it came to birth. Intensive studies have been made in Jewish 
history and thought as well as that of the Hellenistic and 
Graeco-Roman worlds. 

The problems and investigations have been so vast as to 
stifle the imagination. Only one example will be given here 
of the application of the historical method to Biblical studies. 
One of the problems which still holds the attention of all 
serious New Testament scholars is the Synoptic problem. 
This involves the three Gospels, Matthew, Mark and Luke. 
Long ago, as early as the second century A.D., it was recog- 
nized that the Gospel of John was quite different from the 
other three in many ways. To mention only a few differences, 
in John Jesus makes several trips to Jerusalem. He cleanses 
the temple at the beginning of his ministry rather than at 
the end as in the other three, and the Last Supper occurs the 
day before the Passover rather than on the day of the Pass- 
over. On the other hand, Matthew, Luke and Mark follow, 
in general, a similar sequence of events. In synopsis or out- 
line, they are similar. Nevertheless, there are differences. As 
early as the fifth century it was recognized that Mark was 
much shorter than the other two. Augustine attributed this 
to the fact that Mark had used Matthew and Luke and written 
his gospel as a condensation of these two. This is the view of 
the Catholic Church to the present. But in the nineteenth 
century the whole problem was reopened. It was recognized 
that in outline the three gospels followed a similar sequence 
of events. There were certain passages such as the parable of 
the Sower which were common to all three. Then there were 
some passages such as the parable of the Vineyard and the 
Husbandmen which were found only in Matthew, while 
others such as the parable of the Prodigal Son or the Good 
Samaritan appeared only in Luke. Furthermore, there were 
other passages, such as the story of the Centurion's Servant, 
which occurred only in Matthew and Luke. Herein lies the 
Synoptic problem. Which of the Gospels was the earliest? 

116 Christian Frontiers 

Why do two of the Gospels have a quantity of material in 
common as contrasted to the third? Why does each of these 
two have material peculiar to itself? 

Through the historical method scholars endeavored to 
solve the problem. Recognizing the fact that each author was 
writing under different conditions and with varying purpose, 
the effort was made to discover which of them reflected the 
earlier and which the later stage in the development of prim- 
itive Christian thought. Some of the conclusions have been 
complicated. The simplest possible statement of the conclu- 
sions is as follows: Mark was the earliest Gospel; Matthew 
and Luke each used Mark; for this reason, in general sequence 
and specific passages you find a three-fold agreement. Where 
word for word agreement is found, it is certain that two of 
the Gospel writers used the third. With regard to the passages 
where Matthew and Luke agree in contrast to Mark, it was 
concluded that each used independently another work called 
Q (abbreviation for Quelle, German for source) which later 
disappeared. For the material peculiar to Matthew and that 
peculiar to Luke, it was concluded that each had access to a 
body of tradition unknown to the other. 

How did the historical method help in the dating of Mark 
as the earliest of the Gospels? The evidence amassed is over- 
whelmingly convincing; for our purpose a few illustrations 
will suffice. In the first place, it was noticed that in Matthew 
and Luke the tone of certain passages is far more refined or 
soft than in Mark. The latter Gospel is characterized by a 
vivid phraseology and style. For example, in the story of the 
healing of the leper (Mk. 1:40-45; Mtt. 8:1-4; Lk. 5:12-16) to 
conclude Mark states: "And immediately the leprosy went 
away from him and he was cleansed. And He (Jesus) re- 
buking him violently, immediately cast him out ..." In the 
same passage, Matthew and Luke merely say: "And the 
leprosy went out from him." It seems far more reasonable to 
believe that Matthew and Luke softened the tone of Mark 
than to believe that Mark, finding the originally mild state- 
ment, put harsher words upon the lips of Jesus. The word 
translated "rebuke" in Greek originally was the verb used to 
describe the fierce snorting of a disturbed animal. 

In some passages the meaning of Mark is transformed. In 

The Historical Method and Biblical Studies 117 

the story of the baptism of Jesus by John (Mtt. 3:13-17; Mk. 
1:9-11; Lk. 3:21-38), this is true. In Mark, Jesus approaches 
John and without further conversation is baptized. In Mat- 
thew, however, a conversation precedes the baptism. John 
asks the question: "I have need to be baptized, and you come 
to me (instead)?" It is obvious that Matthew is self-conscious 
over the fact that Jesus was baptized at the hand of John. 
Surely this problem arose at a later stage in the development 
and reflects an addition to Mark made by Matthew rather 
than a deletion of Matthew by Mark. Mark would hardly have 
recoiled from the reticence of John to baptize Jesus. 

One other illustration will suffice to demonstrate the type 
of evidence used to substantiate the antecedence of Mark. It 
is the incident of the argument of Jesus with the Pharisees 
who were incited by the fact that Jesus' disciples plucked 
grain on the Sabbath (Mtt. 12:1-8; Mk. 2:23-28; Lk. 6:1-5). 
In all of the gospels, Jesus argues on the basis of an act of 
David recorded in I Samuel 21:6. In Mark, Jesus is made to 
say that David "entered into the house of God at the time 
when Abiathar was high priest." In Matthew and Luke, the 
passage merely reads, "into the house of God," without nam- 
ing the high priest. Why? If we check the passage in I Samuel, 
we find that the high priest at this time was not Abiathar 
but Ahimelech. Now we know by the way that Matthew and 
Luke used the Old Testament that each was more accurate 
in his usage than Mark. Consequently, it would seem more 
logical to assume that this represents a deletion of Mark on 
the part of Matthew and Luke rather than an erroneous 
addition to these two on the part of Mark. 

These few examples represent not isolated cases but the 
sort of thing which is met throughout the Gospels. The total 
impression produced is that Matthew and Luke utilized Mark 
and consequently Mark was the earliest Gospel. 

This brief examination offers only a small portion of the 
application of the historical method to the Synoptic Problem. 
The problem is only one of a multitude which have occupied 
and continue to occupy the students of the New Testament. 
What does it matter? For one thing, it enables us to draw 
nearer the actual words uttered by Jesus. Unless we have 
these, our understanding of him cannot be nearly so complete. 

118 Christian Frontiers 

The desire of every earnest Christian is that he might to the 
best of his ability embody the Spirit of Jesus. The better we 
understand that Spirit through His teachings, the closer we 
can come to the realization of our ideal. 

Values and Limitations of the Historical Method in Biblical Studies 

The historical method has been of immeasurable value in 
Biblical studies. It has brought us nearer to an understanding 
of the way our Bible developed. It has shown us that our 
religion as all else in life has been and is subject to the laws 
of change and growth. We no longer look upon the drama of 
human history as a series of acts with the curtain falling on 
each. We see it as a procession of events with no prologues 
or finales but an endless chain of actors who never leave the 
stage of life, even though their speeches seem to have been 
completed long since. All of the past exerts its influence upon 
the unfolding present. And so within the pages of the Bible 
itself we witness a progression of events. The speakers 
change, and as they do, we get new inflections and varying 
nuances of meaning. No speaker escapes the promptings from 
the host of actors which surround him. Nevertheless, each 
speaks his speech anew from his own perspective and intent. 
Paul, Mark, Matthew, Luke, the author of Hebrews, and the 
author of the Fourth Gospel each speaks to his own day with 
its problems and demands. As we more closely scrutinize the 
on-going stream of history, we know more fully these prob- 
lems and demands and consequently are able to understand 
and appreciate the words of those who confronted them. 

We are impressed daily by the fact that all of life is de- 
pendent on growth and development. Whether we examine 
the evidence of nature, social institutions or individuals, this 
is true. Our minds cannot but recognize that our God is one 
who works through change and process. The Christian God 
has always been a God of history. From the time of the 
prophets to the life and death of Jesus, and to the present, 
God worked and works in history. But he works according to 
a plan of development through change and growth. 

The historical method has assisted us in recognizing that 
God did not reveal His whole truth simultaneously. Through 

The Historical Method and Biblical Studies 119 

our Biblical studies we see that even when Jesus Christ was 
present, men did not understand Him. Among the early- 
Christians there were differences in interpretation of Him; 
and the story of the growth of the early church is, at the same 
time, the story of the increasing endeavor to explain Him 
adequately even though it meant a diversity of witness. 
Through the historical method, we have found God depend- 
ably consistent even in the revelation of His work to man in 
the person of Jesus Christ. Even He emerged in human his- 
tory midst change, growth, decay and development. The book 
which carries His story did not escape the same destiny. 

There have always been certain inevitable dangers and 
limitations in the historical method. It is intended as a purely 
descriptive discipline. It functions primarily to increase our 
ability to see history as an endless chain of inter-related 
events. Consequently, it has enabled us to describe more com- 
pletely the circumstances leading up to and contributing to 
any particular occurrence. Likewise, it has enabled us to 
describe more accurately the environmental factors which 
contribute to the creation of particular personalities. It is at 
this point that danger is inevitable. We are apt to become so 
enamoured with the "facts of history" and their related 
causes that we find them an end in themselves. When we have 
described the event or person, we are apt to feel that our task 
is done. This is fatal. Events, no matter how adequately de- 
scribed, personalities, no matter how completely analyzed in 
terms of their environment and heredity, are not final in 
themselves. By his very rational nature man is compelled to 
go a step further. He must ask: "What do these events mean? 
What element of truth is there in what this man says?" 

Once the historical method has assisted us in eliminating, 
to the extent known facts permit, any error in our knowledge 
of what happened, it has completed its task. It cannot read 
ultimate meaning into history. It can merely describe what 
took place. It cannot provide the pattern of meaning which 
will gather all events into a coherent whole. It can tell you 
that Jesus died on a Roman cross in Palestine, but it cannot 
tell you whether His act was wise or foolish. It can analyze 
the Jewish and Hellenistic influences on Paul so as to con- 
clude that he was a Jew who unconsciously incorporated 

120 Christian Frontiers 

something of the Hellenistic culture in his interpretation of 
Christianity. It can never tell you whether Paul was right 
when he stated his belief that God was in Christ reconciling 
the world unto Himself. It can tell you that the author of the 
Fourth Gospel transformed the apocalyptic and eschatology 
of primitive Christianity. It can never tell you whether or not 
to know God, love God, abide in Him and love our neighbors 
is to possess eternal life here and now. It can tell you that 
in Jesus' day the Jews had many concepts of the Messiah and 
that many Messiahs had come to the people. It can never 
affirm or deny the correctness of the statement placed on the 
lips of the soldier at the crucifixion of Jesus: "Truly this was 
the Son of God." 

These are all matters of religious faith and philosophical 
understanding. They are the basic premises which make it 
possible for men to interpret ultimately the meaning of the 
facts which the historian places at his disposal. The more 
accurate the facts, the more accurate is our understanding 
of the events in history and life itself. But the facts, devoid 
of a framework of meaning, leave us gasping for the breath 
of life. Human history does have meaning and purpose. How- 
ever, it does not emerge fortuitously out of events. Events 
occur where human beings encounter other persons or things 
with the compelling necessity for decision. Their decisions 
are based ultimately upon the events which surround them; 
they rest upon man's freedom to choose, and as a result of 
this freedom, his ability to influence the course of the events 
of history. But the freedom which disengages him, even if 
tenuously, from events originates outside history, and the 
intellectual power whereby he exercises his freedom, and the 
moral responsibility which governs his choice have their 
point of reference beyond history and give meaning to history. 

The honest biblical scholar recognizes the limitations of 
the historical method. He understands that the ultimate mean- 
ing of history is not constricted by the events of history them- 
selves. And yet he is not afraid of any truth found in an 
historical fact; he realizes it will serve to elaborate the true 
meaning which for him makes history coherent. 

Unfortunately, too many Christians have stood aloof from 
the God of history — the God who condescended to enter life 

The International State 121 

in human flesh accepting its limitations in order to reveal 
Himself. They have refused to understand that where imper- 
fect men (and no man is perfect) are concerned, God's truth 
cannot emerge full-blown. They have been reluctant to recog- 
nize that God saw the necessity even after his revelation in 
Christ of a slow process of development, through trial and 
error, statement and mis-statement, action and reaction, to a 
greater apprehension of the truth. Therefore, they have failed 
to understand the real significance of the Bible as the earliest 
account of God at work in his process of creating step by step 
a Kingdom of God through this morally and intellectually 
recalcitrant creature whom we call man. 

The International State 

R. F. Howes 


THE QUESTION of state origin and political motivation 
is not a new one. For ages before the Christian era 
men believed the state to be of divine origin, as in oriental 
despotisms and among the Hebrews. Paul speaks of the 
powers that be as ordained of God. Adopted by the Roman 
Church, this idea was not abandoned by the Protestants and 
had many advocates among the founders of the American 

The force theory holds the state was created by the forcible 
subjection of the many by the few. We find it among the 
theologians of the Middle Ages; the German von Treitsche 
adopted it under the principle that might makes right; Karl 
Marx used it to explain the exploitation of the worker by the 
owner of capital. 

Rousseau in The Social Contract expounds another theory. 
With him the state springs from the voluntary agreement of 
individuals who give up a portion of their natural liberty 
that society may protect them in what remains. Jefferson 
said, "Governments are instituted among men, deriving their 
just powers from the consent of the governed." From this 
theory comes the principle of popular sovereignty, the only 
rightful source of legal compulsion. 

122 Christian Frontiers 

The evolutionary theory views the state as the natural 
product of social development — the outgrowth of man's in- 
stinctive sociability. Family, clan, tribe, nation: each is the 
result of man's response in meeting his essential needs in his 
conquest of nature. Needless to say none of these theories is 
capable of scientific verification since the state antedates his- 
torical records. When history opens, man is already equipped 
with the essentials of political control: he is organized for law 
within definite territory. 

Present controversies and needs give the problem a new 
significance, not only at home but in the establishment of 
world government. In his Economic Interpretation of the 
Constitution, Charles Beard analyzed the economic interests 
of the Fathers of the Constitution and showed that, whatever 
may have been their concern for the common man, they did 
not ignore the protection and advancement of their own in- 
terests, in the belief, undoubtedly, that by so doing they were 
rendering the greatest service to the whole population. The 
subsequent history of the American people has demonstrated 
the substantial correctness of their principles. 

Their specific problem was to create a government strong 
enough to protect property but not so strong as to interfere 
with it unduly. They set up the necessary machinery of courts, 
executive and law-making bodies. Five-sixths of the delegates 
were directly and personally interested in what they did. 
Fourteen held large tracts of western lands for which pro- 
tection was needed. Twenty-four were money lenders or 
bankers. Eleven engaged in shipping, manufacture, or mer- 
cantile pursuits. Fifteen were slave holders. They, therefore, 
took care to facilitate trade and commerce among the states 
and with foreign nations. They created a sound and standard 
currency. They provided for the return of fugitive slaves. 
They prohibited taxes on exports. They provided for a nation- 
al standard of weights and measures. They protected invent- 
ors in the useful arts. They guaranteed the sanctity of con- 
tracts. They provided for bankruptcy in commercial adven- 
tures. In brief, they laid the foundations in those permanent 
tangible interests which all men, whatever the status, can 
understand and appreciate. They recognized the importance 

The International State 123 

of the practical in the construction of the American nation. 

Men have long theorized on the possibility of an Inter- 
national State. Names come readily to mind: Henry IV, Wil- 
liam Penn, Charles de Saint-Pierre, Jeremy Bentham, Im- 
manuel Kant. The Great Design of Henry IV called for a 
confederation of equal states to function through a common 
council or senate to discuss all problems and settle all quarrels. 
There was to be an international army and navy to enforce 
decisions and keep the peace. In 1694 William Penn issued 
his plan for the Present and Future Peace of Europe by the 
Establishment of a European Dyet of Parliaments. Penn be- 
lieved that all war was waged to hold or recover or conquer 
territory. States should be required to submit their claims 
to an international organization, and as a last resort be com- 
pelled to comply with its judgments through the combined 
force of all against the delinquent party. Another was the 
plan of Saint-Pierre, Settling Perpetual Peace in Europe, 
(1713). He approached the problem through a senate to 
guarantee the territory of all members. There was to be a 
commercial code, international coinage and standard weights, 
and a military force to be employed against states which 
refused to accept its judgment. In his Principles of Inter- 
national Law, Jeremy Bentham disclosed the fundamental 
causes of war in trade barriers, government bounties, and 
colonial imperialism. All trade, he argued, is essentially ad- 
vantageous, all war essentially ruinous, and until govern- 
ments get to the root of the difficulty there can be no peace. 
In 1795 Immanuel Kant published his essay Toward Eternal 
Peace. He proposed an international federation to guarantee 
the independence of states, and the gradual abolition of 
standing armies. The greatest obstacle Kant found in the fact 
that man is not sufficiently moral to desire peace and saw 
the necessity of a long period of preparation in which to 
create the necessary moral atmosphere, thus postponing the 
desired result into the indefinite future. Other Utopian 
schemes made their appearance: Dodge's The Mediator's 
Kingdom Not of this World (1805), and War Inconsistent 
with the Religion of Jesus Christ (1815). 

124 Christian Frontiers 

But with all these plans and proposals — and there were 
many others — the fact remains we are brought little nearer 
consummation than we were 300 years ago. We know the 
world should be organized but somehow we do not go about 
organizing it. May it not be that aspiration and altruistic 
sentiment are not enough? These are the methods of persua- 
sion, and however adequate in personal relationship, they 
have not been found sufficient to motivate that practical co- 
operation demanded in the foreign relations of nations. 


The state has been intimately associated with the institu- 
tion of property. Where things are commonly owned there is 
little need of political control. Family or tribal regulations 
usually prove adequate. But with the increase of wealth a 
different problem is presented. The organized power of soci- 
ety, in the form of law and legal institutions, is required to 
make good the exclusive control of possessions. Those states 
most advanced in material things have accordingly been the 
most highly organized. Witness the Roman Empire which 
gave us the Roman Law, and Great Britain which produced 
the English Common Law, and the United States. 

The failure of the League was not the result of faulty or- 
ganization. Fundamentally it was not laid in a realistic ap- 
proach to the problem of government. It ignored the history 
of state origin and did not seek the incentives of legal control. 
It functioned in the realm of request and morality, not in 
the field of command and jurisprudence. Its chief defect lay 
in the fact that it was not directed toward legal objectives. 
In brief, it was not constructed to protect and advance the 
material interests of nations — the indispensable objective of 
political control. Its avowed purpose was to make the world 
safe for democracy. A laudable ambition, to be sure; but its 
advocates forgot that if men fight for ideals they settle down 
to govern for more tangible reasons. The men who won the 
American Revolution were not precisely the men who made 
the American Constitution. They forgot that in our imperfect 
civilization the stability of political institutions rests primarily 
upon material considerations without which no superstruc- 
ture can be raised. 

The International State 125 

Nor does The United Nations organization achieve much 
more. It starts with the freedom and sovereignty of every 
state. Under these conditions there can be no law or govern- 
ment. And in the absence of law and government each state 
must be prepared to protect its own territorial and economic 
interests by force of arms. We, along with the other nations, 
must support our own military and naval establishments. We 
must retain the "secret" of the atomic bomb. We must have 
compulsory military training in time of peace. 

In The United Nations Charter some attention is given to 
economic matters. It speaks of higher standards of living, 
full employment, and the solution of social and economic 
problems. It creates the Economic and Social Council of 18 
members elected by the Assembly. But the "solution" of 
economic problems is to be achieved through writing reports 
and making recommendations to the General Assembly or the 
members directly. Of course this is not government. It was 
tried in America under the Articles of Confederation, when 
Thirteen Sovereign States usually ignored the recommenda- 
tions of Congress during the critical period following the 
American Revolution. 

The successful approach to the International State is 
through the conviction that the material foundations of life 
must be rendered secure and permanent. This is a language 
everyone can understand and through understanding assent 
is secured. Support is forthcoming. This has made the Monroe 
Doctrine the one constant, consistent and universally accept- 
ed foreign policy of the United States. Few care whose flag 
flies at the North and South Poles. But with China and the 
Orient things are different. To protect investments there and 
to keep an open door for commercial and financial opportun- 
ities there make good sense to nations whose interests are 
involved. We may give our dollar for foreign missions but 
we must not forget that nations are not engaged in these 
activities. Our Constitution makes it illegal. 

So an international state founded upon things less tangible 
is doomed at the start. More progress is made through tariff 
reductions and common control of international waterways. 
Until it is demonstrated that the material foundations of na- 

126 Christian Frontiers 

tions are rendered more stable; that the profits of international 
trade and investments are better guaranteed; that the stand- 
ard of living of the common man is everywhere materially im- 
proved; that he has more and better food, a better home in 
which to live, a better opportunity for the education of his 
children; men and nations will not abandon the practice of 
international anarchy for the reign of law on the international 

By this approach we do not depreciate the spiritual and 
cultural interests of mankind. Quite the contrary. It is im- 
possible to have a home without a house in which to live, or 
books without presses to print them. No worthy religion can 
grow in the soil of poverty, in the atmosphere of economic 
strife and warfare. It is the peculiar function of the state to 
take care of these things. Let these facts be understood, as 
they were in the Thirteen American Colonies, and the nec- 
essary political institutions arise. Without such understand- 
ing we are left to morality and religion to motivate social 
conduct. History has demonstrated, said Madison, their in- 
adequacy in the material affairs of life. Were they sufficient 
today we would need no law or government at home or 
abroad. As men are now constituted something less fine, per- 
haps, something more readily grasped and ponderable should 
serve to induce action. This was the method of the Fathers 
of the American Constitution. In constructing the Interna- 
tional State we shall have to follow their example. 


Church, College, and Nation. 
By G. R. Elliott. 
Louisville: The Cloister Press, 
1945. 162 pages. Price $2.00. 

"The Great Revolution" has 
been occurring. What is it? What 
was the occasion for it? What 
should be done about it? 

"This book is addressed to per- 
sons who, whatever their re- 
ligious faith or unfaith, perceive 
that the problem of religion and 
education has an important bear- 
ing upon the problem, at present 
so complicated, of human society 
at large . . ." 

Again the author sets the prob- 
lem: "Of course most of us are 
shocked by what has been going 
on in Russia and Germany — mil- 
lions of young people systematic- 
ally taught to reject religion. But 
the same revolution in far more 
insidious form is taking place 
throughout the Occident as a 
whole. In the case of Germany 
the issue is clearcut; in America 
it is not. Unhappily, however, 
our educational prophets are 
much given to claiming that 
they wish to conserve all that is 
real in Christianity, its best re- 
sults. They regard its roots as 
old, dark, and impossible: they 
are cutting off the plant at the 
ground level, gently, so as not 
to injure it. They are affection- 
ately sticking its stalks into 
waters of current theory where, 
because of the extraordinary 
though transient survival power 
of the Christian Ethic when 

severed from its roots, the fo- 
liage stays green for long: one 
scarcely notices the gradual yel- 
lowing. Gently, speciously, and 
persistently those culturists are 
cutting Christianity away from 

Here then is another voice 
added to the increasing chorus 
of those who are addressing 
themselves to diagnosing and 
prescribing for the sickness of 
our culture and higher education. 

G. Roy Elliott, a Canadian by 
birth, did his undergraduate and 
graduate work in Canada and 
Germany. He has taught English 
at the University of Wisconsin, 
Bowdoin College, and since 1925 
has been Professor of English 
at Amherst. He is the author and 
contributor to some half-dozen 
books. Dr. Elliott's religious pil- 
grimage involved his agnosti- 
cism in his twenties, a Congrega- 
tionalist in his thirties, and since 
then he describes himself as be- 
ing "inexpugnably Episcopalian" 
of the "high church" type. 

Two or three assumptions, 
which the author believes to be 
well enough established to need 
no development, give consider- 
able coloring to his development 
of thought. 

For one thing, he points out 
that "... now we have to face a 
certain fact which students of 
history and pre-history have 
been making more and more 
clear: in the past every great 
ethic has declined when the re- 
ligious faith by which it was in- 


Christian Frontiers 

spired disappeared; and there is 
no firm reasons for supposing 
that the Christian Ethic is an 
exception to the rule." 

Naturalistic or humanistic soci- 
ologists and historians or func- 
tionalists and mechanists would 
object here. Of course, it is 
against such a position that the 
author marshals his data and 

Again, he seems to agree with 
"A significant historical idea that 
has now gained much currency 
is as follows. Civilization normal- 
ly undergoes three phases, a 
religious, a cultural, and finally 
a material phase." Ignoring any 
weakness in this assumption the 
author agrees that the Roman 
Catholic Church of the late Mid- 
dle ages would have "normally 
re-formed herself" and become 
vigorous again as the Teutonic 
genius was comprehended by the 
Roman Church. Here we can re- 
mind ourselves that one is always 
treading dangerous ground to ar- 
gue on the basis of what would 
have been if — ! 

Thus the author is able to ar- 
gue that the "Great Revolution" 
has been the change from the 
Christian integration of culture 
in the Middle Ages (at best, but 
not ignoring the errors of the 
Roman political intrigues) to a 
form of education lacking the 
rootage necessary for a true and 
abiding culture. 

Also, Protestantism becomes 
the culprit. "The Great Schism," 
the break at the Reformation, 
opened the way for making all 
of life secular when the Reform- 

ers taught that all of life is sa- 
cred. Today then, higher educa- 
tion, while friendly to religion in 
a vague way, has nothing much 
except "Christian ooze" marking 
the campus life and a department 
of religion rather separated from 
other subjects in its implications. 
The implied philosophy of ad- 
ministration and curriculum on 
the other hand, "takes our most 
culturally capable young people 
in the susceptible age . . . and 
moulds them definitively. This 
means that, today, the secular 
college is definitively moulding 
American culture into a non- 
Christian form." 

Briefly then, what is the an- 
swer? Let the Church, the author 
maintains, come into a reunion 
and offer higher education the 
rootage in the Christian religion 
which is necessary if our culture 
is to be saved. 

The now old school of liberal 
leaders will find themselves un- 
der pointed and telling attack 
(especially in the chapter "Col- 
legiate Deism"). Free churchmen 
will not be able to see their way 
clear to follow the author in his 
"high church" or "Liberal Cath- 
olic" (?) and sacramentarian di- 
rection. Nevertheless, anyone 
close to higher education and re- 
cent studies in the spiritual con- 
dition of our age will find many 
well-stated insights into the 
weaknesses of secular higher ed- 
ucation as it has developed in 
America. Throughout the book 
delightful touches of humor 
lighten the pages. 

Ralph E. McLain. 



Twilight of Civilization. 
By Jacques Maritain. 
New York: Sheed and Ward, 
1944. 65 pp. Essay. 

On the eve of the disaster that 
befell France during the recent 
war, early in 1939, the author de- 
livered in Paris this lecture. 
Escaped to the United States, 
almost four years later, while 
France was still a prisoner of 
war, he offered it for publication, 
with the significant title, The 
Twilight of Civilization. This 
title, the author suggests, is "only 
a relative pessimism," for, true 
Frenchman as he is, M. Maritain 
holds unswervingly to the belief 
in victory, when France will 
again be discovered fulfilling her 

The author begins the essay 
with an interpretation of human- 
ism, which is defined as tending 
"to render man more truly hu- 
man and to manifest his original 
greatness by enabling him to par- 
take of everything in nature and 
in history capable of enriching 
him." Reason that has divorced 
God is a poor development of 
humanism. On the other hand, 
humanism that is "irrationalis- 
tic," and opposes the use of rea- 
son, is no less dangerous. Against 
this is posited a Christian human- 
ism, that considers man as made 
in the image of God, and gives 
dignity to humanity, pointing 
man both upward toward God 
and eternity, and outward in de- 
sire to help his fellows. 

The powerful forces pushing 
against Western civilization, and 
threatening its existence are 
totalitarian: Communistic, Fas- 

cist and National-Socialist. The 
first magnifies the social com- 
munity; the second, the political 
state, the third, the racial com- 
munity. Most dangerous is the 
teaching of the Nazi theory of 
racism, which the author vividly 
describes as "a biological infer- 
no." Communism is reason with- 
out God; but that is not likely to 
continue as a Russian policy, for 
Russia's hope lies in the deep 
"human and religious resources" 
inherent in the Slavic peoples. 

There are two ways of dealing 
with the masses: the totalitarian, 
whose excesses have brought dis- 
aster in Europe and the world, 
and the Christian humanist's so- 
lution, which takes into consider- 
ation man's inner spiritual force 
and that help which he receives 
from outside forces, both of his- 
tory, nature and the unseen pow- 
ers of God. If humanity is to be 
saved, it must be directed by a 
"political ideal of brotherly 
friendship." Politics must be reg- 
ulated by the truth of God, which 
contains the one true Christian 
standard of values. Devout Cath- 
olic, M. Maritain believes that the 
Christian spirit of France will 
not be subdued by the policy of 
hate and racism of the pagan em- 

Democracy may do much to 
save civilization; but, if it is to 
do so, it must integrate Christian 
values in its political philoso- 
phy. Democracy and Christianity 
ought to evolve new methods in 
caring for the needy of the world. 
Democracy will fail if it centers 
around man, even as one form of 
humanism has failed. If it is to 
survive, it must find its inspira- 


Christian Frontiers 

tion in a center around God. 

On this note the author brings 
the essay to its culmination: "If 
the Western democracies are not 
to be swept away, and a night of 
long centuries is not to come 
down upon civilization, it is on 
condition that they discover in 
its primitive purity their vital 
principle, which is justice and 
love, and whose source is of 
divine origin. It is on condition 
that they reconstruct their polit- 
ical philosophy and thus redis- 
cover the sense of justice and 
heroism in the rediscovery of 
God." E. Norfleet Gardner. 

The Gospel According to 

By Gerald Heard. 
New York: 
Harper & Brothers, 1945. 

This book takes account of 
modern critical scholarship in re- 
gard to the treatment of the 
teaching of Jesus and Paul's re- 
statement of the nature of Jesus' 
saving work. Gamaliel, leading 
Pharisaic scholar in Paul's early 
days, is an exponent of the lib- 
eral idea of the Law, according 
to which it is not a set of rules to 
hamper and crush the souls of 
men, but rather a means of spirit- 
ual liberation and growth. James, 
the brother of Jesus and leader 
of the Jerusalem church, has this 
view, as does Jesus himself. 
Gamaliel, the liberal Jew, is made 
to agree substantially with Jesus, 
whose views embody the best 
features of the spiritual teach- 
ings of Judaism. 

The author describes his book 
as "an attempt to see what the 

dawn of Christianity looked like 
through the eyes of one who was 
of great scholarship, of great tol- 
erance, of great loyalty to the 
Law, and of great love for man- 
kind." He hopes that it will en- 
able Jews to appreciate Jesus' 
connection with the best in the 
prophetic tradition and that it 
will help Christians to see how 
Christ was related to the best of 
the Judaism of his day, and so 
that it may contribute something 
to mutual understanding and the 
lessening of present Jewish-Gen- 
tile tension. 

Gamaliel's interest in Jesus 
goes back to the reports about 
John the Baptist and the early 
days of Jesus' ministry. He is 
attracted by Jesus' magnetic per- 
sonality, his manner of teaching, 
and by the content of his message, 
the last of which Gamaliel finds 
in substantial agreement with the 
spiritual principles of the Jewish 
law itself. Thus he sees Jesus as 
a worthy successor of the proph- 
ets, a proponent of the best in 
Israel's religion. The author gives 
graphic accounts of pertinent in- 
cidents in Jesus' life, making 
them live again. This is a valu- 
able feature for one who wishes 
to get fresh imaginative ap- 
proaches to Christ's ministry. 

Through much of the book 
runs Gamaliel's interest in Saul, 
his favorite pupil. Saul's atti- 
tudes are depicted as they pass 
from deadly hatred of Jesus as a 
destroyer of the Law to complete 
dependence on Him as a sub- 
stitutionary offering in place of 
a perfect keeping of the Law, 
which last Saul has found im- 



The book affords glimpses into 
the early history of Acts, culmin- 
ating in the Council at Jerusalem. 
Saul is there, a changed man, 
changed in his outlook on life 
and changed in his thought of 
Jesus. He is now ready to go to 
Rome, the capital of the Gentile 
world and there preach his ver- 
sion, of the Gospel. At this point, 
the treatment is weakened by a 
characterization of Peter, which 
fits in with much later papal 
dogma of his primacy but seems 
out of place in the middle of the 
first century. 

In its main purpose, the book 
succeeds well. It is thought-pro- 
voking, good for both Jews and 
Christians to read. Some Jews of 
our time are studying Jesus 
afresh, and are seeing him much 
as Gamaliel did. They can claim 
him as a Jew who reached the 
spiritual heart of the law and the 
prophets. Gamaliel stops with 
Jesus' spiritual emphasis as the 
means of fulfilling the Law, but 
his fine tolerance leaves him un- 
ruffled even when his brilliant 
pupil sees in Jesus' death a 
means of salvation that the great 
Pharisee could not discern. But 
whatever one may think of Paul- 
inism and the religion of Jesus, 
it is good to see how the liberal 
Jew reacted to Jesus, and the 
sort of Gospel he might have 
written. L. E. M. Freeman. 

By the Rivers of Babylon. 

By Kaj Munk. 

Blair, Nebraska: Lutheran 

Publishing House, 1945. 
148 pp. Bibliography. 

Those who have read the ser- 
mons of Kaj Munk by the same 

translator already know this 
courageous preacher. The fifteen 
sermons in this volume were 
preached in 1941, about a year 
after the German occupation of 
Denmark. In these sermons he 
compares his people to Israel 
when they were in exile to Baby- 

The sermons would not be un- 
usual had Kaj Munk been a usual 
preacher. He has been called a 
hero. But Kaj Munk was more 
than a hero. He was the voice of 
God with a message of hope and 
a call to duty in a tragic hour. 
From familiar passages of Scrip- 
ture he feeds his flock in the little 
church at Vederso. A brief sketch 
of Kaj Munk's life is contained 
in the sermon "Ye Shall Be My 
Witnesses." However, his most 
comforting message in the book 
is: God's Concern for the Indi- 

The contribution of such a 
book to us is found in its chal- 
lenge to us who preach to come 
to grips with the evil at our 
doors. There must be a great dif- 
ference between Kaj Munk de- 
nouncing Hitler and the Germans 
at the moment they were in com- 
plete power in Denmark and 
one preaching against Hitler in 
America with an ocean between 
the preacher and all dangers. The 
example of one with such cour- 
age as Kaj Munk demonstrated 
should compel all of us who 
preach to make no compromise 
with the evil in our own com- 

Charles B. Trammel. 



time has come for the Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ 
in America to unequivocally re- 
nounce the pattern of segregation 
in race relations as unnecessary 
and undesirable." This resolution 
was adopted here at a session of 
the Committee on Community 
Tensions in connection with the 
special post-war meeting of the 
Federal Council to adopt new 
strategic policies. Approval of 
the statement was preceded by 
frank and candid debate. Discuss- 
ing segregation, W. W. Alexander 
of Chicago, vice-president of the 
Julius Rosenwald Fund and 
chairman of the Federal Coun- 
cil's Commission on the Church 
and' Minority Peoples said: "It 
is clear that we have adopted 
the pattern of segregation. This 
is not sectional but national. 
There is about as much in one 
section of the country as an- 
other. This is so much in con- 
flict with Christian teaching, 
that if we are dealing realistic- 
ally, we must look at it as a 
national pattern. Less than one 
per cent of the colored Protest- 
ants in the United States have 
any fellowship in worship with 
their white brethren. The church 
is more segregated than the 
school system or than organized 

Expression of the Negro view- 
point came from Dr. Benjamin 

Mays, vice-president of the Fed- 
eral Council and President of 
Morehouse College, Alabama, 
who declared: "We don't see how 
we can defend segregation in 
church and fight on the street 
car. If the church sanctions the 
pattern of segregation it com- 
plicates the whole pattern of 
secular life. The church is sup- 
poseed to furnish moral leader- 
ship. It is either all or none." 

In a consideration of whether 
lifting the ban on membership 
in white churches might result 
in a rush of new Negro members, 
Dr. A. W. Ward of Chicago, a 
Negro, asserted: "Lifting the 
ban would not mean a stampede 
of Negroes into the white 
churches. The threat of a stam- 
pede has been the bugaboo of 
the whole situation where the 
church is concerned." — (RNS). 


clusion of Negro women and 
girls in the "main stream" of 
Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation life was adopted as a 
"conscious goal" at the 17th na- 
tional convention of the YWCA 
here. A series of recommenda- 
tions adopted by the convention 
urged that each of the 434 asso- 
ciations create an inter-racial 
committee to examine the local 
association and help the board 
of that association make the in- 
ter-racial program operative. 

Although accepted almost 
unanimously, the program met 



with protests from Southern rep- 
resentatives. One spokesman for 
this minority, Miss Sally Sum- 
ner, of Nashville, Tenn., said it 
would be "most difficult to ac- 
cept in Nashville." "The men of 
our community chest board, from 
whom we get financial support, 
do not think as we women do," 
she explained. "We believe in the 
recommendations, but I do not 
think our men will co-operate." 
Action on the question came 
when the delegates approved a 
35-point program of the commit- 
tee to study inter-racial practices 
in the YWCA. The committee 
was appointed by the 1940 con- 
vention.— (RNS). 


RICHMOND, Va.— The Fellow- 
ship of Southern Churchmen, an 
interdenominational, inter-racial 
group, has called on churches of 
all creeds to "break down those 
customs and mores which per- 
petuate hostility and invite con- 

A meeting of the Fellowship 
here attended by whites and Ne- 
groes from 16 Southern States 
adopted a resolution against the 
"present and prevalent separa- 
tion of and discrimination against 
people on the basis of color, race 
and social status." 

It challenged churches, syna- 
gogues and cathedrals to "join 
us in combatting the evil de- 
signs of the vendors of hate and 
distrust who would set man 
against man, playing upon his 
pride, his pretensions to power, 
his economic insecurity, his po- 

litical fears and his religious 

The resolution also called on 
all "people of goodwill" to seek 
the defeat of "any legislative 
measure such as the May-John- 
son Bill, which intends to control 
and exploit atomic energy for 
destructive purposes, and to sup- 
port those measures, such as the 
McMahon bill, which intends to 
make possible the constructive 
employment of nuclear fission." 

The complete resolution fol- 
lows: "The time has come for 
the Federal Council of the Chur- 
ches of Christ in America to un- 
equivocally renounce the pattern 
of segregation in race relations 
as unnecessary and undesirable 
and a violation of gospel love 
and human brotherhood. As 
proof of its sincerity in this 
renunciation it will work for a 
non-segregated church and a 
non-segregated society in the be- 
lief that segregation denies 
Christian faith."— (RNS). 


NEW YORK — Mutual under- 
standing between the United 
States and Russia that will lead 
to cooperative action through 
UNO for world peace was urged 
by the Council of Christian So- 
cial Progress of the Northern 
Baptist Convention in a resolu- 
tion adopted here. 

Another resolution endorsed 
the McMahon bill for civilian 
control of atomic energy declar- 
ing that "such control would pro- 


Christian Frontiers 

vide greater freedom for the con- 
structive use of atomic force in 
the interest of human welfare 
and world peace." 

The Council commended Pres- 
ident Truman's appeal to citizens 
to limit consumption of food in 
order to make more supplies 
available for starvation-threaten- 
ed countries. It pledged wide 
publicity to the appeal through 
churches of the Northern Bap- 
tist Convention. 

Re-affirming support of the 
Martin resolution for interna- 
tional abolition of compulsory 
peacetime military training, the 
Council declared that "this is a 
major step the United States 
should take in the expression of 
its own peaceful intentions." 
— (RNS). 


A correspondent from Spain 
gives us the following impression 
on the situation of Protestant 

"Recently, under the pressure 
of international circumstances 
and against its will, the Spanish 
Government showed itself dis- 
posed to grant a very limited de- 
gree of freedom in matters of 
conscience and worship. Never- 
theless, until now there are no 
signs that these rights will be 
granted to Protestant youth. On 
the contrary, the Elementary 
Education Act which was passed 
by the Spanish Cortes in July 
1945 — after the famous "Fuero de 
los Espanoles" — states clearly 
that the whole of Spanish educa- 

tion should be infused by a strong 
Catholic spirit and must be sub- 
ordinated in every detail to the 
spiritual oversight of the Catholic 
ecclesiastical authorities. This 
law leaves not the slightest room 
for the instruction of Protestant 
children in the faith of their par- 
ents neither in private nor pub- 
lic institutions. Protestant 
schools in Spain remain as great 
an impossibility as ever." 

— (I.C.P.I.S. Geneva). 


Two Christian universities, one 
in Korea and one in Japan, will 
be established this Spring. First 
steps toward the project have 
been taken in Tokyo by a group 
of Christians, headed by Tosen 
Yoshimoto, a layman. 

The universities will be staffed 
by professors of all nationalities 
and will enroll about 2,000 stud- 
ents. The Korean university will 
be built in Seoul and called the 
National Foundation University. 
The university in Japan proper, 
not definitely located yet, will be 
called the International Univers- 
ity. Prince Ri, a Korean noble- 
man in the Japanese Court, has 
made an initial gift of one million 
yen toward their founding. 

Among the advisers of the 
schools will be Tamon Maeda, 
Minister of Education in the pre- 
sent Japanese cabinet, Toyohiko 
Kagawa, Zenichi Hidaka, public- 
ity secretary of the Church of 
Christ in Japan, etc. 

The establishment of the uni- 
versities is significant because 


A Journal of Baptist Life and Thought 
Vol. I MAY, 1946 No. 5 


Das Kelley Barnett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlator, Associate Editor William H. Poteat, Book Editor 

Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 
H. B. Cross, Nashville, Tenn. Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 

George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C. 

J. M. Dawson, Waco, Texas J. C. Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia 


George D. Heaton, Chairman Jasper C. Hutto, Secretary 

J. Glenn Blackburn J. Wade Baker 

Claude U. Broach E. Norfleet Gardner 

C. Sylvester Green Fred B. Helms 

Eugene I. Olive Fon H. Scofield 

Lee C. Shepfard 


Editorials 139 

A Theological Formula for Christian Education 

H. W. Teibble 143 

The Baptist Position As I See It... Edward Hughes Pruden 150 

Baptists in the U.S.S.R Louie D. Newton 156 

Industrialization of the South Lee C. Sheppard 160 

Books 167 

News 173 

Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laymen. Address all corres- 
pondence to Box 508, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Copyright 1946 by the Baptist 
Book Club. Second class mailing privilege pending. Subscription price, two dollars 
a year; twenty-five cents a copy. Printed by The Graphic Press, Inc., Raleigh, N. C. 

Who's Who In This Issue 

H. W. TRIBBLE is Professor of Theology at the Southern 
Baptist Theological Seminary at Louisville, Ky. He has a 
doctor's degree in Theology from the University of Edin- 
burgh, Scotland. 

EDWARD HUGHES PRUDEN, D.D., is pastor of the First 
Baptist Church of Washington, D. C, which, incidentally, 
makes him President Truman's pastor. 

LOUIE D. NEWTON, D.D., is pastor of the Druid Hills 
Baptist Church of Atlanta, Ga., and Vice-president of the 
Southern Baptist Convention. 

LEE C. SHEPPARD is pastor of the Pullen Memorial 
Baptist Church of Raleigh, N. C. and has contributed pre- 
viously to this magazine. 

OUR REVIEWERS: Book reviews for this issue were 
written by William H. Poteat, Associate Secretary of the 
Young Men's Christian Association at the University of 
North Carolina; the Reverend John B. Isom, Baptist minister 
of Spartanburg, S. C; the Reverend Garland A. Hendricks, 
pastor of Olive Chapel at Apex, N. C; and the Reverend J. 
Wade Baker, pastor of the First Baptist Church of Selma, 
N. C. 


More Resolutions, Please, Southern Baptists 


'T IS a foregone conclusion that the Southern Baptist 
Convention, meeting this month in Miami, will draw 
up resolutions protesting what has been called "the Vatican 
Embassy fraud" and demanding the recall of "Ambassador" 
Taylor and his staff to the United States. The Convention 
also will conventionally deprecate the manufacture and sale 
(and use?) of alcoholic beverages, calling for the complete 
outlawry of John Barleycorn, under whatever guise, through- 
out the South and the nation. Furthermore, it is safe to 
predict, the Convention will express a vote of confidence, 
somewhat matter-of-factly and with little show of enthu- 
siasm, yet sincerely, in the U.N.O. and in the work of the 
U.N.R.R.A. Splendid, as far as this goes. But beyond all this, 

Will there be no word of support for the heroic attempt 
in Congress to raise the minimum wage scale to 65 cents an 
hour when the common people of the South, from whose 
ranks Southern Baptists have historically recruited their 
membership, stand most to profit from such legislation? Will 
nothing be said upholding the hands of Georgia's great 
governor in his valiant fight to put an end to the discrim- 
inatory freight rates which have tended to keep our South 
in perpetual economic bondage? Will there be no utterance 
in protest that millions of American citizens, whose sons 
fought and died for freedom on foreign shores, are disenfran- 
chised at home because of their color? Will not the Convention 
join her sister denominations in opposing the frantic effort 
to squeeze through legislation bringing this nation under 
permanent militarization? Will no reference at all be made 
to the recent memorable meeting of the provisional committee 
of the World Council of Churches in Geneva or to the 
courageous and prophetic pronouncements of the Federal 
Council of Churches of Christ in America in Columbus, Ohio? 

CHRISTIAN FRONTIERS is not unaware of the risks 
denominational unanimity and harmony will run if such 
resolutions are brought before the Convention, but it feels 

140 Christian Frontiers 

strongly that the time to run those risks has come, that the 
time for sweetness-and-light talk has passed. There are some 
things better, and ultimately more pleasant, than for brethren 
merely to live together in unity. This is the time for Southern 
Baptists to lift up their voices with strength and without 
fear, to speak the prophetic word and pronounce the divine 
judgment on issues so clearly and unavoidably freighted 
with Christian significance. As to the resolutions which the 
Convention will consider, everyone knows that no great 
courage need be summoned up, no daring imagination need 
be generated, to pass on them. Everyone expects the Con- 
vention to oppose the liquor interests just as the proverbial 
preacher was expected to be "agin' sin." And the matter of 
protesting diplomatic relations with the Vatican, however 
important, is getting to be a sort of indoor sport. Likewise 
we may consider ourselves, as did the men in the parable, 
but unprofitable servants when we have the endorsed the 
U.N.O. and the U.N.R.R.A., for it was our expected duty so 
to do. But if we really want to ring the bells of heaven and 
roll the thunder over Sinai, if we really long to have the 
faith of our fathers living still, if more than aught else we 
want to be the servants of this southland and this present 
age rather than its esteemed ecclesiastical leaders, then with 
the mantle of Amos, that flaming prophet of social righteous- 
ness, let us say to every burning need, to every social in- 
justice, to every inequality of our day, "Thus saith the Lord." 
This one suggestion. Let there be read before the resolu- 
tions committees and before the Convention at the time the 
resolutions are being presented, the account of Jesus' return- 
ing to His home, entering the synagogue, and reading from 

the roll, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me because " 

Then let us be cautious, discreet, safe — if we can. 

Let's Reconsider; Our Rural Churches 

THERE was a time when Southern Baptists were as 
rural in the South as were the Israelites in the land 
of Nod. Leadership, financial resources and drive were in 
the main supplied by the rural churches. The urbanization 
of the South, however, has brought about a marked change. 

Let's Reconsider Our Rural Churches 141 

Though we are still for the most part a rural denomination, 
the men who sit on our boards and committees and appear 
on our convention programs today are with few exceptions 
pastors and members of urban and suburban churches. These 
churches also are able to provide a disproportionate share of 
the financial support of the denomination. Thus the Con- 
vention psychology, always inclined toward "Big-itis," has 
it that city churches are the important churches. The pastor 
who is called to such a church is "successful," recognized by 
the prelates at the denominational headquarters and assumed 
to possess the talents of leadership, while the pastor who is 
left in the rural field is — just left. Obviously this has had an 
unfortunate effect on the rural churches. Ministers have re- 
garded their country charge as a sort of interim affair, a 
springboard to, shall we say, ecclesiastical preferment. And 
why not? After all, there is such a thing as wholesome 
ambition, and few young men are desirous of burying them- 
selves in a work in which, as far as denominational leadership 
is concerned, the untalented, the unimaginative and the 
unrecognized are supposed to serve. 

Furthermore the inadequacy of salaries in the country 
churches has given pause to men who by nature and inclina- 
tion were equipped to serve in the rural areas, and has 
compelled the men already out there to take on too many 
churches. Often this means that a man may be "pastoring" 
half-time and quarter-time churches spread through two or 
three counties. It may readily be seen that no pastor under 
such circumstances can hope to do more than merely to lead 
his people in worship, marry their youth and bury their dead. 
No practical program of relating the church to the need of 
farm life is possible; no extension of the church into weekday 
activities is undertaken. And our rural churches are suffering 
unforgivably under this stepchild treatment. 

A multitude of solutions come flocking into the mind. Let 
the wealthy city churches supplement the salaries of the 
overworked and underpaid country pastors. Let this in turn 
lead to putting more rural churches on "full time" basis and, 
whenever possible, consolidating them in such a way as to 
enable a minister to serve within one district. Let the con- 
ventions, state and southwide, reorient their thinking about 

142 Christian Frontiers 

the country churches, expressing this primarily in granting 
ampler representation of rural leadership on the policy- 
making and administrative boards and committees. Let the 
seminaries recruit the ablest of young men for rural work 
and expand their curricula to include courses on the rural 
pastorate taught by the most competent men available. 

We should also take a look at the work the Roman Catholic 
Church is carrying on in rural America. The hierarchy has 
seen the mistake their church originally made in the United 
States in concentrating all its energies in the urban areas, 
for today city populations are not reproducing themselves as 
rapidly as formerly. In fact they must depend upon a constant 
influx from the rural areas to stabilize, or compensate for, 
their falling birth rate. The Roman Catholics, recognizing 
what this ultimately spells for their church, have laid exten- 
sive, and even grandiose, plans for evangelization in rural 
areas. When a priest comes to a rural church, he comes from 
a special school where he has been taught rural life, given an 
amazing grasp on its psychology, versed in the practical art 
of relating religion to group life on the farm and equipped 
with a dozen and one techniques for making the church, as 
it should be, the center of rural life. He comes with the 
assurance of financial backing by his church and with the 
consciousness that he has not been shunted aside to rural 
work because of inferior abilities, but that, on the contrary, 
he has been chosen for this work because of his fitness and 
because his church recognized the importance of it. And it 
works marvelously. 

CHRISTIAN FRONTIERS does not pretend to know all 
the answers but recommends that the matter of our rural 
churches be thrown squarely into the lap of the Convention 
in Miami for prompt and realistic treatment. And it calls 
upon this Convention to go on record as committing itself to 
a fresh and all-out emphasis on Southern Baptist rural 

A Theological Formula for Christian Education 143 

A Theological Formula for Christian 
Education * 

H. W. Tribble 

THIS SUBJECT has been chosen on the assumption 
that the purpose of our study is quite practical. We 
are not seeking to analyze theology as such, or Christian 
education as a distinct discipline, or theological education as 
a specialized area of instruction. Our focus rather is in terms 
of the local church and the ministry of the seminaries in 
providing adequate leadership for the church of today. Our 
basic question is, how may we so improve the work of the 
seminaries as to send to our churches a more adequately 
trained ministerial leadership, and thereby make the ministry 
of the churches more vital? One way to discover the answer 
to that question is to make a fresh study of the relation of 
theology to Christian education. 

By theology we mean an interpretation of religion, or an 
explication of the Christian message of revelation and re- 
demption. By Christian education we mean the stimulation 
and guidance of experience in interpreting life in relation to 
Christ. Such general definitions will draw attention at once 
to the close relation between these two fields of Christian 
thought. So closely are they related that we find it difficult 
to separate them without vitiating them. If religious educa- 
tion is to be in fact and in spirit Christian, it must be based 
upon theology. On the other hand, if theology is to be indeed 
an interpretation of religion, certainly if that interpretation 
is to be vital rather than abstract, it must recognize and 
rely upon the spirit and principles of Christian education. 
The two fields are distinct yet interdependent segments of 
the meaning and mission of the church. They are both ex- 
pressions of an experience of fellowship with God in Christ. 

* An address delivered before the Workshop on Christian Education held by 
the Board of Education of the Northern Baptist Convention on the campus of 
the University of Chicago in January of this year. Dr. Tribble served as a member 
of the commission appointed to survey theological education among Northern 
Baptists. The result of the survey has been published in book form by the 
American Baptist Publication Society. 

144 Christian Frontiers 

A few years ago President Hutchins of the University of 
Chicago expressed his regret that theology had ceased to be 
the unifying factor in university education that it once was. 
Recognizing the need for some unifying principle or discipline 
in modern university education, and convinced that theology 
could not be restored to that role, he suggested metaphysics 
as a worthy substitute. In a book of only 123 pages under the 
title, The Case for Theology in the University, Dr. William 
Adams Brown championed the cause of theology, not as the 
"queen of the sciences" but as the integrating principle need- 
ed in scientific education. Using the analysis in Gilson's The 
Spirit of Medieval Philosophy, he pointed to three things that 
theology gave the medieval university: "A unifying principle 
for thought, a unifying principle for conduct, and a synthesis 
of thought and conduct in a satisfying philosophy of life." If 
we agree with Dr. Brown in thus appraising the historic 
importance of theology in university education, without 
debating the question whether universities today should 
teach it, we may agree that in the program of seminary 
education theology must sustain a vitalizing and integrating 
relation to all other departments, including especially that 
which we designate religious education. 

This will suffice to prepare the way for a consideration 
of a theological formula for Christian education. A few 
general statements will serve to bring it before us. 

Christian Experience is a Creative Fellowship. 

Here both theology and Christian education may well 
begin. The one treats redemption or salvation as the founda- 
tion of the Christian life, while the other treats the Christian 
life as an experience or a series of experiences in relation to 
Christ. Clarity will be achieved and a basis of collaboration 
established if we define this experience as the initiation and 
cultivation of a creative fellowship between God and man. 
Four very important truths lie at the base of this view. 

One is that Christian experience is both initial and pro- 
gressive. It is a way of life that begins in spiritual birth and 
continues in growth. We need not enter just now into the 
doctrinal distinctions that we sometimes make between the 
initial stage, or conversion, and the continuing process, or 

A Theological Formula for Christian Education 145 

the Christian life. It is enough to call attention to the elemen- 
tary truth that at all stages and in all phases of the relation 
Christian experience is a creative fellowship. 

The second truth to be noted is that the initiation and 
cultivation of this experience is the work of the Spirit of 
God, the Divine Teacher, upon and with the spirit of man, 
the disciple of Christ. This does not mean that the salvation 
of man can he accomplished through an educational process, 
in terms of education on the level of mere human ability. We 
need to remember that only God can save man, and that the 
God who saves is the same God who creates. Paul says, 
"There is a new creation whenever a man comes to be in 
Christ" (Moffatt's translation). Indeed we can go on with 
Paul in his further statement: "It is all the doing of the God 
who has reconciled me to Himself through Christ and has 
permitted me to be a minister of His reconciliation." But the 
way this reconciling work of God is effectuated in man is the 
creative teaching work of the Holy Spirit. 

A third element in this view is that the Divine Teacher 
uses the truth as the means of initiating and cultivating a 
creative fellowship between God and man. Redemption is 
not a work of magic. It is a work that follows a wisely de- 
signed plan, the broad outline and essential elements of 
which we can and should understand. God ever seeks to 
reveal Himself and His purposes to man. In nature generally, 
in His chosen people specially, in Jesus Christ supremely 
and finally, He has disclosed himself and His will to man. In 
the Scriptures we have the unique record of that revelation. 
The written word bears witness to Christ the living Word, 
and this in the hands of the Divine Teacher becomes the 
means of a creative redemption, issuing in a creative fellow- 
ship. Much could be said concerning the many facets of this 
recorded revelation that must be transmuted into fellowship 
between man and God. It is enough for our present purpose 
to suggest that the Bible progressively unfolds abiding 
principles that must be embraced if man is to enjoy fellow- 
ship with God. In His teaching ministry the Spirit leads man 
to see these principles as they unfold in history and as they 
are fulfilled in Christ, and to embrace them in accepting 
Christ as personal Savior. 

146 Christian Frontiers 

A fourth truth lies at the base of this conception of 
Christian experience. It is that God projects Himself in history 
through the followers of Christ. The principle of incarnation 
is one of the cardinal truths in the Biblical pattern of pro- 
gressive revelation. In Jesus of Nazareth the Old Testament 
promise is fulfilled. In the presence of the Holy Spirit the 
promise of Christ is kept. The purpose is that God might 
dwell in man, that the Spirit of God might implement Him- 
self with the spirit of man. God was in Christ; Christ is in 
the Christian. Thus is the world to be reconciled to God. 


The Church is the Group Expression of this Creative Fellowship. 

Christian experience can neither begin nor grow in a 
vacuum, for man is a social being. Man's response to God 
must be individual and voluntary. It must be his own act in 
receiving the grace of the Redeemer. And the result of that 
response of faith is an experience of forgiveness that he 
knows in the secret place of his own inner life. But that very 
experience of inner cleansing and release demands expression 
in testimony and service. Such demand is so insistent that 
to disobey it is to refuse to enter the door of fellowship and 
service that grace opens. 

The church is primarily a fellowship. It is made up of 
individuals who have received the saving grace of God, and 
who therefore have in common the most precious and 
potential experience in life. That creates a tie that binds 
lives together more powerfully than any cohesion that the 
ingenuity of man can devise. 

In the church the principle of incarnation is projected 
from individual to group experience. That is the justification 
for Paul's reference to it as the body of Christ. Our Lord 
needs a body to reveal His character, to implement His pre- 
sence and to serve His purpose in the processes of history, 
just as He needed the body and personality of Jesus of Naz- 
areth. That body is provided through the social expression 
of personal experience, in the blending of many individual 
experiences into one fellowship that corporately sustains a 
vital relation to Christ. 

The church is an organization because it is an organism. 
Its organismic character is primary, the organizational is 

A Theological Formula for Christian Education 147 

secondary and derived. A type of life calls forth a type of 
organization. This, and not the reverse, is the creative plan. 
The nature of the church as fellowship in spiritual nurture 
and Kingdom service requires a certain type of organization 
and program. This is the justification of church schools and 
church-related institutions. The specialized programs of train- 
ing and service should be designed to achieve efficiency in 
each institution or organization projected by the church, but 
always due regard must be had for the spiritual principles 
and factors that produced the church. In other words, each 
ancillary project, each expression of the life of the church, 
should serve as an instrument of creative fellowship between 
God and man, and between man and man. 

The Kingdom of God is the Objective of the Church. 

Just as the individual experience of a creative fellowship 
leads normally to expression in the life and ministry of the 
church, even so must we see that the purpose of the church 
is to serve God in establishing His Kingdom in the hearts of 
men. This is a wider range of fellowship and service than 
our thinking embraces if we fail to see the relation of the 
church to the Kingdom of God. 

This points to the projection of the will of God into all 
areas of life. Political, economic, industrial, family, educa- 
tional, and social problems of all kinds are to be related to 
the perfect will of God insofar as Christian thought and 
behavior are concerned. If Christian experience is a creative 
fellowship between God and man, it must follow that both 
individual and group expressions of that relation must serve 
as the practical demonstration and instrumentality of the 
transforming power of God. Weymouth has well rendered 
the words of Jesus in Matthew 6:33: "But make His Kingdom 
and righteousness your chief aim, and all these things shall 
be given you in addition." 

Now it is the task of theology to explore the meaning of 
the Kingdom-of-God concept in relation to the total Christian 
message and faith, and it is the task of Christian education 
to set forth the ideas and motives that form the pattern of 
the Kingdom of God and to induce the adoption of that 
pattern as formative in Christian thought and behavior in 

148 Christian Frontiers 

the present order. Christian education will lose focus and 
vitality if it fails to integrate its work in this message. If 
there is a deliverance from sin through regeneration, there 
must be a continous transformation by the renewing of the 
mind in proving the will of God. The mind of Christ is to be 
the pattern of the Christian. If he cherishes the thoughts of 
the world rather than the thoughts of God, he fills the role 
of the Adversary rather than that of Peter the rock in fellow- 
ship with Christ the builder of the Church. The Christian is 
to let the redeeming love of Christ constrain him in an 
unselfish life of service, remembering always that "Anyone 
who does not possess the spirit of Christ does not belong to 

If there is one Kingdom of God among men, and if the 
church exists to serve that Kingdom, it follows that we must 
make our racial and social attitudes conform to that pattern. 
Race prejudice, class distinctions, national pride, and all 
other attitudes that determine our behavior must be tested 
by this principle. Furthermore, our motives in prayer and 
the instruction that we give concerning the purpose and 
meaning of prayer should be in basic agreement with the 
purpose and meaning of the Kingdom of God. 

Many illustrations and applications of this truth come 
readily to mind. We see it demonstrated with peculiar 
urgency in the way we treat racial groups. The need for an 
intelligent application of it to the interpretation and practice 
of prayer is also critical. Whether it is Rickenbacker and his 
group adrift in the Pacific praying to be rescued, or a mother 
in Arkansas praying that her son might be spared, or a boy 
of seven in Kentucky praying that his sick dog might get 
well, always the basic question is, does God answer prayer? 
Let us look a moment at the second and third examples just 
mentioned, for they bear directly upon what I have been 
saying. The mother in Arkansas wrote to the editor of the 
American Magazine that her preacher father taught her if 
her faith was strong enough and if she prayed hard enough, 
she could ask God for anything and He would grant it. Her 
faith was strong, her prayers were earnest and persistent, 
but her son was killed in action. The result in her experience, 
she said, was that she could no longer believe in God. The 

A Theological Formula for Christian Education 149 

little boy in Kentucky prayed for his pet dog that had been 
poisoned. Because he attended Sunday School regularly and 
tried to be a good boy, he believed that God would hear his 
prayer and heal his dog. He said his Sunday School teacher 
had taught him that God would answer any prayer if we 
only believed. But his dog died, and the little boy said that 
he would never pray again. 

Here is spiritual tragedy that is related directly to 
Christian education. It will not help the mother or the boy to 
say that their faith was not strong enough. What is needed 
in all such cases, and there are multitudes of them, is a basic 
relation of prayer to the pattern of the Kingdom of God. 
That is where Jesus laid the foundation of prayer. 

The Techniques and Methods of the Church in Serving the Kingdom 

Must be Determined by the Factors that Produce the Experience 
of Creative Fellowship. 

The term 'creative teaching' is perhaps too frequently and 
too easily used. In accordance with the thesis that I am pre- 
senting, teaching can be creative only as the Creator is at 
work in it. Certainly Christian education must recognize that 
fact and adopt plans that will accord with it. Perhaps the 
admonition to each of the seven churches in Asia Minor 
might be appropriate today: "He that hath an ear let him 
hear what the Spirit saith to the churches." The Divine 
Teacher seeks the attention of the churches, for He has a 
message for them. God has spoken and is still speaking to 
His people. The God who speaks also teaches. Every method 
that we employ should be designed to make Christians more 
responsive to the tutelage of the Spirit of God. 

This means that Christian education is a fellowship among 
Christians in the quest for truth, both theoretical and prac- 
tical. Each group or class must find the comradery of dis- 
ciples under one Divine teacher. This should be true whether 
the educational effort is in the program of a local church, or 
of a church-related school. The human teacher is not the 
final authority, and his methods are not those of a dictator. 
The human teacher is a disciple leading a group of other 
disciples under the direction of the Creator-Teacher. If I 
know anything about religious education in the modern 

150 Christian Frontiers 

church program, this is the vitalizing principle that is most 
needed and most generally lacking. Those teachers who are 
content to deliver essays and lectures to their classes need to 
discover it. Those who think of religious education in terms 
of pre-digested lesson material, mimeographed outlines, and 
assembly-line programs, need to remember this truth. 

This means that our methods and techniques must be as 
flexible as the abiding principles and objectives of the church 
in relation to the Kingdom require. If we are agreed that 
Christian education must always be life-centred, we must 
constantly be on guard against the tendency to substitute 
rules for principles and methods for objectives. The purpose 
of Christian education is to lead Christians to live more 
meaningfully and effectually for Christ and His Kingdom. 
The context of that life is the present world order, not the 
past. The methods we employ should be brought under re- 
view frequently that we may translate our message into 
behavior with the minimum loss of motion and effort. There 
is no reason why the traditions of the past should stereotype 
our methods of today. We do have abiding principles coming 
down to us out of the past, but they are validated in issuing 
in a life of fellowship with God. If the gospel is the power of 
God unto salvation today it must work in the life patterns 
of today. 

The Baptist Position As I See It 

Edward Hughes Pruden 

DOES IT really matter what a man believes, just as long 
as he lives decently and isn't a menace to his fellow- 
man? We can only reply that a man is usually decent because 
he believes in decency, and if he is not a menace to mankind 
it is due to certain convictions that govern his life. 

Several years ago there was much talk in this country 
about the unimportance of one's beliefs. We were told to be 
practical and utilitarian, and that theories and beliefs were 
inconsequential. But it was at that very time that the youth 
in Germany, Italy and Japan were being indoctrinated with 
beliefs that were calculated to enslave the world. Through the 
streets of Berlin the Nazi youth marched, singing at the top 
of their voices, "Today we rule Germany; tomorrow we rule 

The Baptist Position As I See It 151 

the world." The Fascist youth of Italy and the Shinto youth 
of Japan were singing similar songs. This, I repeat, was 
taking place at the very time many American young people 
were being told it didn't matter greatly what a person be- 
lieved. Then suddenly the youth of America was called upon 
to fight a foe that had fanatical faith in brute force, racial 
superiority, and a disdain for the weak and helpless. Does 
it matter what a man believes? It matters very much. 

I wonder how many Baptists know what they believe. 
Members of the more liturgical churches have accepted what 
they call "The Apostles' Creed" and they repeat it Sunday 
after Sunday in their churches. If anyone should say to them, 
"What do you believe?" they can point to this historic state- 
ment and say, "That is what I believe." But Baptists have no 
written creed, and it is not so easy for us to say specifically 
just what are really our convictions. 

At a recent meeting of the Joint Conference Committee 
on Public Relations here in Washington — a committee com- 
posed of representatives from the various geographical and 
racial divisions of our denomination in the United States — an 
able leader of Baptist young people expressed the opinion 
that probably only one out of two hundred young people in 
our communion knows what we actually believe in regard to 
religious liberty. That situation would be distressing at any 
time, but it is especially so at this particular era in the 
world's history. 

As long as we are so backward in our grasp of our own 
faith we need not be surprised if men in other denominations 
demonstrate confusion as to what our basic principles really 

I was talking the other day to a pastor friend who is 
prominent in another denomination. He said to me, "If I 
could have my way, I would unite all the various denomina- 
tions into five groups. I would retain those groups that per- 
petuate the major emphases of the Protestant Reformation: 
the Presbyterians who stress Calvin's doctrine of the sov- 
ereignty of God; the Lutherans who stress Luther's doctrine 
of justification by faith; and the Methodists who stress Wes- 
ley's doctrine of the necessity of a religious experience. Then 
I would retain the Episcopalians who have made such a 

152 Christian Frontiers 

distinct contribution to churchmanship; and finally I would 
bring all the immersionist groups together into one denomina- 
tion." I sincerely hated to upset his plan, but it just happens 
that Baptists wouldn't fit into it at all, for we are not simply 
an immersionist group. Baptism by immersion is not basic 
with us; it is incidental. It is merely one of many expressions 
of our basic position. Our name, like that of the Quakers, is 
wholly misleading. We do believe in baptism by immersion, 
but that is not the doctrine around which our denominational 
position is established. 

Let it be understood now and always that the basic doc- 
trine of Baptists is the dignity, sanctity, and competency of 
the individual believer. I do not mean by that that we put 
this doctrine ahead of our belief in the sovereignty of God 
which we share with the Presbyterians, or justification by 
faith which we share with the Lutherans, or the necessity of 
a religious experience which we share with the Methodists, 
but it is this belief in the dignity, sanctity and competency 
of the individual which through the years Baptists have felt 
compelled to emphasize. It is out of this basic conviction 
that our other Baptist principles grow. 

Take, for instance, our insistence on baptism by immer- 
sion. Our belief in immersion is based not only on the fact 
that this was the way in which Jesus was baptized, and not 
only because it is set forth in the New Testament as a church 
ordinance, but because it symbolizes an essential Christian 
experience in the life of the believer. Whenever one sees a 
professing Christian carried down beneath the baptismal wa- 
ters and brought up again, he is reminded that the only way 
in which a man can become a Christian is by the death and 
burial of the old life of sin and the resurrection to a new life 
in Christ. 

Baptism by immersion presents a vivid picture of the 
New Birth. You recall Paul's words in the sixth chapter of 
his letter to the Romans, verse four, "Therefore we are buried 
with him by baptism into death; that like as Christ was 
raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so 
we also should walk in newness of life." Since men are not 
saved by works, or by sacraments, or by rituals, then that 
experience of God in Christ Jesus which does save them 

The Baptist Position As I See It 153 

should be symbolized for the constant instruction of all men. 

Why do we refuse to baptize infants? Because we feel that 
we have no right to commit a helpless child to any doctrine 
or church. Believing in the dignity, sanctity and competency 
of the individual believer, we hold that each person must act 
and speak for himself when he becomes of age. No man is to 
act as a proxy for another in matters of religion. 

Since the experience of baptism is such a meaningful and 
happy experience for the Christian, we feel that no one should 
be deprived of its joy by having it imposed upon him at a 
time when be neither knows nor cares anything about it. 
Being too immature to have the experience symbolized in 
baptism, there is really no point to the ordinance when applied 
to an infant. We thoroughly believe in the dedication of our 
children to God and quite a number of churches hold dedica- 
tion services regularly. This service, however, makes no use 
of water and has no reference to the spiritual experience that 
makes a man a Christian. 

Why do we not have a priesthood? Because a priest is one 
who approaches God for another, and we hold that there 
should be no intermediary between God and man. Every 
man can, and must, approach God for himself without the 
interference of official, sacrament, ritual, or anything else. 
God, speaking through His Son, said, "Come unto me all ye 
that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." In 
order to respond to this invitation, one does not have to do so 
through the ministrations of a priest. We believe in the priest- 
hood of believers. Whenever and wherever an earnest Christ- 
ian gets down on his knees before God, there you have a priest, 
an altar, and an acceptable sacrifice. 

Why do we have no bishops and church courts? Because, 
we do not believe that any man is set in authority over an- 
other, or that any ecclesiastical body is competent to dictate 
to a local church. The individual Christian and the local 
congregation are able, under God, to arrive at their own de- 
cisions and make their own choices. We cannot accept any 
form of spiritual or religious totalitarianism or dictatorship. 
The pastor of a Baptist church is simply the preaching mem- 
ber of the church. In a congregational meeting he has one 
vote and every other member of the congregation has one, 

154 Christian Frontiers 

and the vote of the most insignificant member of the church 
counts for just as much as the vote of the pastor. 

It is our firm belief that the New Testament uses the terms 
bishop, elder and pastor interchangeably and synonymously, 
and they refer to the same office. We can find no evidence of 
a distinction being made between them in the New Testament 

Why do we believe in religious liberty and the separation 
of church and state? Because, we feel that the individual 
should be left free to worship God according to the dictates 
of his own heart without any interference from the state, 
and that the truth of God is sufficiently compelling within 
itself, not requiring legal recognition or compulsion in order 
to commend it to the minds of men. The Gospel message 
needs no governmental sanction in order to survive and 
requires no taxation to guarantee its support. 

As John Milton once put it, "Let truth and error grapple." 
We are not afraid of the outcome. Roger Williams, the great 
apostle of religious liberty, was a vigorous opponent of the 
doctrines of the Quakers, but he invited them to take up 
residence in the colony of Rhode Island which he founded. 
He did not share their faith but he believed firmly in their 
right to their faith. He believed, as we do, that error will 
sooner or later collapse of its own weakness, and that truth 
will sooner or later triumph because of its own strength. 

Protestants are in the majority in the United States, but 
do we try to put the Catholics out? Of course not. They are 
welcome, and we accord to them the same rights and priv- 
ileges which we desire for ourselves. In South America, how- 
ever, the situation is reversed. Catholics are in the majority 
and Protestants constitute a minority. Are we welcomed in 
South America? We are certainly not, and whatever work 
we have been able to carry on there has been accomplished 
under the greatest difficulties. Pressure has been put upon 
the State Department to refuse passports to South American 
countries for our Protestant missionaries. Can men honestly 
profess to believe in religious liberty when they accept its 
advantages where they are in the minority but refuse to 
grant its privileges where they are in the majority? 

The Baptist position in religion is similar to the democratic 

The Baptist Position As I See It 155 

position in government. The democratic form of government 
honors and respects the individual. The totalitarian form of 
government exalts the state and looks upon the individual 
as a cog in a wheel — a means to an end rather than an end 
in himself. Totalitarian forms of religion exalt the Church, 
or the Bible, or a sacrament, or an office, and treat the in- 
dividual as though he were an incompetent child, telling him 
what he must believe, what he must do, and how he must fit 
into the scheme of things which his forefathers created. 

Baptists give to the individual believer that liberty of 
choice and decision which is a recognition of his rights and 
privileges as a sacred personality and a competent being. It 
has been thought by some that the appeal of the Baptists is 
particularly to the uneducated and the ordinary run of human 
beings. It will be seen, however, from what has been said 
above that Baptists appeal to a man's intellectual, moral, and 
spiritual competency. We refuse to treat a man as though he 
required ready-made creeds and convictions. Highly liturgical 
churches, where men accept meekly that which is handed 
down to them, may serve well the needs of mentally depend- 
ent and spiritually immature persons. Baptist principles 
should have a strong appeal for independent thinkers and 
unfettered minds. 

The nations of the earth have just engaged in a great 
struggle between two doctrines that are diametrically op- 
posed. On the one hand was the spirit of oppression, authority, 
and physical might. On the other was the spirit of human 
freedom, personal dignity, and the rights of the common man. 

It is encouraging for us to know that as Baptists our 
doctrinal position is in line with the highest ideals for which 
the United Nations struggle. Not only must men be allowed 
to think for themselves politically, but religiously as well. 

Never let anyone tell you that the basic doctrine of Bap- 
tists is baptism by immersion. That is only one of many 
expressions of our great ideal which honors and respects the 
individual who was created in the likeness of his Maker. 

"When I consider thy heavens, the moon and the stars 
which thou hast ordained; what is man that thou art mindful 
of him? Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels 
and hast crowned him with glory and honor." 

156 Christian Frontiers 

Baptists In The U. S. S. R. 

Louie D. Newton 

"VITTHAT DO WE know about our Baptist brethren in 
W Russia? The answer is twofold: First, we know that 
they are very alert — that the former division into two distinct 
groups, The Union of Baptists and The Union of Evangelical 
Christians, is now united under the name, All Union Council 
of Evangelical Christians and Baptists. (The Union of 
Evangelical Christians was composed entirely of Baptists. 
The difference of name was due to independent origin and 
to years of separate activity.) 

And when I say that they are alert, I mean that they are 
aggressively witnessing throughout the U. S. S. R. through 
preaching and teaching the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
I have in my study numerous letters and cables from Rev. 
A. I. Zhidkov, President of the All Union Council of Evangel- 
ical Christians and Baptists, telling of the heartening pro- 
gress of the Baptists of Russia. 

Second, we know fairly well the story of the beginnings of 
the Baptist movement in Russia, from August 20, 1867, when 
Nikita Voronin, a merchant, was baptized, down to 1928, 
when we last had face to face contact with Russian Baptist 
leaders, at the Baptist World Alliance, in Toronto. 

Brethren Pavloff and Ivanoff-Klishnikoff 

Following the baptism of Voronin, the merchant who 
studied the New Testament and received instruction from a 
German artisan which confirmed his Baptist beliefs, there 
was constituted a Baptist church, in 1868. In 1871 two young 
men, V. G. Pavloff and V. V. Ivanoff-Klishnikoff, joined this 
church and became ardent evangelists, winning many to 
Christ and to the Baptist movement. 

Then came the "Stundist Movement" in the Ukraine, 
which originated among German colonists and during the 
decade, 1870-80, assumed definite Baptist form. In 1884 the 
Russian Baptist Union was formed, bringing the above 
groups together. There was persecution, under the Tsardom, 
but the Baptists multiplied in numbers and in conviction. 

Baptists in the U.S.S.R. 157 

In 1874, Lord Radstock, an Englishman of the Plymouth 
Brother type, was invited by a woman of high social standing 
to come to St. Petersburg. He accepted, and began to tell the 
people of the aristocratic circles about Christ. Count Bobrin- 
sky, at one time a Minister of State, was converted, as were 
Count M. M. Korff and Colonel Pashkoff. These prominent 
men began to evangelize the working people and peasants 
on their estates, to print and distribute tracts, and to organize 
philanthropic efforts. Having separated from the Orthodox 
Church, they were loosely joined. They were invited to join 
the Baptist Union, but due to persecutions and other discon- 
certing conditions, they did not join the Union, and soon 
afterwards Pashoff and Korff were exiled. 

In 1888 Ivan S. Prokhanoff came to St. Petersburg and 
gained leadership among this group. After a period of study 
in Bristol, England, and in universities in Berlin and Paris, 
Prokhanoff returned to St. Petersburg and organized the 
Union of Evangelical Christians. They were Baptists but be- 
cause of persecutions already suffered by the people called 
Baptists, the movement in the northern part of Russia was 
called Evangelical Christians. 

The Revolution of 1917 

We come now to the Revolution of 1917, omitting many 
interesting developments in the intervening years. Prom the 
days of Peter the Great the Orthodox Church had been, in 
form as well as in fact, directly controlled by the state. Dr. 
Rushbrooke, speaking of this phase of the situation, says: "It 
(the Church) could without unfairness be described as prac- 
tically a branch of the Civil Service . . . Subservience to the 
Romanoff dynasty, involving the acceptance of an unenlight- 
ened and anti-democratic outlook, characterized the Church 
as an institution." 

The liberation of the people under the Revolution of 1917 
could not be accomplished without serious collision with the 
State Church. The revolt was not only against the abuses of 
religion, but against religion itself. We know something of 
that dreadful chapter in which our own Baptist people, par- 
ticularly the pastors, were exiled to terrible suffering and 

158 Christian Frontiers 

Meanwhile, as Dr. Rushbrooke has told us, our Baptist 
people, having no such links with the old order as had the 
Orthodox Church, saw in the Revolution the possibility of 
hope. The revolutionists, despite their contempt for religion, 
were not altogether blind to reality. They remembered that 
the evangelicals had stood apart from the Orthodox Church. 
And our Baptist leaders in Russia very wisely watched for 
opportunities to give their support to the movement that 
offered some hope to ultimate freedom, even religious liberty. 

The Russian Baptist Statement of 1928 

In June, 1928, delegates of the two Unions were permitted 
to attend the Baptist World Congress in Toronto, where the 
Baptist leader P. V. Ivanoff-Klishnikoff was able to say to the 

"The constitution of our country decrees and realizes 
in practice the complete separation of the Church from the 
State — a principle of peculiar value for Baptists at all times. 
Further, in accordance with the Constitution of the Soviet 
Republic, every citizen can propagate any religion. Religious 
freedom and anti-religious propaganda is the right of all 
citizens. The freedom of worship with any religious rites is 
guaranteed, in so far as they do not violate social safety and 
do not involve infringements on the rights of citizens of the 
Soviet Republic. In view of this, we have the full right to 
hold meetings and teach in them the Word of God, and our 
evangelistic work has already spread beyond the confines 
of the Russian people and is gradually spreading among the 
heathens and Mohammedans living in our country. Further, 
we have the possibility of publishing our periodicals . . . and 
the Books of Holy Scripture, and also received in 1927 the 
official authority to open in Moscow a Preachers' School, 
dedicated in celebration of the sixty years' existence of the 
Baptist brotherhood in Russia." 

But even while our Russian Baptist brethren were in 
Toronto, the tide was turning against them back at home, 
and the reason for this suspicion of the Baptists on the part 
of the Communist Party was the very success of their appeal. 
Space does not permit a discussion of the interesting details 
of this development, but I must refer to the promulgation of 

Baptists in the U.S.S.R. 159 

a directive in 1929, aimed primarily against the evangelical 
churches. This law of 1929 threw heavy restrictions about 
Baptist people, forbidding the right of propaganda, which 
meant the prohibition of evangelistic efforts, closing of the 
schools for preachers, and the end of printing Bibles and other 
religious literature. 

Conditions Now Improving 

Passing over the period from 1929 to about 1941, we began 
to receive assurances that Baptists in Russia were faring 
somewhat better. Space does not permit the full story, but I 
may say in a general way that communications that have 
reached Drs. Rushbrooke, Lewis and myself would definitely 
indicate that the former restrictions, instituted in 1929, are 
somewhat relaxed. Just what effect the war may have had 
on all of this, I cannot say. Just what effect the sending of 
more than 200,000 kits from Southern Baptists to the war 
sufferers of Russia may have had, I cannot say. But I quote 
two or three messages here that would seem to be reassuring. 

First, I quote from a letter, dated August 25, 1945: 

"Brother Louie D. Newton, Atlanta, Georgia, U. S. A., 
Dear Brother in Christ: Your letter of May 3rd of this year, 
has been received by us. We received it during the crowded 
days of our conference dedicated to the unification of the 
Churches of Evangelical Christians and Baptists of Estonia, 
Latvia and Lithuania with the Union of Evangelical Christ- 
ians and Baptists of the U.S.S.R. The crowded days of the 
conference, full of great and fruitful work, left us no oppor- 
tunity to write you a more detailed letter. 

"We again express, dear brother, to you and to the whole 
Baptist brotherhood of the South, as well as to all churches of 
America, our heartfelt thanks for their brotherly love and 
concern for our dear people who suffered so much in the 
days of our great struggle with our common enemy . . . 

"Now, having achieved victory and peace, we are rejoicing 
together with all of you and thank our great God for His 
help and strength He gave to us, gives, and will continue to 
give in the days of storm and rest, in the days of sorrow and 
joy . . . Our people are burning with a desire to help all our 
people in their material and spiritual needs. 

160 Christian Frontiers 

"Our Union is being strengthened and broadened, and 
God blesses our labors abundantly. We have begun publish- 
ing our Union organ, Brotherly Monitor, and are sending you 
the first number. Others will follow. We hope to meet you 
soon, not only in the United States, but also here in the 
U.S.S.R. Accept our best wishes and our most heartfelt re- 
gards. Yours in Christ, brothers and co-workers in God's field, 

"A. I. Zhidkov, President 

"A. Kerev, General Secretary 



"Moscow, Russia." 
And I close with this New Year's Message, cabled under 
date of December 29, 1945. "Hearty greetings for New Year. 
Wish fullness of blessings and plenty of fruits in service to our 
Lord. Yours Sincerely, A. I. Zhidkov, Pres't." 

Industrialization Of The South 

Lee C. Sheppard 

SINCE President Roosevelt's reference to the South as 
America's economic problem number one, many agen- 
cies, both public and private, official and non-official, have 
come into existence whose purpose it is to point out the areas 
of greatest need and indicate the lines along which realistic 
solutions may be found. For example the Southern Regional 
Council, Inc., with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, is re- 
peatedly calling attention to the fact that "the South lags 
behind the rest of the nation. The South is poor. Its resources, 
human and natural, are not fully developed. The South has 
too much sickness, too much ignorance and prejudice." Also 
it is being said that the South is potentially one of the richest 
sections of the United States. We have the man-power, the 
natural resources and the brains, all of which must be mar- 
shaled in a persistent attack against specific ills. 
The Needs are Definite 
Our poverty in relation to the rest of the nation is obvious 
to all who care to look about it, and this knowledge is sharpen- 
ed when we survey some of the stubborn statistics. There are 

Industrialization of the South 161 

thirty-seven million people living in the thirteen Southern 
states, three-fourths of whom are native whites, one-fourth 
Negroes and one per cent foreign born. We are twenty-two 
percent of the total population, living in seventeen percent 
of the nation's area, possessing only twelve per cent of the 

Our total income averages about half that of non-Southern 
states. Small wonder then that half of our people remain in 
school for as much as seven-and-one-half years, that infant 
mortality, pneumonia, tuberculosis (in the main a poor man's 
disease) and syphilis take a greater toll of life in the South 
than in other sections of the United States. In 1940, the "per 
capita annual income in the South averaged only $322, while 
the nation as a whole averaged $546. The industrial wages 
in 1939 averaged only $760 a year, less than two-thirds of 
the average for the nation." 

In regard to the important matter of health, according to 
the U. S. Commerce Department the per capita income of the 
various sections of the United States is in direct ratio to 
the number of doctors and hospital beds available. In the 
Southern states in 1940, when the per capita income averaged 
$322, there were ninety-four doctors for every hundred thou- 
sand people. On the same basis note that in the Central states 
with per capita income of $586 there were 129 doctors, in the 
Western states income $679 with 147 doctors and the North- 
eastern states income $772 with 169 doctors. What is true 
about doctors is equally true about hospital facilities. As an 
inevitable consequence, the health level of our people is low. 
Approximately half of young men drafted from the South 
into military service were rejected because of physical or 
emotional unfitness. In the non-Southern states the percent- 
age of rejectees was only thirty-five and six-tenths per cent. 
We Must Create More Wealth 

Obviously, one of the basic needs of our Southland is a 
sharp and steady increase in the total income of all our peo- 
ple, with particular reference to the low wage groups. Many 
of our leaders are conscious of this need and are at work at 
the task. Governor Ellis Arnall of Georgia has said in this 
connection, "The average American annual income at the 
time of Pearl Harbor was $604. In the South it was $314. The 

162 Christian Frontiers 

average Negro income was considerably lower. No plan to 
cure the South of its ills will succeed which does not make 
that differential its first order of business. As long as a large 
segment of our population is so far down the economic scale, 
the South will not thrive." 

More and Diversity of Industries 

According to the Department of Commerce, in 1943 the 
thirteen Southern states had a total income of twenty-six 
billions of dollars, earned as follows: sixty-six per cent in 
wages and salaries; twenty-two per cent proprietor's income; 
seven per cent, property income; five per cent all other in- 
come. Some of the needed increased income in the South can 
no doubt come from more efficient production on our farms, 
but in the main it must come from greater industrialization. 
There are more people living on our farms now than the farms 
can support in an adequate manner. Thus we suffer from a 
lower income in comparison with other sections of the nation 
which have a greater percentage of their workers in industry. 
Between forty and fifty per cent of our people live on farms 
whereas in the rest of the United States only a few more than 
twenty per cent live on farms. In our effort to raise our total 
Southern income to fifty billion or more, must we not then 
work toward a rapid increase and diversification of industries 
in the South? 

The evidence is irresistible. In 1940, Mississippi had a per 
capita income of $205 with fifty-nine per cent of her popula- 
tion on the farms. Contrast this with Florida's average per 
capita income during the same year which was $472 with 
only twenty per cent of her population on the farms. The 
figures are the same in all comparisons, the greater the in- 
come, the greater the percentage of workers in industry. 

It is the opinion of Mordecai Ezekiel of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, that by 1956 we should have approx- 
imately sixteen million gainfully employed people in the 
South — about three million on the farms, forestry and fishing, 
and the other thirteen million in non-agricultural projects, 
such as mining, manufacturing and mechanical industries, 
transportation and communication, trade, public service, pro- 
fessional service, domestic and personal service and clerical 
occupations. This will call for sixty per cent more opportun- 

Industrialization of the South 163 

ities for non-agricultural income than before the war, with, 
necessarily, a corresponding reduction in percentage of peo- 
ple dependent for a living on farming. Concluding an address 
he made in Atlanta, April 11, 1945, Mr. Ezekiel said: 

"The years immediately after the war will offer the South an 
exceptional opportunity to 'get in on the ground floor' of a nation- 
wide industrial expansion. During that period, if we are to 
achieve full employment, the nation must create new peace-time 
work places for many millions more workers than it ever em- 
ployed in peace. If the South pushes industrialization vigorously 
in that period, it can expand its industry as a part of the nation- 
wide expansion without having to steal industries from any- 
where else. It can reorganize its agriculture for greater efficiency 
and better incomes without public supports. Once that period is 
past, and the new industries are created over the country as a 
whole, the South can expand further only in strong competition 
for markets and for workers with industries already established 
in other parts of the country. During the next few years the 
South can grow with the great national post-war expansion. 
Later on would be too late — such an opportunity may not come 
again this century." 

In the necessary movement toward the industrialization 
of the South there are a number of factors we need to bear 
in mind. 

Local Ownership and Operation 

If we are to achieve a higher standard of living for our 
people, we must plan wisely and adequately and then see to 
it that steps are taken promptly and vigorously for its achieve- 
ment. One could hope, of course, that, in the main, we shall 
be able to find native capital for the establishment of these 
proposed industries. Too much of our Southern created wealth 
is being drained away from us into the North and East by 
way of excess profits and dividends. Would it not be both de- 
sirable and possible for the states to create local "R.F.C.'s" to 
provide the funds wherever local capital is not present or 
available in sufficient magnitude? Until such time as our total 
income in the South reaches the national average, it will be 
highly desirable that we retain for our own people the goods 
and services they produce by their own labor. The rights of 
tool users must be protected along with the rights of tool 

164 Christian Frontiers 

Just and Equitable Distribution 

As our total wealth increases in the South, more money 
will be available by way of taxation for the improvement 
and expansion of public institutions and services. This is as 
it ought to be. More funds are needed for the expansion of 
our educational facilities. At the present time we are doing a 
heroic and increasingly effective job with inadequate financial 
support, which cannot be forthcoming without Federal aid or 
greatly increased wealth in the South. The same is true of 
other public needs. 

But with the coming of an industrialized South, we need 
to guard against the exploitation of our people who labor with 
their hands. A just and fair proportion of goods and services 
thus produced should be made available to them in the form 
of steadily increasing incomes. This means that a dispropor- 
tionate share of the wealth must not be set aside for salaries 
of management, dividends and interest. 

In the South, if we are to find a cure for our economic ills, 
we must get rid of the philosophy of the low wage system. 
Much too long have too few of our people enjoyed incomes 
sufficient to maintain themselves on more than a bare sub- 
sistence level. 

In November, 1945, the Southern Patriot, published by 
the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, quoting from 
Bureau of Labor statistics, revealed that "during the spring 
and summer of 1943, when industry's boom was already well 
underway, average hourly rates for common labor in the 
Southeastern states for the following industries were: food 
and allied products, 38.9^; leather and leather products 40.0^; 
lumber and basic lumber products, 40.9^; furniture and fin- 
ished lumber products, 41.0^; transportation equipment and 
metals, 60.0^." Similar figures could be shown for other in- 
dustries, especially textiles. As a protection for our people, 
then, one of our first objectivees should be to set minimum 
wages at not less than decent subsistence levels and that this 
floor should be made higher as more and more wealth is 
created. None of us can be very secure, either in wealth or 
health, so long as any of us desperately needs either. 
Labor Unions are Here to Stay 

In the struggle for a higher standard of living, labor 

Industrialization of the South 165 

unions have proven their worth throughout the nation. They 
will be with us in the South in greater number as we become 
more and more industrialized. We will not only recognize 
but encourage the rights of our people to associate them- 
selves with one another for the purpose of bargaining collec- 
tively for adequate wages and decent living conditions. We 
should regard as suspiciously un-American any idea or move- 
ment which would seek to strengthen the unity of manage- 
ment and capital and at the same time seek to discourage or 
hamper the associating together of men and women who labor 
for their common welfare. We ought to work out some way 
for management, labor and the consuming public to work 
together for the good of all. 

A Challenge to the Churches 
When Jesus said, "I am come that ye might have life and 
that ye might have it more abundantly," He undoubtedly 
had in mind a spiritual quality of mind and soul gloriously 
transcending the material realm. The Kingly rule of the 
Father God, for which Jesus prayed and for which He died, 
cannot by any stretch of the imagination be declared wholly 
identical with a prosperous and just economic order. God's 
Kingdom envisions a great deal more, but surely not less 
than that. It may be true that even God can find no way to 
pour out His richest blessings upon us, until we have learned 
the elemental lesson of how to handle properly and fairly such 
simple things as food, shelter and clothing, medical care and 
educational facilities. The earth is the Lord's. The landlord 
is only His Steward, who will be held accountable for the 
proper use of the things entrusted to his care. Let us labor 
together to improve the physical lives of our people as found- 
ation and preparation for those greater reaches of spiritual 
achievement all of us would like to enjoy. 

The Baptist South 

Southern Baptists have a peculiar and an urgent respon- 
sibility. Although Baptists in general are but two per cent 
of the world's church population, in the thirteen Southern 
states of this nation we are forty-five per cent. Let this be said 
to our everlasting credit and to the glory of God. We have 
succeeded in enrolling the people in large numbers. The job 
is not perfectly done, but we are on our way. These millions 

166 Christian Frontiers 

of Baptists, as well as their friends and neighbors, provide 
us with supreme privileges and sacred obligations. Recogni- 
zing as we always have, the sacredness of the individual 
conscience before God and man, let us emphasize also the 
sacredness of all life. Let us do what we can, in all the ways 
we can, to preserve and nourish life on the physical as well 
as on the mental and spiritual levels. There must ever be a 
material reference in all our Christian experiences. 
Our Colored Friends 
In all that we undertake to do for and with one another 
as Southern people, we are not forgetting that one-fourth of 
them are members of the colored race. They, too, are citizens 
of America. Even more important, they, too, are sons of God, 
having been created in His image. What we want for white 
people, we want also for our colored brethren. For our sakes, 
as well as for theirs, in all our strivings toward the richer, 
fuller life, we would include our Negro friends who work with 
us and for us. We would help them to achieve their "inalien- 
able rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." For 
them we want equal opportunities — in the exercise of the 
franchise, local and national; equal opportunity to work that 
they may make real contributions to the wealth and health 
of all of us; equal opportunity for educational and vocational 
training; equal pay for equal quality and quantity of work. 
This is the American Way. This is the Way of the Master. It 
is His Truth and His Life. In the language of Thomas A. 
Kempis, "Without His Way there is no going, without His 
Truth no knowing, without His Life no living." 


The Tragic Sense of Life 

By William H. Poteat 

A great sense of security is 
always produced by the cool and 
spacious chambers of systematic 
philosophy, carpeted with rich 
language to deaden the sound of 
life. Man is always tempted. 
Spiritual rest — which is spiritual 
death — in a precise architecture 
of the mind never loses its 
appeal. And man's surrender is 
as old as his History and as easy 
to forgive as his fear. 

But, uninhibited by his love 
for an objective, manipulable 
cosmic order, there is lodged in 
man that spiritual protest which, 
unbidden, will suddenly ex- 
change his illusions for new and 
desperate wisdom, even at the 
price of nakedness and the loss 
of Eden. 

If this is true of ordinary men, 
it is hardly less true of philos- 
ophers. And yet how rare among 
either are eyes that can look 
unblinking at the sun? 

The recent publication of a 
volume of essays by Don Miquel 
de Unamuno entitled Perplexi- 
ties and Paradoxes* gives us 
occasion to examine the contrib- 
ution of this fearless Spanish 

The major work of Unamuno 
is the Tragic Sense of Life in 
Men and in Peoples wherein he 
sets out to "distract us from our 

* Perplexities and Paradoxes. Don 
Miquel de Unamuno. New York, 1945. 
Philosophical Library. 

distractions." Perplexities and 
Paradoxes is a collection of 
essays on every subject from 
Politics to Lust from the mind 
of this most catholic-minded 
man. Even in translation the 
sparkle of his style shows 
through. At his best Unamuno 
has no peer when armed with 
the scalpel of dialectic. More 
than this he has a gift for phrase 
making that would stab us awake 
even if he were not profound. 
Says he: "My intention is and 
will continue to be, that those 
who read my works shall think 
and meditate upon fundamental 
questions, and has never been to 
hand them completed thoughts. 
I have always sought to agitate 
and, even better, to stimulate, 
rather than to instruct. Neither 
do I sell bread, nor is it bread, 
but yeast or ferment." 

Though Unamuno himself 
would be the first to satirize such 
classification, it is interesting to 
regard him in the light of two 
important philosophical tenden- 
cies in the modern world. They 
are the tendency toward irration- 
alism and that toward existent- 

By definition these two trends 
defy systematization, but they 
represent two clear-cut approach- 
es to philosophizing. 

Irrationalism makes the em- 
phasis that there is a wisdom 


Christian Frontiers 

deeper than reason inaccessible 
to the categories of the mind, a 
kind of will so allied with life 
that it preserves life from the 
despair or the agnosticism to- 
ward which reason would lead it. 
To quote from the Tragic Sense 
of Life: "Faith is in its essence 
simply a matter of will, not of 
reason ... to believe is to wish 
to believe, and to believe in God 
is, before all and above all, to 
wish that there may be a God. 
In the same way, to believe in 
the immortality of the soul is to 
wish that the soul may be im- 
mortal, but to wish it with such 
force that this volition shall 
trample reason under foot and 
pass beyond it." 

The philosophers of existence 
fear the dangers of abstraction 
in philosophy, believing with 
Kierkegaard that too many 
philosophers have erected for 
themselves beautiful castles of 
thought only to live beside them 
in a dog house. The Existential- 
ists, to use another phrase of 
Unamuno, start with "the man 
of flesh and bone." 

To be more precise, these 
thinkers begin not with an 
epistemological argument, pro- 
ceeding to an examination of 
Reality as an "object of thought," 
and dealing with relations which 
stand "outside" the thinking 
mind. They concern themselves 
first with the reality of immed- 
iate experience in their actual 
living. Existential thinking, in 
short, starts not with philosophy 
but with the philosopher in the 
situation of his existence. 

So to reflect upon the usual 
material of philosophy is to in- 

ject a subjective pathos into all 
our knowledge. It means to be- 
gin with the terrifying implica- 
tions of existence, with the dizzy- 
ing fact of incommunicable indiv- 
idual consciousness. It is a re- 
versal of Descartes' primary as- 
sumption, "I think, therefore I 
am." As Unamuno puts it: " 'I 
think, therefore I am,' can only 
mean 'I think, therefore I am a 
thinker'; this being of the 'I 
am,' which is deduced from 'I 
think,' is merely a knowing; this 
being is knowledge, but not life. 
And the primary reality is not 
that I think, but that I live, for 
there are those who also live 
who do not think." 

This insight, of course, cuts 
back across three centuries of 
rationalism and partakes of the 
genius of the religion of Israel. It 
is within this tradition that the 
problem of personal existence is 
crucial, for here the "I am" 
which is affirmed cannot turn 
and flee from itself; it is arrested 
by the confrontation of a Divine 
and transcendent personality 
which puts, and refuses to with- 
draw the withering question: 
"Who are you?" This faith is not 
the religion of Golden Age Greece 
or of the early Christian Fathers 
which seeks to move cautiously 
on the pseudopodia of rational 
proof to the existence of God. 
This is the religion of the exist- 
ing individual, caught in the 
arms of the living God, whose 
consciousness reverberates with 
the thundering affirmation: "I 
am that I am." This is not the 
religion of systems or of theol- 
ogians, but of personalities. 

What, then, is this Tragic 



Sense of Life? It is living in that 
terrifying tension of personal 
self-consciousness, which is the 
source of all our passionate suf- 
fering, pathetically aware that 
no ultimate certainty is vouch- 
safed to us. It is to be a battle- 
ground between our reason, 
which ever holds our faith sus- 
pect, and our faith, which would 
trample reason under foot. It is 
to return to the community of 
selves whose anguish gives us 
pity and whose hunger gives us 
love. As the Spaniard puts it: 
"Scepticism, uncertainty — the po- 
sition to which reason, by prac- 
ticing its analysis upon itself, 
upon its own validity, at last 
arrives — is the foundation upon 
which the heart's despair must 
build up its hope." 

I ask myself: Is it not a cruel 
destiny (Is this destiny, indeed?) 
that I should learn to love con- 
sciousness so well only to have 
to face one day the unimaginable 
and intolerable — unimaginable 
because intolerable — the extinc- 
tion of myself? What malevol- 
ence could conspire to light this 
feeble candle which am I, only 
impatiently to snuff me out. 
Were it not better I had never 
known myself? 

What are to be the implica- 
tions of all this to our Christian 
thinking? Certainly one is that 
we ought to become familiar with 
the mind of Unamuno through 
these two books. 

Finally, we must ask: If we 
cannot "be saved" by a philos- 
ophical system, can we "be sav- 
ed" by a church? A denomina- 
tion? A priestly practice? Is not 
the ultimately religious category 

that moment when we are thrust 
back — are confronted — when we 
come face to face with our own 
mortality and seek some human 
finality to the universe? Are we 
not after all cast off from all 
companionship at this moment 
save that mystery which calls 
from beyond the beyonds saying: 
Thou art! And we are forced to 
answer in trembling: I am! What 
am I? 

The Soviet Power. 

By Hewlett Johnson, Dean of 

New York: Modern Age Books, 
1940. Price $2.50, paper binding 

35 cents. 

"The Soviet Power" was pub- 
lished in 1940. Many good books 
about Russia have come from the 
press since then, but no one 
could go wrong by reading "The 
Soviet Power" before reading 
any of the later publications. 
One reader of the book said, 
"This is the greatest book ever 
printed in the English language." 
I can hardly say that for the 
book. But I do say, it is must 
reading for those who desire to 
know the truth about Russia. 

The book is written by one of 
our international Christian lead- 
ers. He is no rabble rouser, but 
holds one of the most honorable 
positions in the Christian part of 
the world. Those who will say 
that the book presents only the 
good side of the Soviet Union 
will, I think, have to admit that 
there are good reasons to be- 
lieve that there could not have 
been any selfish reason for the 
author to omit any facts that 


Christian Frontiers 

would make his picture of Russia 
a farce. There must be a lot of 
truth in the book. 

Since 1917 we have been daily 
fed a lot of lies, half-truths 
and the ugly facts about Com- 
munistic Russia, through the 
propaganda machines of the 
economic and political imperial- 
ists. But most of us have read 
little about the constructive 
things that have been accomp- 
lished in Russia since the revo- 
lution of 1917. This book offers 
us such reading, and I know of 
no writer about Russia that we 
have more reason to trust than 
the Dean of Canterbury. 

The book is composed of six 
little books, either of which 
might be read profitably without 
reading the others. However, to 
get the full meaning of any part 
of the book it is necessary to 
start with book one and read 
straight through. 

In the first part of the book 
there is a brief, but excellent, 
autobiography of the author 
along with his appraisal of Cap- 
italism and of Christianity; a 
historical sketch of the Tsarist 
Russia and the author's esteem 
of the Soviet's program and plan. 

The rest of the book is the 
romantic story of the economic, 
political, cultural, mental and 
spiritual achievements of the 
Soviet Union. There is hardly a 
page in the book that would not 
prevent a sleepy person from 
going to sleep. The chapters, 
"The New Womanhood" and 
"Soviet Women in the East," tell 
a story of an accomplishment 
that requires going back to the 
abolition of slavery to find its 

equal. The Epilogue contains 
enough historical facts to more 
than repay for the cost of the 

It is obvious that world peace 
is impossible for long, unless 
the two greatest countries, the 
United States and Russia, at 
least, understand and appreciate 
each other. This book will help 
the people of America in this 
respect more than any other 
book. That, it seems, would 
make it a must book for every- 

The following is an example 
of the literary quality of the 

"What, it may be asked, are 
my own views and desires . . . 
I want a social order that is truly 
moral where the great masses of 
toiling humanity can be liberated 
to creative activity. I want this 
change to come, if possible, 
peacefully and with a minimum 
of social upheaval and disloca- 
tion. The way of violence inevit- 
ably creates fresh injustices and 
deepens the wells of bitterness. 

"I look out from my window 
on one of the fairest scenes in 
England's green and pleasant 
land. I see the gardens, the 
lawns, the flowers and behind 
them the Cathedral that I love; 
a poem in stone, fashioned by 
England's craftsmen throughout 
the ages, one of man's noblest 
offerings to God. Today it trem- 
bles beneath the blast of war. 
Below, in the exquisite under- 
croft chapel, little children, shel- 
tering for safety, sing their 
songs, whilst above machine 
guns rattle and bullets descend 



from the blue vault of a perfect 
September sky. 

"This is the world, beauteous 
and hideous, that mankind has 
made. What divine purpose runs 
through it? Must man ever learn 
only through suffering? One 
thing seems sure. In this brutal 
and bloody travail a new world 
is being born. These are the 
pangs of birth — not death. Purg- 
ed by this anguish men may find, 
as find I feel convinced they 
will, that only through com- 
munity, fellowship and love can 
be applied all those noble gifts 
that God has given for the en- 
richment of human life." (P. 345) 
John B. Isom 

Erasing the Color Line. 
By George M. Houser. 
New York: Fellowship 

Publications, 1945. pp. 63. 
Bibliography. $.25. 

A real test of democracy lies 
in its treatment of minority 
groups. Many forces are now 
working in the United States to 
assure justice and protection for 
racial minorities. 

In this little book the author 
seeks to explain how one ap- 
proach has been tried with suc- 
cess by Negroes and their white 
friends in some Northern urban 

He assumes at the outset that 
for the past decade there has 
been a steadily rising tide of 
tension in the intensity of the 
racial problem in America. Sev- 
eral possible approaches to the 
problem are suggested: Segre- 
gation, "the cultural pattern of 
the South, and of certain local- 

ities in the North," "reactionary." 
Neutrality, "just upholds the sta- 
tus quo." Education, "good as far 
as it goes," but not sufficiently 
virile. Political action, pressure 
group technique. Legal action, 
helps some. Government action, 
enforced policy, helps temporar- 
ily. Violence, sometimes justified, 
but leads to hostile public opin- 
ion. Non-violent direct action, 
group action discipline with the 
power of persuasion to change 

The non-violent approach Mr. 
Houser discusses at length by 
citing groups practicing such di- 
rect action in restaurants, barber 
shops, swimming pools, skating 
rinks, theatres, prisons, and in 
employment discrimination. 
Techniques used are: investiga- 
tion of the injustice, negotiation, 
education, public pressure, de- 
monstrations, non-cooperation, 

Most obvious weaknesses of 
the book are: 

All illustrations are taken 
from Northern urban society. 
The author does not come to 
grips with the racial problem in 
the South or in rural society 
where most Negroes live and 
work. The discussion deals with 
only one minority racial group, 
and we have several in America. 
No mention is made of the one 
most essential element in shap- 
ing moral character and social 
structure — religion. No assurance 
is given that non-violent action 
on a larger scale will not be- 
come violent. The matter of dis- 
cipline in such action is of para- 
mount importance. 

The book is well worth read- 


Christian Frontiers 

ing, but is not a vital discussion 
of one of America's most urgent 
social problems. 

Garland A. Hendricks 

How to Read and Enjoy 

the Bible. 
By Maurice Clarke. 
Louisville. The Cloister Press, 
1944. pp 72. Bibliography. $1.00. 

In the introduction of this 
volume, the reader is informed 
"that this is not a book to be 
read," for it is a work book. It 
suggests Bible reading that re- 
quires thoughtful study, reading 
of supplementary material, and 
the answering of specific ques- 
tions. The content is in complete 
accord with all the title suggests. 
In connection with the outline 
of study, a bibliography has been 
carefully selected as tools for the 
study of the Bible. A directed 
study of individual books and 
characters is presented; also 
tracing the development of great 
ideas, as the conception of God, 
and other doctrinal views, found 
in both the Old and New Testa- 
ments. Thought provoking ques- 
tions are raised. Answers to 
these questions are to be found 
through suggested reading, aid- 
ed by "hints" from the author. 

This volume is well-arranged 
and will greatly aid in eradica- 
tion, if studiously followed, the 
general compaint among Pro- 
testant leaders concerning the 
Bible "that it is very little read 
and less understood." The author 
replaces random or aimless Bible 

reading with guided and progres- 
sive study. The reader is chal- 
lenged to a broad and analytical 
study of the Bible that should 
enhance its value, retain the 
beauty, and enable him to find 
in it added meaning for the re- 
ligious issues of life. When pos- 
sible, it is advisable that train- 
ed leadership assist in the study 
of the book, for references and 
questions are perhaps above the 
understanding of the average 
layman, and suggested sources 
are not generally available. 

J. Wade Baker 


The Way, the Truth and the Life. 
By Glenn Clark. New York: Har- 
per & Bros., 1946. 
Little Superman. By Heinrich 
Mann. New York: Creative Age 
Press, 1945. 

Tolstoy. By Janko Lavrin. New 
York: McMillan & Co., 1946. 
Christianity in Crisis. By Eric 
Montizambert. Louisville: The 
Cloister Press, 1945. 
The Significance of Silence and 
other Sermons. By Leslie Weath- 
erhead. Nashville: Abingdon- 
Cokesbury, 1946. 
White Man's Burden. By Ruth 
Smith. New York, 1946. The Van- 
guard Press. 

River of Years. By Joseph Fort 
Newton. New York, 1946. J. P. 
Lippincott Co. 

Foundations of Reconstruction. 
By Elton Trueblood. New York, 
1946. Harper and Bros. 



M. Dawson, of Waco, Texas, 
chairman of the Southern Bap- 
tist Convention committee on 
world peace, was one of a num- 
ber of witnesses who appeared 
before the House military affairs 
committee to protest extension 
of the Selective Service and 
Training Act of 1940, as amended, 
which expires May 15. 

He said in an extemporaneous 
statement that his committee be- 
lieves the Army's needs can be 
obtained through voluntary en- 

The armed services are seek- 
ing a one-year extension of the 
draft.— (RNS). 

OFFERED $16,000,000 

Forest College, 112-year-old Bap- 
tist institution, has been offered 
more than $16,000,000 by the Rey- 
nolds Foundation of North Caro- 
lina on condition the school move 
from Wake Forest to Winston- 
Salem where the Baptist med- 
ical school and hospital are now 

Announcement of the offer was 
made by John Oates of Fayette- 
ville, N. C, president of the Wake 
Forest Board of Trustees. Under 
the proposed plan, the Founda- 

tion's net income of $235,000 an- 
nually would be pledged to the 
school. As the Foundation grows, 
the net income is expected to 
reach $350,000 annually. 

Final decision on accepting 
the gift will be made by the 
North Carolina Baptist Conven- 
tion, meeting in November. 


LOS ANGELES— At a service 
of the All People's Christian 
Church and Community Center 
here, twelve persons proved that 
brotherhood can be a reality and 
that democracy can succeed in 

When Pastor Dan B. Genung 
extended an invitation to mem- 
bership, four Caucasians, two 
Mexicans, two Japanese, three 
Negroes, and one Chinese re- 

Two weeks later, when the in- 
vitation was renewed at the close 
of a church service, two Negro 
young people joined the church, 
a home missions institution of 
Disciples of Christ supported by 
funds of the United Christian 
Missionary Society of Indian- 

J. E. Wilkinson of the Holly- 
wood-Beverly Christian Church 
is chairman of the advisory board 
of the All People's Church. 
— (RNS). 


Christian Frontiers 


NASHVILLE, Tenn. — A $12,- 
000,000 program for 1947, double 
the 1946 goal, will be recommend- 
ed to the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention when it meets at Miami, 
Fla., May 15-19, it was announced 
following a meeting of the Ad- 
ministrative Committee of the 
Convention's Executive Commit- 
tee here. 

Five million dollars will be the 
goal for the regular Cooperative 
Program of the denomination, 
and an additional $7,000,000 will 
be sought in Southwide cam- 
paigns for relief and rehabilita- 
tion of Southern Baptist work 
at home and abroad. 

The $7,000,000 goal for relief 
and rehabilitation in 1947 would 
be divided as follows: (1) The 
Foreign Mission Board, $1,500,- 
000 for relief and $2,000,000 for 
rehabilitation, a total of $3,500,- 
000; (2) Home Mission Board, 
$500,000; (3) Southern Baptist 
Seminary, $967,000; (4) South- 
western Seminary, $829,000; (5) 
Baptist Bible Institute, $829,000; 
(6) American Baptist Seminary 
(Negro), $75,000; (7) Relief and 
Annuity Board, $250,000; (8) Ra- 
dio Committee, $50,000.— (RNS). 


GENEVA (By Wireless)— A 
ratio of two-thirds for spiritual 
aid and one-third for material 
aid to churches in war-affected 
countries was set by the Depart- 
ment of Reconstruction and In- 

ter-Church Aid of the World 
Council of Churches here as its 
goal for the next six months. 
The decision was made at a con- 
ference attended by delegates 
from the United States and 
twelve European countries, who 
agreed to change this ratio semi- 

A resolution adopted by the 
conference declared churches 
should bear the sole responsibil- 
ity of rebuilding religious life, 
while the main burden of relief 
should rest upon government 
and secular agencies. 

"It is our conviction that Eu- 
rope needs most of all a spiritual 
revival, which can only come 
through strengthening the 
churches," the resolution stated. 
"It is the clear demand of Christ- 
ian long-term strategy that we 
concentrate our energy on this 
first, preeminent task." 

Dr. Robbins W. Barstow, of 
New York, director of the Com- 
mission for World Council Serv- 
ice, told the conference it would 
be "tragic if American churches 
used church aid for denomina- 
tional propaganda, and equally 
tragic if Europe used it in a 
way that would increase denom- 
inationalism and divisiveness." 

An English delegate, Eleanora 
Iredale, secretary of the British 
Council of Christian Reconstruc- 
tion in Europe, warned that 
churches must not be content at 
this time to tackle only immed- 
iate reconstruction needs. She 
said churches "must also lay the 
foundations for international 
friendship which will enable 
churches of all countries rep- 
resented in the World Council 



to be a really living, working co- 
operative fellowship." 

Miss Iredale said British 
churchmen are anxious to aid 
continental ministers, theological 
students and able young church 
leaders to visit Britain and ex- 
change ideas as to how best to 
build the church together. 

Dr. Alphons Koechlin, presi- 
dent of the Swiss Church Fed- 
eration, who presided urged that 
such visits be reciprocal. He said 
the continent is "anxious for 
visitors from the United States 
and Great Britain."— (RNS). 


San Diego, California. — Declar- 
ing that "a paramount requisite 
in the American system of edu- 
cation is social equality," Fed- 
eral Judge Paul J. McCormick 
recently outlawed segregation 
of Mexican school children in 
Orange County, where the educa- 
tional authorities had maintain- 
ed separate schools for pupils of 
Mexican parentage. Overruling 
the defense argument that the 
Mexican children were handicap- 
ped by deficiencies in the use of 
English, the Court asserted that 
evidence showed language tests 
had often been inadequate, and 
that the mere giving of a Mexi- 
can or other lLatin American 
name resulted automatically in 
segregation. Judge McCormick 
also held that "Spanish-speaking 
children are retarded in learn- 
ing English by lack of exposure 
to its use because of segrega- 
tion. ..." 

While the decision was hand- 
ed down with specific reference 
to a single county in a single 
state, it is expected to have ev- 
entual repercussions throughout 
California and to be widely quot- 
ed in subsequent cases in other 
states of the Union. It has been 
hailed with enthusiasm by those 
who have been working for bet- 
ter relations with Mexicans in- 
side the United States and Mex- 
ico, as well as with Latin Amer- 
icans everywhere. 

Segregation, said Judge Mc- 
Cormick, clearly disturbed rights 
that were "secured by the su- 
preme law of the land." Even 
in cases requiring temporary 
separation of students in special 
language classes, so that indiv- 
idual treatment could be given, 
the Court ruled that "such segre- 
gation must be based wholly up- 
on indiscriminate foreign lan- 
guage impediments in the in- 
dividual child, regardless of his 
ethnic traits or ancestry." 

— (WP). 


MIAMI, Fla. — The Greater 
Miami Ministerial Association 
unanimously adopted a resolu- 
tion here opposing revival of the 
Ku Klux Klan in South Florida; 
disassociating the Protestant 
church from "such an intolerant 
movement;" asking people to re- 
frain from joining the organiza- 
tion; and calling upon officials 
to stop it so far as legally pos- 

The action followed an appeal 
by the president, Rev. C. G. 


Christian Frontiers 

Johnstone, who said the press 
had asked the pastors to take a 

Rev. Glenn C. James of the 
White Temple Methodist church 
charged that the Klan is mainly 
supported by pagans, not Pro- 
testants, but that Jews and 
Catholics are inclined to place 
responsibility for it upon Pro- 

Rev. J. Blanton Bell, president 
of the Ministers' Association of 
Richmond, Va., endorsed the 
action of the Miami association, 
terming the intolerance of the 
Klan a great danger to the 
country.— (RNS). 


GENEVA (By Wireless)— Ital- 
ian Protestants are still denied 
complete freedom of religion, 
Manfredi Ronchi, executive sec- 
retary of the Baptist Union of 
Italy, told a press conference 
here closing a five-day meeting 
of the Department of Reconstruc- 
tion and Inter-Church Aid of the 
World Council of Churches. 

"Italian Protestants," Ronchi 
declared, "do not yet have full 
freedom of religion because Fas- 
cist church laws are still effec- 
tive. The Allies abolished Fascist 
racial decrees but not the church 

laws. One of these church laws 
forbids Protestants to purchase 
land for new churches or to rent 
quarters for religious services." 


ANCHORAGE, Alaska — Rep- 
resentatives of several Baptist 
groups will meet at the First 
Baptist church here, April 10-11, 
for the purpose of organizing an 
Alaska Baptist Convention, the 
Rev. William A. Petty, president 
of the College of Alaska, an- 

Baptist work in Alaska was 
started by a Southern Baptist 
chaplain about three years ago 
and has grown to include 
churches at Anchorage and Jun- 
eau, missions at Fairbanks and 
East Anchorage, and the college. 
Ground has already been ob- 
tained on a small lake for an 
orphanage and for summer en- 
campments. All churches and 
missions have pastors. 

"With a convention organized 
and cooperative funds coming 
in, missionaries can be sent out 
to build new missions that will 
grow into new churches," Mr. 
Petty said. "How wonderful it 
is that Alaska, America's last 
frontier which is one-sixth the 
size of the United States, may 
even yet be built upon the solid 
rock, Jesus Christ. — (RNS). 


JUiN 1 § 4* 


A Journal of Baptist Life and Thought 
Vol. I JUNE, 1946 No. 6 


Das Kelley Barnett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlator, Associate Editor William H. Poteat, Book Editor 

Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 
H. B. Cross, Nashville, Tenn. Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 

George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C. 

J. M. Dawson, Waco, Texas J. C. Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia 


George D. Heaton, Chairman Jasper C. Hutto, Secretary 

J. Glenn Blackburn J. Wade Baker 

Claude U. Broach E. Norfleet Gardner 

C. Sylvester Green Fred B. Helms 

Eugene I. Olive Fon H. Scofield 

Lee C. Shefpard 


Editorials 179 

What Think Ye of the Christ? W. 0. Carver 183 

My Brother's Keeper J. T. McRae 191 

Worker-Management Cooperation Wilson Woodcock 195 

Rural Churches in an Urban Civilization 

Garland A. Hendricks 196 

Books 200 

Correspondence 202 

News 205 

Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laymen. Address all corres- 
pondence to Box 508, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Copyright 1946 by the Baptist 
Book Club. Second class mailing privilege pending. Subscription price, two dollars 
a year; twenty-five cents a copy. Printed by The Graphic Press, Inc., Raleigh, N. C. 

Who's Who In This Issue 

W. 0. CARVER, Professor Emeritus of Missions at the 
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary at Louisville, Ky., 
is the author of numerous books and articles on religious 

J. T. McRAE, a graduate of Bowman Gray Medical School 
of Wake Forest College in Winston-Salem, N. C, is a vol- 
unteer for foreign missions service but is now serving in the 
United States Army. 

WILSON WOODCOCK is the pastor of the College Park 
Baptist Church in Greensboro, N. C. 

GARLAND A. HENDRICKS, frequent contributor to this 
magazine, is pastor of Olive Chapel at Apex, N. C. 

THIS MONTH'S REVIEWERS: J. Glenn Blackburn, 
graduate of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in 
Louisville, Ky., is pastor of the First Baptist Church at Lum- 
berton, N. C. Lee C. Sheppard is pastor of the Pullen Me- 
morial Baptist Church in Raleigh, N. C. R. A. Ellis is pastor 
of the First Baptist Church at Salisbury, N. C. 


Labor Unions Southward Ho 

ANOTHER invasion is about to move south of the 
Mason and Dixon Line. This time it is the ranks, not 
of the Federal Government, but of organized labor, but it 
would be difficult to decide which of the "furriners" is more 
devoutly resented. Like it or not, the C.I.O. and the A.F. of L. 
are out to recruit the southern laborer and they are going 
to succeed. Their ambitious programs, already launched in 
competition with each other, aim at the organization not of 
thousands but of hundreds of thousands of southern workers. 
The South, they frankly insist, will be organized with definite 
and obvious political aims in view. As one leader put it: "The 
C.I.O. in Tennessee is going to get its feet wet in politics this 
year. We're going to jump right into the middle of the political 
scene and stage a real campaign to get all C.I.O. members and 
everybody else in the state to vote in the August elections." 
What sort of fate this virile entrance into politics spells for 
the traditional poll tax, anti-labor, white supremacy congress- 
man we have been sending year after year back to Washing- 
ton can be easily guessed. 

The important thing for the churches to remember at the 
outset is the fact that while many of labor's most capable 
leaders are churchmen, and loyal churchmen, the labor move- 
ment as a whole has struggled and progressed without ben- 
efit of clergy and church, conscious for the most part of a 
silent if not overt opposition of institutional religion. Here 
is developing in our Southland, if we can but see it, what 
may in less than a generation be the strongest political force 
among us, which is none too friendly to our churches, and 
on which our churches, in their bourgeoise complacency, have 
lost little friendship. Here is a field which should stir our 
missionary zeal just as deeply as "the lesser breeds without 
the law" on some foreign shore. There is a "New South" in 
the making, a South which even the prophetic eyes of Henry 
W. Grady could not have visualized. And it must never be 
forged apart from the Church of the Living God. Then let 

180 Christian Frontiers 

the labor union organize the laborer and the laborer in God's 
vineyard Christianize the labor union. — W.W.F. 

"Shall We Say Grace?" 

"VVTHETHER at the feeding of the five thousand in a 
" desert place apart or at the sharing of the paschal 
feast in the upper room, our Lord remembered to bless and 
give thanks before eating. "Saying the grace" has through 
the centuries been the custom of his followers, thus making 
a sacrament of the breaking of bread. Today, however, in an 
age of streamlined irreverence, this ancient custom seems to 
be losing in a struggle for survival. Every minister has felt 
the tension, the uncertainty, the embarrassment in homes 
where it has long since been abandoned. And in a public 
restaurant who would court the risk of being thought odd, or 
a pious humbug at best, by asking a group, "Shall we have a 

In her column, "My Day," Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt re- 
cently deplored the loss of the habit of saying grace and 
observed how wholeheartedly we should enter into thanks- 
giving for our easily-acquired bounty. And then she mention- 
ed — and the order is perfect — a cartoon by Herblock of the 
Washington Post in which three correct, comfortable-looking, 
conventional people sit down to an ample table against a 
background of thousands of half-starved, skeletonized chil- 
dren's faces. And the caption reads: "Shall we say grace?" 
Perhaps the best way to stultify our consciences is to refrain 
from saying grace, for no one can sincerely thank God for his 
daily consumption of 3,300 and more calories without think- 
ing grimly of the diet of millions upon millions of others who 
are trying to subsist upon 1,300, and 1,000, and 800 calories. 
Gratitude is always followed by a desire to share, and grat- 
itude seems too uncomfortable a thing to America today. 

Herblock's cartoon, however, has been reprinted and post- 
ed in public eating places. It ought to be hung in every home 
and every heart. — W.W.F. 

Free the Conscientious Objectors 181 

Free the Conscientious Objectors 

NOTHING just now should be more disturbing to the 
conscience of America than the continued imprison- 
ment of men who went to prison during the war because of 
their convictions. While the public would nod general ap- 
proval to any amnesty granted to felons released from prison 
to serve honorably in military service, it should not be allow- 
ed to forget that the conscientious objectors, still in prison 
though war has passed, cannot in the ordinary sense be 
classed as felons. Congress and the White House should be 
bombarded with appeals for a general amnesty for them now 
and for the restoration of full civil rights to them and to 
other conscientious objectors who have completed their 

The Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America 
has through its president, Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam, sent 
an appeal to President Truman conveying a resolution adopt- 
ed by the Executive Committee of the Council. Bishop Oxnam 
said in part: "It is our earnest hope that such steps may be 
taken as are required to release men who are imprisoned 
solely for the sake of conscientious convictions . . . Now that 
the war is over there is no reason to hold longer in prison 
men who believed they could not bear arms because of firmly 
held principles of religious conscience and individual liberty. 
While most churchmen do not share the views of these men 
concerning war, they are fully sensitive to the vital impor- 
tance of preserving freedom to believe and to act according 
to the deepest convictions of individual conscience . . . We 
are convinced that presidential amnesty in their behalf would 
be in keeping with our American ideals of democracy and 
individual freedom." — W.W.F. 

The Negro and the Ballot 

DR. 0. P. GILBERT, editor of The Christian Index, a 
Georgia Baptist convention publication, in a recent 
speech to the Georgia Council of Church Women said, "I do 
not believe we should make any distinction at the polls on 
the basis of color, but I think the franchise should be based 

182 Christian Frontiers 

on the intelligence of the people ... I'm wondering if the 
Negro, as a whole, is capable of voting intelligently. The 
Negro is an emotional man. For a time he will be concerned 
with paying off and getting even at the polls." 

CHRISTIAN FRONTIERS agrees with Dr. Gilbert that 
we should not make any distinction at the polls on the basis 
of color; however, we think the other part of his statement — 
"I am wondering if the Negro, as a whole, is capable of 
voting intelligently" — is certainly open to question. Of course, 
we all agree that voting should be based on intelligence; but 
after all, intelligence is a relative matter. Just how intelligent 
should a man be to vote, and who is to appraise this intell- 

Obviously Dr. Gilbert is laboring under that form of 
stereotype thinking which blinds the Southerner to the true 
nature of the problem. "The Negro is an emotional man." 
Here is a blanket statement against an entire race. All think- 
ing which refuses to see the Negro as an individual is unfair 
and unchristian. Dr. Gilbert is to be commended for his will- 
ingness to do away with color as a basis of distinction at 
the polls; however, he is not yet free from the type of 
thinking so dear to the hearts of Southerners. CHRISTIAN 
FRONTIERS advocates at all times that the Negro should 
be looked upon as an individual human being and not through 
the smoked lens of stereotype thinking. — J). KB. 

What Think Ye of the Christ? 183 

What Think Ye of the Christ? 

W. O. Carver 

JESUS ADDRESSED this question to the official leaders 
of the Jewish religion and nation at the consummation 
of his ministry. (See Matthew 23:41-46.) These leaders had 
been seeking in repeated approaches to test Him out and to 
pass judgment on Him and to discredit Him before the 
masses. The climax of their attacks came when a scribe posed 
the question: "Teacher, which is the great commandment in 
the law?" After answering this, Matthew tells us that while 
He had these officials before Him, He asked them this crucial 
question: "What think ye of the Christ? Whose son is He?" 

He was not asking them their opinion of Himself person- 
ally. He was not now presenting Himself to them as the 
Messiah and asking, "What is your reaction to me?" He was 
asking them about their theory concerning the nature, the 
origin, the explanation and the work of the Messiah whom 
they expected and desired. They were ready with the answer. 
The question seemed to them entirely simple. They say unto 
Him, "David's son." That was to be taken as of course. But 
He is not done with them. Directing their attention to the 
110th Psalm, He asked: "How then do you explain that in 
the Spirit David calls the Christ his Lord?" Then from the 
Psalm: "Jehovah said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right 
hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool?" Then Jesus 
asks, "If David called the Messiah his Lord, how can He be 
David's son?" 

This ended the discussion, and we are told that from then 
on none of them dared ask him anything else. Jesus was thus 
leading them to the basic matter of all interpretation of Jesus. 
In the last analysis, in the ultimate explanation, how is the 
Messiah to be classified? Whose son is He? David's or God's? 
On the answer to that question hang all the controversies 
concerning the person of Jesus Christ. That question is of 
primary importance in the present world situation. The 
Christian message involves the interpretation of Christ whom 
we identify with Jesus. Whose son is He that He should be 
proclaimed and offered as the saviour of men and of man- 
kind; the hope and the promise of world community in the 

184 Christian Frontiers 

integration of all the sections and sects of our present confused 
and distraught humanity? 


It is quite clear that Jesus meant definitely to reject the 
popular conception and also the theological interpretation 
of the Messiah whom God was to send "to save His people 
from their sins." So far as the record reveals, He does not 
discuss the implications of His question and of the radical 
difference between their theories and His claims. We can see 
at least three reasons why He rejected the explanation of the 
Messiah — Himself in His consciousness — which they offered. 

First, as a son of David He would be a political Messiah. 
He would found a world empire with the Jews as the nucleal 
center and Jerusalem as the capital. Under this empire all the 
kingdoms of the world would be subordinated and thus would 
share in the blessings of heaven which the messianic reign 
was to bring. To be sure it would be an empire of peace, of 
justice, of liberty in all respects, but still a political empire. 
Jesus had faced this question in the wilderness temptations 
following his baptism. Satan had offered Him "all the king- 
doms of the world and their glory." He decisively rejected it 
then; He persistently refused to accept it at the wish of His 
followers throughout his ministry; He rejects it now as not 
the sort of kingdom God was promising to the Hebrews or 
to the world. 

The same question came up in another form when He 
stood before Pilate. When Pilate persisted in having him say 
whether or not He was a king, He agreed that He was, but 
not in the conception of king and kingdom which Pilate and 
the Jews had in mind. "My kingdom is not the kind that is 
sought by men in this age. If my kingdom was of this type 
then my officers would organize an army and lead it in con- 
quest. They would not permit me to be delivered to the Jews. 
But in fact my kingdom does not derive from such a source." 
(See John 18:33 ff.) 

A second reason why Jesus did not accept as a definitive 
explanation of Himself and His function that He was son of 
David lay in the fact that He would thus be a racial Messiah. 
In practically if not absolutely all the Jewish consciousness 
and hope of His day the Messiah was to accomplish and 

What Think Ye of the Christ? 185 

constitute His work in the world as a member and a con- 
summation of the Hebrew race. In His kingdom and reign 
the Hebrews would be at the head of the world. All other 
nations would share in the blessings of the messianic king- 
dom; but this would be on a plane of subordination and 
gladly confessed inferiority of standing in relation to God and 
His kingdom. The chief places in the kingdom would belong 
to Jews. Their position under the Messiah would be based 
on their right under the covenant with Abraham and by 
reason of their racial heritage from him. Jesus had definitely 
repudiated the racial concept for His messiahship and king- 

History has shown how vitally important this principle 
is. Recent modern history underscores that importance. Not 
one race but many have cursed themselves and hindered the 
progress of peace on earth and the hope of world community 
by reason of a complex of racial or national superiority and 
a will to hold first place among the peoples of the earth. In 
most such cases these "superior" races have, in varying de- 
grees, claimed their sanction and the calling of divinity and 
of destiny. That is, they have adopted a messianic complex. 
It is sufficient to mention Italians, who have through fifteen 
centuries claimed first place in the Roman Catholic hierarchy 
which stresses its claim to the vice-gerency of God on earth 
with the right and the obligation to control all the nations 
and all the peoples; the Germans, who in one form and an- 
other from period to period have boasted their superiority 
and tried to establish it among the nations; the Anglo-Saxons, 
who in their older branch have developed the most powerful 
empire in history and have executed their rule with modest 
arrogance and their domination of races, vast and small, by 
the uncontestable relative benefits which they have bestowed 
upon all peoples. In their younger American branch the 
Anglo-Saxons have for their first three hundred years been 
happy in the isolation which their continent afforded them 
and in "the most perfect form of government" and "the 
highest standard of human living" ever to be experienced by 
a group of humanity, then in their last hundred years been 
gradually drawn into an imperialism which now weighs heavy 
upon their conscience but from which they have not found a 

186 Christian Frontiers 

way of escape. The case is the same for the Japanese in their 
century of preparation for and attempt at world dominion. 
The tragedy of the Jews, so far as it is to be found within 
themselves and not in the injustice of other peoples, lies in 
their persistence of belief in racial superiority and messianic 
calling, a calling which they have never been willing actively 
to accept and discharge as a gospel for one human race. 

We ought to be able now to see the deep wisdom and the 
divine courage of Jesus in refusing to accept the role of 
national Messiah which was involved in the Jewish use of 
the title son of David. 

We have yet to note the most fundamental of all reasons 
why Jesus refused this explanation. Son of David implied 
a human Messiah, perfect, glorious, unselfish, godly, gen- 
erous toward all men, but still human. He would be a supreme 
prophet — spokesman for the eternal God — , the perfect ethical 
and spiritual teacher, the arbiter of ethical righteousness and 
justice, the prince of peace, yet in it all only the supreme 
human being, essentially son of man and only that. 

The first generation of Christians, the apostles and proph- 
ets of Christianity, quickly discerned that the Christ whom 
they knew in their remembered and reported experiences of 
Jesus in the flesh, and especially in their experiences of the 
power of the Lord of glory in their own lives and work— that 
their Saviour and Lord could not be explained as a member of 
the human race. To be sure He was Son of Man. That was 
gloriously true and transcendently important. But that was 
not the truth. He had become Son of Man. He was essentially 
Son of God. Only thus could they understand Him. The Son 
of God had become Son of Man in order that He might bring 
to all the sons of men the possibility of becoming spiritual 
children of God. 

Out of the basic conviction and rational necessity, they 
developed, without defining, their conception of the Trinity 
and understanding of atonement and reconciliation; of the 
purpose and destiny of their gospel; of "the glory of God in 
the church and in Christ Jesus throughout all generations 
of the age of the ages." Thus they understood themselves to 
be the bearers of "the gospel of the glory of the blessed Lord." 
This conviction which the life, and the teachings, and the 

What Think Ye of the Christ? 187 


living power of Jesus the Christ has constituted the core of 
Christian history. And this interpretation of the son of David 
as the Son of Man because first of all Son of God is the only 
gospel for our own confused, suffering, and yet hopeful period 
of disastrous crisis for the human race. 


The concern of Jesus that His gospel and enterprise 
should have a firm basis in the right interpretation of His 
person as Messiah is emphasized in a different way in an- 
other connection. All three synoptic Gospels report the crucial 
interview with the Twelve at Caesarea Philippi. There He is 
dealing with His own men, chosen and trained thus far to 
take over the responsibilities of the movement which He is 
inaugurating and on which the glory of God in the life of 
humanity will depend. 

Jesus has been very patient with these men. He has 
adopted the method of inductive experience and reflection for 
them to arrive at their interpretation of Him. In dealing with 
the recognized Jewish leaders in the question considered 
above He was asking concerning their understanding of the 
nature of the Messiah, not bringing forward the question of 
Himself as the Messiah. Here with the Twelve the question 
is specifically about the interpretation of His own person. 
"Whom do men say that I, the Son of Man, am?" "Whom 
say ye that I am?" 

He and they have reached a point at which it is necessary 
for them to define in explicit terms their experience of Him 
as they have known Him through more than two years, and 
as they have been intimately associated with Him for more 
than a year. They have given up their occupations, adjusted 
their personal and economic life to give themselves up fully 
to participation in the work which He is doing and to the 
kingdom which He is inaugurating. He knew that the de- 
terminative clash between His purpose and ideals and the 
hopes and ambitions of the Jewish people will not be delayed 
beyond a few more months. It is of the utmost importance 
that these friends of His shall be prepared for this experience 
and for what lies beyond it by clear-cut convictions concern- 
ing His person as the center of His message and of His move- 
ment. Hence this occasion and interview is of supreme im- 

188 Christian Frontiers 

portance to Him and to them, an importance which they do 
not yet comprehend. 

He begins by having them report the various reactions 
of the people concerning Him. These reactions were various 
and rather vague. It is significant that all of them placed Him 
in the category of prophets. He was for everybody an unusual 
person in the highest relation to God which their forms of 
thinking provided. But this was not enough for the men who 
were to be entrusted with His future and His plans for 

He now asks them to formulate the conclusions to which 
they have been led through these varied intimate associations 
with Him and participation in His teaching, His work and 
the projection of His purpose which have thus far come into 
their consciousness. Peter answers with enthusiasm. They 
are sure that He is the Christ. Matthew gives us the fullest 
report, and reports that Peter added "the Son of the living 
God." The critical canon for dealing with multiple reports of 
events and sayings, that the shortest is the original while 
longer ones represent elaborations of reporters, is very super- 
ficial. Mark, for example, is obviously condensed at many 
points, as he produced his brief "Introduction to the Good 
News of Jesus Christ." We cannot of course be certain that 
Matthew's report represents exactly Peter's words. It is quite 
possible that Peter said much more than even Matthew re- 

The really important thing is that they placed Jesus 
definitely in a unique category, above all prophets, the final 
revealer and founder of God's promised order for the world. 
It may well be that at this time none of the Twelve would 
have thought of the Messiah as in any metaphysical sense 
Son of God. All that this term could mean for them they were 
in all probability prepared to attribute to Jesus at this time. 

Jesus was rejoiced at the confession. It represented an 
experience which He explained as due to the working within 
Peter's spirit of the Father in Heaven. It was not a human 
discovery or teaching ("flesh and blood did not reveal it to 
him.") The Father in Heaven and these men on earth in their 
experience of Him were in agreement as to the interpretation 
of His person. On this bed-rock of a divinely mediated expe- 

What Think Ye of the Christ? 189 

rience and interpretation Jesus could rest His hope of the 
future, and make it the foundation of the church and kingdom 
which He will build and bring into the world. This experience 
definitely realized in any man makes of that man "a living 
stone" (Petros) ready to be placed in the structure of that 
church which is to be the abiding agency of the kingdom of 
God (cf I Peter 2:4), the "pillar and the ground of the 
truth" which is to determine the destiny of humanity (I 
Tim. 4:15). 

Into the hands of men with this experience can be placed 
"the keys of the kingdom" which are to define the terms of 
admission to men who may enter and share in its meaning. 

Jesus could not feel that his mission was secure until this 
experience had become definite in these few men. If it can 
be made definite and determinative in them it can be repro- 
duced in other men and so "the gates of Hades" will never be 
able to resist the growth and the power of the work of "the 
Christ the Son of the living God." 


Yet even this is not enough. Notwithstanding His joy in 
having realized this much, He strongly charges that the 
Twelve will "tell no man that he is the Christ" at present. 
Why this charge becomes immediately evident — "From that 
time Jesus entered upon a course of instruction of His dis- 
ciples that He must go to Jerusalem, suffer many things at the 
hands of the chief priests and the scribes and the elders and 
be put to death, and on the third day arise." 

The reaction of the Twelve to the thought of the Messiah 
being killed was violent. Such an idea was utterly beyond 
belief and repugnant to all their ideas and expectations. Peter 
exclaimed, "Mercy, Lord, this shall not be!" He represented 
the unanimous feeling of all. The Messiah comes to take a 
throne, not to hang on a cross. He comes to rule in power and 
glory not to humiliation and death, which for them at this 
stage could only mean failure. 

The disappointment of Jesus expresses itself in stern re- 
buke: "Get back behind me, Satan; you are a stumbling block; 
you are not thinking in terms of the nature and purpose of 
God but in terms of human ideas and ambitions." Then he 

190 Christian Frontiers 

went on: "Not only do I go to the cross, but any man who 
wishes to go along with me must definitely repudiate the 
claims of his own personal ego, get him a cross, ready also 
for crucifixion, and then come along after me." Thus He 
raised emphatically the issue of the method of Messiahship 
in accomplishing his work. Not by power and domination but 
by sacrifice and suffering, by death and reconciliation, will 
men be brought into the kingdom of God. 

A deep estrangement held Jesus and the Twelve aloof for 
a week. Then He selected three to spend a night in the 
mountain in prayer with Him. In that prayer experience, 
with the week of meditation, reflection and struggle to help 
them to understand, these three saw Him transfigured; heard 
Moses and Elijah discussing with Him this method of His 
death which the Twelve would not even permit Him to talk 
about; and heard a voice out of the cloud saying: "This is my 
Son, beloved, hear Him," as He interprets the necessity for 
the death of the Messiah as the Son of God in behalf of the 
sons of men. 

By the two incidents which we have outlined in this paper 
Jesus made the true understanding and acceptance of His 
person the necessary starting point and power of the Christian 
gospel, the one hope for a redeemed world. Today all who use 
His name to declare divine deliverance from the chaos of 
confusion and ruin must start with the right experience of 
Jesus as the Son of God. 

My Brother's Keeper 191 

My Brother's Keeper 

J. T. McRae 

CHRISTIAN COUNSELING means the guidance of 
others in the way of Christ, usually by means of the 
person-to-person interview. In its broadest sense it includes 
soul-winning. In its more narrow meaning it implies the 
effort on the part of one individual to find an answer to his 
problems based on Christian principles by means of con- 
ferring with another individual. It is to this latter use of the 
term that we give particular attention now. 

Very often in the life of each individual there arise pro- 
blems that must be solved, decisions that must be made, and 
plans that must be formulated and executed. The necessity 
for meeting these situations at times and in certain indiv- 
iduals causes mental confusion and conflict, thereby making 
the problem even more formidable, the issue even more 
obscure, and the plans even more difficult of achievement. 
Thus a vicious cycle is set up. It is out of just such situations 
as this that advice is often sought. Christian counseling does 
not end with the giving of advice, but aims toward leading 
the seeker to his greatest effectiveness in joyous Christian 

In every case the effectiveness of one's witness for Christ 
is in direct proportion to his knowledge of Christ and His 
way of life and of human nature. Obviously then, the first 
requisite of a Christian counselor is that he have a personal 
experience with Christ. The better Christian he is, the better 
counselor he will be. He should pray, both in quiet meditation 
about his own life and in intercession for others. In many 
cases it is wise to let the counselee know that he is being 
prayed for. If this fact causes resentment, very often this 
resentment can be turned into a stepping-stone to success. 
In any other case it will be appreciated and in a peculiar way 
makes the counselee aware that he is not alone in facing his 
difficulties. This is especially true if two people pray together, 
and I have found that the most helpful single method of 
sharing the burden and responsibility with someone else. 

The life of the person who would direct other lives must 
be exemplary. This is not to say that his life must be ultra- 

192 Christian Frontiers 

conservative, for very often advice proffered by such an indiv- 
idual falls on deaf ears and is usually unsought. The counselor 
must be able to keep confidences and to instill confidence in 
the counselee. His life must command the respect of those 
about him. This requires that he be fundamentally honest, 
proficient in his work, reasonably diligent, and have a wide 
range of interests. 

Very important in helping others solve their problems is 
an awareness of one's own limitations and a knowledge of 
how personality maladjustments arise. It should be remem- 
bered that at a given time an individual is the sum total of 
all the traits he inherited and the experiences he has under- 
gone. Such a concept of personality makes for tolerance and 
causes the counselor to be less inclined to blame others for 
what they are and do. 

It should be emphasized that the Christian counselor is 
not as much interested in solving individual problems as he 
is in directing lives so that they will be most useful. This re- 
quires a knowledge of the counselee which would seem to be 
superfluous to the solution of the immediate problem. Categor- 
ically stated, one's advice will be determined more by the 
individual than by the problem. Therefore as much as pos- 
sible should be learned about the counselee. The physician 
routinely makes a thorough and detailed case history of his 
first interview with each patient. The Christian counselor 
has just as much need for a careful and painstaking case 
history. The family background should be inquired about as 
this gives some idea of the patient's heredity and his child- 
hood environment. Specific inquiry should be made about 
childhood experiences, for conflicts and fears frequently stem 
from those days in a person's life when impressions are so 
easily made and so well remembered. One must start where 
the patient is, and in order to do this he must determine as 
well as possible the counselee's attitude toward the problem, 
whether it be indifference, fear, sense of guilt and shame, or 

Finding out about the patient has a therapeutic as well 
as informative purpose. Many individuals with problems 
would like to tell someone and this mental catharsis usually 
proves to be helpful in clarifying the patient's thinking. The 

My Brother's Keeper 193 

counselor should have ready access to the facts about the 
patient. The writer has found it very helpful to keep notes 
made after leaving the counselee about his likes and dislikes, 
the specific facts about the problem being faced and the 
names of all individuals involved. A short "progress note" 
should be made after each subsequent event and interview. 
These records, though seemingly of no value at the time, 
will later prove to be very helpful. Since people do not like 
to be thought of too objectively, it is probably wise not to let 
the counselee know that notes are being kept. 

A thorough understanding of the patient makes easier the 
task of understanding the problem. Each problem is different 
because the person involved is different from all others. Find 
out how many people are involved, who they are, how and 
why they are concerned in the problem. The counselee must 
be treated individually. No "rule of thumb" can be applied 
for given types of problems and particular classes of people. 

As in the after-effects of disease, the by-products of par- 
ticular situations are very often more devastating in their 
effect than the real problem. One of the worst of these is fear, 
usually fear of the consequences of a particular deed. A sense 
of guilt is also present in many cases. Though a sense of 
guilt is frequently very useful in getting a person to correct 
a wrong, it is usually a handicap rather than a stepping-stone 
in the restoration of the individual to greatest usefulness. 
The Christian's faith in forgiveness from God has its own 
therapeutic value. The feeling of conflict is the source of most 
of the personality maladjustment we see. If this conflict can 
be resolved, very often the cure is complete. 

Fallacies of thinking must be corrected tactfully. Much 
of sex and love and sickness and child-bearing are surround- 
ed with superstition and erroneous ideas. Religious super- 
stition propagated by false teaching, especially in these fields, 
is the source of much difficulty. So-called religious fanatics 
are particularly prone to mental imbalance and very often 
their religious zeal is an effort, though poorly directed, to off- 
set this tendency. The Christian counselor must be especially 
careful that his teaching is sound, both from the scientific 
and religious standpoint. 

Whatever the issue, it must be clearly drawn. Much of 

194 Christian Frontiers 

the confusion in the minds of others lies in a failure to see 
the issue as it is and therefore no clear-cut choice can be 
made. The physician often finds the source of an infection 
far removed from the most pronounced symptoms. The 
counselor must probe as deeply as the surgeon and find the 
root of the problem before the counselee can be given an 
understandable choice. 

One of the most effective means of solving a problem is 
to get the person interested in someone else. Feeling then a 
responsibility to this individual, very often the counselee is 
deterred from engaging in some questionable activity. It is 
common knowledge that far too many of the "ailments" of 
mankind are due to man's constant thinking of himself and 
his aches and pains. Many cures are brought about with no 
treatment whatever except leading the patient's thinking 
into more useful channels. Counselors often find that no 
sooner is one problem solved than another arises. The 
counselee shadow-boxes his life away, inventing enemies to 
fight. Once his energy is directed to helping another person, 
his own troubles are diminished. This new forward step, as 
each new phase of treatment, must be timed accurately. If 
the counselee is "pushed" too much he will not be able to 
keep up and the result will be lack of progress. 

A word of caution is in order. One should not accept re- 
sponsibility which is not his to accept. He should avoid be- 
coming accessory to the fact in any crime but rather should 
share this responsibility with the proper authorities. Any 
counselor must be willing to say, "I don't know." Very often 
parents can be brought in on a subject more easily by the 
counselor than by the counselee. Whoever the co-workers 
on any case, there must be mutual respect between them. 
The physician and minister in particular must learn to work 
together with respect each for the other's field. 

Counseling has unlimited possibilities for effective witness 
by every Christian, whether doctor, lawyer, merchant, or 
chief. It is an art that should be mastered by everyone in- 
terested in helping his brother to live a full and useful 
Christian life. 

Worker-Management Cooperation 195 

Worker-Management Cooperation 


WORKMAN in a plant in New Orleans leaned against 
the wall and gazed idly out the window. Another 
workman tapped him on the shoulder, "What's the big idea 
Buddy?" he growled, "We are stockholders in this company; 
let's get busy." 

This happened in a plant of which Lowry B. Eastland of 
Baton Rouge, La., a Baptist layman, is president. The plant 
was acquired by the present owners a short time ago. East- 
land found the workmen bitter and disillusioned because 
some promises made to them by the former owners had not 
been kept. Eastland made them the offer to sell them stock 
in the concern at the same price he had paid for it. They 
accepted the offer and all the key employees at once became 

The operating officers of the company were chosen from 
the men who had been longest with it. The plant is run 
entirely by the employees. Eastland's activities in the com- 
pany are confined to telephone consultations between Baton 
Rouge and New Orleans and occasional personal visits to the 
plant. Written reports are made monthly. Bonuses are paid 
to the men as employees, and dividends are paid to them as 
stockholders. Thus labor has entered into the field of manage- 
ment to the complete satisfaction of the entire personnel of 
the company. 

Eastland is an active and efficient member of the Board 
of Trustees of the Baptist Bible Institute, a deacon in his own 
church, and a progressive citizen. — Wilson Woodcock. 

196 Christian Frontiers 

Rural Churches In An Urban Civilization 

Garland A. Hendricks 

"TUTHATEVER makes men good Christians makes them 
W good citizens." In an address delivered in the year 
1820 Daniel Webster thus recognized the place of Christians 
in determining the world's moral character and civic struc- 
ture. Christians, being "laborers together with God" (I 
Corinthians 3:9), move forward under divine compulsion to 
shape the world order after the mind of our Lord Jesus 


Approximately one-half of the people who live in our 
modern world make a livelihood by cultivating the soil. At 
least three-fourths of the earth's inhabitants live in rural 
communities. Even in the industrialized United States one- 
fifth of our people are engaged in agriculture, and more than 
one-half live in rural communities. In the South at least two- 
thirds of the people are rural. 

Yet ours is an urban-minded civilization. We consolidate 
country schools after city patterns. Most of our people now 
depend upon city-located commercial establishments for 
amusement and recreation. We elect to fill public offices 
smooth-tongued town politicians whose lip service to rural 
life has too often smacked of hypocrisy, dishonesty, and 

We place a stigma upon rural life, referring to the country 
as "the sticks" and to the village as "the hick town." Farmers 
receive about one-half as much money income as others and 
their material standard of living lags behind that of urban 
folk. Most rural dwellers are still denied the advantages of 
such public services as good roads, telephones, and electricity 
which would lighten their back-bending, spirit-breaking 

Though they receive less than others in money wealth, 
country people give more than others in human wealth. 
Rural families have "many children — few dollars." The 
Southeast (eleven states, mainly rural) has 24 per cent of 
the nation's children, but receives only ten per cent of the 

Rural Churches In An Urban Civilization 197 

national income. Southeastern farmers have in their homes 
13 per cent of the nation's children of school age, but receive 
only 2.2 per cent of the national income. 

American cities would die but for the steady flow of 
country people into them. Rural farm families have twice as 
many children as families living in cities. The first law of 
modern civilization is that the country produces human 
wealth and the city consumes it. A second law, like unto the 
first, is that country people produce primary wealth and city 
dwellers turn it into money wealth and receive the greatest 
material benefits from it. 


Country churches deal with human wealth at its source. 
As they succeed or fail, so goes the moral character and civic 
structure of our nation and the world. 

The church is the leading institution in rural community 
life. In many communities it is the only institution besides 
the family. Its areas of responsibility and influence are broad. 
It creates and sustains whatever community consciousness 
and activity there is. It fills a large place in the life and 
thought of its people. 

Many of those who constitute a rural church depend upon 
nature for their livelihood. Some years they reap an abundant 
harvest, but other years the harvest is very scarce. There are 
busy seasons when it is necessary to work hard 12 to 18 hours 
a day until energy is exhausted and spirit is broken. Life is 
full of hardships and uncertainty. But rural folk go on from 
year to year knowing that nature never fails them completely, 
and with a sense of dependence upon God which tends to 
make a high type of citizen. When a rural church provides 
for people like this a sustaining faith in God it renders a 
service to our civilization the value of which is too great for 
human estimation. 

The success of a rural church depends upon the coop- 
erative effort of a majority of the people of the community. 
The few who live in a rural community know each other 
intimately. Each knows every fault of his neighbor. Here is 
the world's most severe testing ground of a person's real spirit 
and character. If one can get along with his neighbor, who 

198 Christian Frontiers 

knows everything about him, he can certainly get along with 
anyone else. 

A rural church is the best training ground on earth in 
team work. Country people work against so many odds they 
are conservative, they share so uncertainly in the good for- 
tunes of economic progress they are independent, they live 
so intimately with the forces of nature that they fear God, 
and they have been "sucked in" on so many rackets they 
are suspicious. But once they believe in their leader and 
catch a vision of what they can do for their Lord they pull 
together with energies possessed by no other people on earth. 


The world's greatest security may be found in the good 
will of folk like this. Wars and revolutions come and go, men 
build cities and die in their ruins, but rural life goes on for- 
ever as the source and substance of all life. The destiny of 
any civilization lies ultimately in the hands of its rural folk. 

The tendency towards city domination in our day carries 
over from government, business, and politics into religion. 
Southern Baptists follow an urban denominational pattern 
created and dominated by men and women who dwell in our 
towns and cities. A study of the 1941 minutes of the Baptist 
State Convention of North Carolina reveals that 80 per cent 
of the churches and 60 per cent of the members were in the 
country, but that 98 per cent of the persons serving on boards 
and committees of the Convention were from town and city 

Most of our leaders grow up in the country or in small 
towns. But in the fresh, keen years of their youth they go to 
the cities to live. Then they learn to think and plan in terms 
of urban patterns of large numbers of people and huge con- 
centrations of artificial wealth. Their memories sometimes 
grow faint on the inestimable human and spiritual values 
which spring from the sparsely settled countryside. 

These are good men and women. Country homes and 
churches shaped their outlook and character and gave them 
to the cities, where they contribute generously to the moral 
and social and civic life of the time. 

There should be a more definite place in our denomina- 

Rural Churches In An Urban Civilization 199 

tional pattern for rural church leaders. Any minister should 
consider it a high privilege to work with the plain folk of 
the countryside. Unfortunately some urban ministers and lay 
church leaders look down upon their rural brethren in a 
half-condescending, half-sympathetic way. It is past time for 
Southern Baptists to remove the stigma from the rural 
ministry and for the American people to remove the stigma 
from rural life. 

The rural South is the source of a very large proportion 
of America's human and natural resources. Here life is tense, 
astir with an urge to move forward into new regional achieve- 
ment. In our 80-year-old fight for fair freight rates we are 
winning major battles. Poll taxes are on the way out. The 
best soil in the nation is being conserved. Our birth rate con- 
tinues the highest in the nation. Industry moves Southward 
and out into the country. The ghost of Henry Grady walks 
amongst us. 

Rural Baptist churches are now in a position to have a 
profound influence in shaping the moral character and civic 
structure of a new and better world order. 


White Man's Burden. 

By Ruth Smith. 

New York: The Vanguard 

Press, 1946. 
pp. 222. Bibliography. $2.00. 

Here is a story that needs to 
be told. It is related in a clear 
and straightforward manner. 
The conflicts many are experi- 
encing are gathered up and pre- 
sented with understanding and 
compassion. From an early life 
in which she had never seen a 
Negro "except for made-up Uncle 
Tom and Topsy in the travel 
shows," the author went to live 
in a Negro school for girls deep 
in Alabama. After two years "in- 
side the fences" she returned to 
the North, to find the misunder- 
standing and prejudice there 
more cruel than the experiences 
in the school. Into another such 
school and back again to the 
North, sharing life with the low- 
ly and great of both races, she 
came to a new understanding, 
not of the problem, but of the 
opportunity for Christian service 
in the field of race relations. 

It is a telling and appealing 
presentation of "America's great 
denial of her own dream." With 
accurate knowledge and clear in- 
sight into what is, the author 
convincingly points the way to 
what must be. She appeals for 
love instead of hate, for under- 
standing in place of suspicion 
and fear. The courage with 
which Miss Smith has lived and 
testified will leave many in her 
debt for a long time. 

Churches are challenged to 
take again the lead in behalf of 
individual worth and goodwill. 
Those of us who have been proud 
and confident will see how con- 
formity has often displaced per- 
sonal integrity. With new re- 
solve, we will become more 
aggressive against ignorance, 
spiritual poverty, and cruelty. In 
the author's own words, "This 
whole book is a story, not so 
much of those who will evil as 
of those who find it existing 
and don't do anything about it." 
We are the losers — more than 
they who are wronged. 

All honest thinking Christians 
will welcome this "personal test- 
ament." It ought to be in every 
church library. It ought to be 
"must" reading for ministers, 
Sunday school teachers, and all 
church and civic leaders. When 
it finds its place in a home, that 
home will be more Christian. I 
hope it will have a wide reading. 
J. Glenn Blackburn 

The Meaning of Human 

By Lynn Haeold Hough. 
Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury, 
1945. pp. 367. Bibliography. $3.00 

Here is a highly satisfactory 
treatment of an ever-interesting 
and inexhaustible theme. Man's 
understanding of himself — of his 
high possibilities and tragic 
handicaps — is essential to an 
orderly existence. Any experi- 
ence, however frustrating, can 
be endured and surmounted 



victoriously as its significance 
and meaning are comprehended. 
Life is discovered as supremely- 
worthwhile as we find its true 
meaning and rightly relate our- 
selves to it. 

There is, perhaps, no full and 
final answer to the old query, 
"What is Man?" The search for 
an adequate answer is a never- 
ending process. Dean Hough, by 
his scholarship and varied expe- 
riences as preacher and teacher, 
gives impetus to our efforts to 
understand the meaning of hu- 
man experience. His analyses 
and conclusions are most re- 

Despite his failures and be- 
yond his achievements, man is 
best understood in the light of 
what he may yet become. What- 
ever may be his present estate, 
Dean Hough sees man as a "crea- 
ture of measureless possibilities." 
Although never fully under- 
standing himself, "he feels an 
instinctive anger when his tale 
is told in such a way that the 
strange power of his mind to see, 
to think, to choose, to decide is 

Human experience transcends 
its material reference, and, in 
the midst of its great diversity, 
is constantly reaching out for 
fulfillment. The mind of man 
seeks to communicate with other 
minds. "Human experience in all 
its manifestations can be under- 
stood most satisfactorily when 
we see it as intercourse between 
finite persons and the Great Per- 
son, or God." True humanity is 
achieved with the aid of God, and 
man is always less than man 
without the Ultimate Person. 

"Humanity is the arc of a circle, 
and that circle can never be com- 
pleted without God." 

After asking the question, "Is 
there a higher revelation?" Dean 
Hough surveys the human scene, 
giving a careful analysis and in- 
terpretation of the Hebrew- 
Christian Tradition, the Human- 
istic contribution closing with 
the Evangelical Synthesis, in 
which he declares that all the 
streams flow together. Christ is 
seen as "the center of all human 
thought and of all human expe- 
rience." In Him, "all the streams 
of life and thought and experi- 
ence flow together." A colleague 
of the author (Edwin Lewis, 
Shall the New Earth Be? p. 231) 
says that Dean Hough "convinc- 
ingly combines all that is dis- 
tinctive in classical culture with 
all that is distinctive in histor- 
ical Christianity." Christian re- 
demption meets the demands of 
the mind of man and satisfies the 
needs of his moral and spiritual 

In the religion of the Incar- 
nation we discover God in vital 
communion with his creatures. 
This fellowship, broken by sin, 
is healed by "the white light of 
the Cross." Suffering for imper- 
fection in man is the only way 
Perfection can meet it except to 
destroy it. "When the All-Perfect 
says to the all-imperfect, 'I will 
not destroy you. I will die for 
you,' He touches the ultimate 
heights of moral grandeur." 

There is a distinct unity in 
these philosophical essays. They 
would restore man to a sense of 
his own inherent worth and 
dignity always pointing him to 


Christian Frontiers 

yet unexplored realms of thought 
and achievement. Man in order 
to be fully himself must live in 
the light of God's revelation of 

The laymen, as well as the 
preacher, will find Dean Hough's 
book most interesting and help- 
ful. We need today some help to 
enable us to think of ourselves 
as highly as we ought to think. 
There is in this volume a wealth 
and depth of homilectical mate- 
rial. — Lee C. Sheppard. 

Dark Sails. 

By Helen Topping Miller. 
Indianapolis and New York: 
• The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 
1945. pp. 256. Bibliography. $2.75. 

Dark Sails is the story of the 
settlement of St. Simon's Island, 
off the coast of Georgia and near 
the mouth of the Altamaha Riv- 
er, by a group of English people 
sent out by the Georgia Trust 
under the leadership of James 
Oglethorpe. Mrs. Miller begins 
her charming story with the trip 
from Savannah over to the island 
and depicts in brilliant style the 
lives of these settlers until the 
Spaniards are defeated in the 
famous battle of Bloody Marsh, 
which battle settled the fate of 
the Spanish in America once and 
for all. 

The little company of settlers 
are in constant fear of the In- 
dians, the snakes and the Span- 
iards and at times some of them 
are ready to abandon the project 
and let the Spanish have St. 
Simon's, but always Oglethorpe 
is there to encourage and inspire 

In a charming way the author 
has woven into this story the 
coming of John and Charles 
Wesley to America and the part 
they played in the settling of 
Georgia. One would believe that 
often she over-emphasized the 
physical weakness and biting 
disappointments of Charles Wes- 
ley in his position as Secretary 
to James Oglethorpe and spirit- 
ual adviser of the settlers. 

In Helen Topping Miller's cap- 
able hands Bloody Marsh makes 
a great climax to a fine story of 
young love and high adventure. 
Well known as the author of 
many popular romances, she has 
here written her first historical 
novel and she has done it with 
a fine and finished mastery. I 
would recommend the book as 
being very profitable for its his- 
torical value. — R. A. Ellis. 


1429 S. Eighth Street 
Waco, Texas 
May 6, 1946 

Das Kelley Barnett, Editor 

Christian Frontiers 

Box 508 

Chapel Hill, North Carolina 

Dear Mr. Barnett: 

I want to express my apprecia- 
tion of Christian Frontiers. I 
like your evident search for 
truth; your readiness to face 

I have read and reread your 
editorials in the April issue. I 
believe that you are correct in 
both of them. 



Your suggestion of a magnif- 
icent cathedral on the hill and 
peons in the valley below is, I 
believe, in harmony with pre- 
sent-day trends, and as I view 
life from the standpoint of 
Christian education I can see 
magnificent buildings with stud- 
ents taught by underlings. 

Since our Baptist Southland is 
producing a civilization with 
some of the faults of the Cath- 
olic lands, may it not be that we 
Baptists are copying some of the 
errors of the Catholics? I believe 
that we are — among them, over- 
centralization and over-standard- 

We need to halt our trend to- 
ward centralization and stand- 
ization and to give more recogni- 
tion to the value of local initia- 

I have been intimately con- 
nected with college life for many 
years. I have watched the 
changes — some helpful and some 
detrimental. We now have too 
much organization, too much de- 
partmentalism, too much stand- 
ardization. Religion like educa- 
tion is easily over-standardized. 
Spiritual things must be spirit- 
ually discerned. To standardize 
religion is to run the risk of 
stressing the superficial. 

Standardized religious activ- 
ities superimposed upon college 
life are apt to undermine rather 
than support the intellectual and 
spiritual possibilities of the class- 
room. Lacking integration with 
the pursuits and problems of the 
real life of the student they be- 
come an escape from reality ra- 
ther than an aid to vital re- 

No formula can wipe out all 
our errors, but I think that we 
Southern Baptists could greatly 
reduce our errors through better 
recognition of the value of local 

Among the errors nurtured in 
our colleges by centralization and 
standardization is the over-social- 
ization of prayer. 

When I was hostess of a cot- 
tage of Hillman College students 
I often had to delay locking the 
door at the ringing of the light 
bell at night because some stud- 
ent was out with her prayer- 
mate. The college dean of wom- 
en granted this indulgence in her 
effort to cooperate with the cen- 
tralized idea of prayer -mates. 

Thus, in the name of religion, 
students lapsed into the habit of 
disregarding the right of their 
hostess and fellow students to a 
closed and quiet cottage at the 
ringing of the light bell — not 
that they might pray, but that 
they might socially pray. 

Another error that strong local 
initiative might mitigate is the 
making a fetish of prayer. 

About ten years ago Mississippi 
College student leaders (work- 
ing in harmony with a more or 
less standardized idea about 
prayer) decided to sponsor an 
unbroken chain of prayer dur- 
ing a revival meeting at the Clin- 
ton Baptist church. 

Hillman College students were 
assigned six hours of the twenty- 
four (12 noon to 6 P.M.) The 
place of the night prayers was 
in the church. Mississippi College 
students responsible for different 
periods of the night set their 
alarm clocks to wake them that 


Christian Frontiers 

they might go to the church to 
relieve those who preceded them. 

I thought then and I still think 
that their faith was in an un- 
broken chain of prayer rather 
than in God to whom we pray. 

Another more or less standard- 
ized custom is to encourage stud- 
ents to "volunteer for special 
religious service." Dr. Lowrey 
taught his students that Christ- 
ianity means "definitely to vol- 
unteer for indefinite religious 
service." And he believed like 
Paul that the whole of life has 
its obligation and its opportunity 
for religious service. (See Corin- 
thians 10:31.) 

I recall the surprise and em- 
barrassment of a young woman 
when her friends began to ex- 
press interest in her volunteer- 
ing to be a missionary to China. 
She had responded to the preach- 
er's request that all should rise 
who were willing that God 
should guide their lives even if 
it meant going to China as a 
missionary. In explaining her po- 
sition the young woman said, "I 
had no more idea of going to 
China than to the moon. But if 
I thought the Lord wanted me to 
go, I'd go, I thought that is what 
being a Christian means." 

When I was quite young I 
secretly hoped to be a mission- 
ary, because that was my idea of 
the way for a protestant to be 
wholly dedicated to the Lord. 
The life of the nun was most 

attractive to me, but I had a fear 
of Catholics. Fortunately, I did 
not have the temptation to make 
a public commitment before I 
had attained a better perspective 
of the meaning of Christianity. 

Students who have crystalized 
their life objective by publicly 
"volunteering for definite relig- 
ious service" too often narrow 
their college life to the studies 
and special environment that 
seem to them to contribute di- 
rectly to their preparation. In 
their zeal and immaturity they 
choose that which they need 
least and omit that which they 
need most. 

So they go through college un- 
aware of the religious value of a 
broad academic education, broad 
association with fellow students, 
and intelligent interest in cur- 
rent world affairs. 

We Baptists should give to the 
world our best. We are neglect- 
ing alertness to local needs which 
provide opportunity to give our 
students a vision of the meaning 
of Christianity integrated with 

I am gratified that a small 
group of Baptists are sponsoring 
this new publication, Christian 
Frontiers. Small-group initiative 
like local initiative, encourages 
broadspread individual initiative 
— a Baptist as well as democratic 

Very truly, 

Theodosia S. Lowrey 



board of trustees of Wake Forest 
College, meeting here, unan- 
imously recommended that the 
college move to Winston-Salem, 
N. C, in order that it might re- 
ceive a gift of $10,750,000 from 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Founda- 
tion, a gift expected eventually 
to total $50,000,000. 

The recommendation was 
made to the North Carolina Bap- 
tist State Convention, which 
meets in Asheville during Nov- 

A sub-committee informed the 
trustees at the meeting here 
that the representatives of the 
foundation have expressly stated 
to the committee that they do 
not propose any change in the 
name of the college, nor any 
change in the policy of control 
of the institution. 

The foundation was said to be 
in full accord with the establish- 
ed policy, under which the col- 
lege is subject solely to the ulti- 
mate control of the Baptist State 
Convention, acting through a 
board of trustees named by the 
Convention.— ( RNS ) 


ATLANTA, Ga. — Circulation 
of 20 state Baptist papers in the 
Southern Baptist Convention 

territory is now in excess of 
700,000, Dr. Louie D. Newton of 
Atlanta, chairman of a circula- 
tion campaign launched in 1940, 

The papers had a combined 
circulation of 190,683 in 1940 
when the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention meeting at Baltimore 
voted to launch the campaign to 
boost circulation to 500,000 by 
1945. Dr. Newton will recom- 
mend to the coming convention 
meeting at Miami that a new 
goal of 1,000,000 be set— (RNS) 


Washington Ministerial Union — 
250 strong and representing 
every denomination and race a- 
mong clergymen here — called on 
President Truman at the White 
House and assured him that he 
is constantly in the minds of the 

In reply, the President told his 
guests, "I need your prayers. No 
one ever needed them more." 

Meeting with the clergymen 
in the Rose Garden of the White 
House, the Chief Executive de- 
clared that the United States was 
"having a lot of unnecessary 
troubles, brought about by sel- 
fish men who are thinking only 
of their individual welfare." 

He added that the country 
came out of the war as a leader, 
"but since V-J Day, I fear very 
much we are losing sight of our 
responsibilities. God intended us 


Christian Frontiers 

to assume them some 25 or 30 
years ago and we shirked them. 
We can't shirk them now." 

Describing the world-wide food 
crisis, he said that "one of the 
immediate things which we are 
faced with is feeding the starv- 
ing." He asked the ministers to 
"go back and preach" the doc- 
trine of sharing food with the 
hungry.— (RNS) 


RALEIGH, N. C— The North 
Carolina Catholic Laymen's As- 
sociation, a new organization 
under the direction of the Most 
Reverend Vincent S. Waters, 
Bishop of Raleigh, expects to 
publish a weekly newspaper in 
September, it was announced 
here. It will be the first Catholic 
publication of its kind in North 

The Association is patterned 
after the Catholic Laymen's As- 
sociation of Georgia, which has 
been praised by Catholics and 
Protestants alike for its contrib- 
utions toward religious under- 
standing and tolerance. The new 
group already has chapters in 
Charlotte, New Bern and Jack- 
sonville, in addition to this city. 


NEW YORK — John G. Ram- 
say, vice-chairman of the indus- 
trial section of the department 
of the church and social service 

of the Federal Council o f 
Churches here, has been appoint- 
ed by the CIO to work as liaison 
agent with religious groups in 
the forthcoming organizational 
drive in the South. 

A former steel worker and 
Presbyterian layman, Ramsay 
has been acting in a like capacity 
for the United Steel Workers, 
CIO, in its dealings with 
churches and religious bodies 
throughout the country. In his 
new position he will meet with 
Southern church organizations, 
concentrating on ministerial as- 
sociations. He also will set up 
religion and labor fellowship 
groups. — (RNS) 


church must make an active 
contribution to the economic 
improvement of the South by 
championing the underprivileg- 
ed, Dean B. Harvie Branscomb 
of the Duke University Divinity 
School, Durham, N. C, told the 
seventh annual Convocation of 
the North Carolina Council of 
Churches here. 

He urged that the church put 
its own house in order by reject- 
ing provincialism, providing ade- 
quate education for its ministers, 
supporting rural preachers and 
avoiding denominational dupli- 
cation and inefficiency. 

Another speaker, Dr. Benjamin 
E. Mays, president of Morehouse 
College, Atlanta, Ga., and vice 
president of the Federal Council 
of Churches, said the church had 



no grounds upon which to crit- 
icize science. 

Science, he declared, can say 
to the church, "For 19 centuries 
you have preached brotherhood, 
the sacredness of the human per- 
sonality, the intrinsic worth of 
every soul, and yet your institu- 
tion, the Church of the Living 
God, is the most segregated in- 
stitution in America. Who are 
you to talk to scientists and edu- 
cators? Clean your own back- 
yard and come to us with clean 
hands if you would talk with 
us."— (RNS) 


ALTOONA, Pa.— A resolution 
condemning use of grain by 
brewers and distillers during the 
present food crisis was adopted 
by the Central Pennsylvania 
Conference of The Methodist 
Church at its annual meeting 
here. The group also urged its 
members to take an active part 
in this year's primary and gen- 
eral elections. (RNS) 


RICHMOND, VA.— Clergymen 
who take "too prudish an atti- 
tude" toward the venereal dis- 
ease problem were scored here 
by Dr. Beverly M. Boyd in a 
speech at the annual Virginia 
Convocation of Churches. 

Dr. Boyd, who is executive 
secretary of the Department of 
the Church and Social Relations 
of the Federal Council of 
Churches, said ministers who do 

not assume their share of respon- 
sibility in seeking to eradicate 
the disease are failing in their 

The problem, he asserted, is 
one in which the ministry must 
join hands with the medical pro- 
fession and the law. 

Demanding a "square deal for 
the Negro," Dr. Harold L. Trigg, 
of Atlanta, Ga., Negro leader and 
associate director of the South- 
ern Regional Council, said that 
the Negro "has been an escape 
valve for developing democracy." 

"If democracy is too weak to 
endure the Negro's presence and 
participation," he declared, "it 
cannot survive." 

Rabbi Bernard Zieger, of Roan- 
oke, Va., called for more human- 
ity, tolerance and justice in re- 
ligious practices. 

"The prophets would condemn 
our indifference today to the 
starving peoples," he said. "They 
would castigate us for our nig- 
gardly and petty system of drib- 
bling crumbs to the starved." 
— (RNS) 


CHICAGO— Chicago's Baptists 
have bidden farewell to one of 
the last vestiges of a vanishing 
era in American life — a "chapel" 

A historic relic of Frontier 
Christianity, the "church on 
wheels" owned by the Northern 
Baptist Convention was on ex- 
hibit here before making its last 
trip to the convention's assem- 
bly ground at Green Lake, Wis- 


Christian Frontiers 

Valued at $15,000 and known 
as "Grace," the car contained 
pulpit, organ, pews for 65 wor- 
shippers and a three-room apart- 
ment for the minister and his 

The first chapel cars were 
built during the 1880's and were 
to serve the small, churchless 
towns that sprung up along the 
nation's railroad tracks. 

The chapel cars were the idea 
of the Rev. Boston W. Smith who 
used to declare that "there are 
always enough cars to carry li- 
quor and tobacco to railroad 
towns, why should not a gospel 
car be placed upon the tracks?" 

The first car was the Evangel 
and was so successful that later 
cars, the Emanuel, Glad Tidings, 
Good Will, Message of Peace and 
Herald of Hope, and the Grace 
were added. 

The development of local 
church life in the towns along 
the railroad tracks and the wide 
use of the automobile have grad- 
ually rendered the chapel car 
obsolete. Hence the retirement 
of the Grace to the Northern 
Baptist Convention's summer 
camp for permanent exhibitions. 
— (RNS) 


BUFFALO, N. Y. — Members 
of Delaware Avenue Baptist 
church, largest church of its de- 
nomination in the city, have 

adopted a "concrete plan to im- 
plement their sympathies for 
starving peoples." More than 100 
families have agreed to serve 
"curtailed meals" every Friday 
evening, the savings to go to 
war victims. They hope to raise 
$5,000 by this method within a 

The idea grew out of a sermon 
several weeks ago by Dr. Lee J. 
Beynon, pastor, who suggested 
his members "do something con- 
crete to help the hungry." 

A few days later Mrs. Beynon 
trimmed the dinner menu to an 
omelet and a slice of bread and 
suggested that a "curtailed meal" 
be served in their home every 
Friday evening to carry out her 
husband's suggestion. At the 
next midweek prayer meeting 
other families pledged to do the 
same thing. — (RNS) 


ELGIN, ILL.— More uniform 
marriage and divorce laws and 
premarital education were urged 
in a resolution adopted by the 
Illinois Conference of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Augustana Sy- 
nod of North America at its 94th 
annual convention here. 

The resolution also asked that 
pastors do not perform marriage 
ceremonies between persons 
who do not accept, or do not 
have the sincere purpose to abide 
by, the Christian ideal of mar- 
riage."— (RNS) 


A Journal of Baptist Life arid Thought 

Vol. I 


. \ 6'i 

No. 7 


Das Kellly Barnett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlatob, Associate Editor William M. Poteat, Book Editor 
Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 

Sara Lowrey, Poetry Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 

H. B. Cross, Nashville, Tenn. 
George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
J. M. Dawson, Washington, D. C. 
Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 
Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C. 
J. C. Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia 

Swan Hayworth, Vicksburg, Miss. 
Withrow T. Holland, Haynesville, La. 
Adiel J. Moncrief, St. Joseph, Mo. 
Blake Smith, Austin, Texas 
Hubert R. Howard, Jr., Tulsa, Okla. 


George D. Heaton, Chairman 
Claude U. Broach Jasper C. Hutto, Secretary 

Eugene I. Olive «J. Wade Baker 

Lee C. Sheppard E. Norfleet Gardner 

Fon H. Scofield Fred B. Helms 




Southern Churches and the Negroes 

...Edward A. McDowell 


"In Spirit and in Truth" 

...Hubert M. Poteat 




Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laymen. Address all corres- 
pondence to Box 508, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Copyright 1946 by the Baptist 
Book Club. Second class mailing privilege pending. Subscription price, two dollars 
a year; twenty-five cents a copy. Printed by The Graphic Press, Inc., Raleigh, N. C. 

Who's Who In This Issue 

EDWARD A. McDOWELL, a graduate of Furman Univer- 
sity, is now Professor of New Testament Interpretation at 
the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary at Louisville, Ky. 
On Sabbatical leave Dr. McDowell will be visiting lecturer on 
New Testament Greek at Union Theological Seminary in New 
York City. 

HUBERT M. POTEAT, a graduate of Wake Forest College 
with a Ph.D. from Columbia University, has been for many 
years Professor of Latin at Wake Forest and choirmaster of 
the Baptist Church there. Recently Dr. Poteat completed the 
translation of four of Cicero's philosophical treatises, which 
will be published by the University of Chicago Press and is 
part of a series entitled "Our Intellectual Heritage." 


Who are the Mobilizers of Violence 

TyrHEN THE Christian Gospel was first proclaimed 
W two of its heralds were accused of "turning the 
world upside down." Today, no less than then, anyone who 
preaches this Gospel in its fulness, or attempts to implement 
its unmistakable implications, will fall under that same con- 
demnation. More specifically, if his words and efforts are in 
the direction of eliminating some of the grossest of racial 
injustices he will be called a disturber of the peace and an 
inciter to violence. The hue and cry of his opponents will be 
to leave well enough alone and "keep the nigger in his place." 
Therefore, whoever attempts to extend the benefits of de- 
mocracy to the Negro, or, more importantly, obey the man- 
dates of the Christian message with regard to him, is inviting 
trouble. That way lies the madness of unrest, dissatisfaction, 
rape, and lynching. 

But here is a tale of tragedy and sober instruction, if we 
will receive it: A governor is elected in a state notorious, 
along with others, for its treatment of its Negro citizens. 
During his administration this liberal and courageous gov- 
ernor, deeming his office a trust from all the people of his 
commonwealth, asked for and obtained much progressive 
legislation favorable alike to both the white and the colored 
citizen. The Negro in this state began to breathe and to think 
like a human being. Never were relations between black and 
white better. Then the end of this administration drew nigh 
and another election was in the offing. Upon the scene appear- 
ed the familiar face — and red suspenders — of a man elected 
thrice before and always upon the same issue, white suprem- 
acy. Across the state and back again went this apostle of 
hatred, bigotry and crackerism shrieking his diatribes of 
racism, promising the "reign of Chaos and old Night." Re- 
sults: (1) He won; at least they say he did. (2) A few days 
after the "white supremacy" election four Negroes were 
lynched by a white mob in a manner so cold-blooded and 
bestial as to have been the envy of the Nazis in '39. 

212 Christian Frontiers 

Again the question: Who are the mobilizers of violence? 

Footnote: If anyone wishes further information as to the exact 
locality of this tale — though really that is not important for it might 
have happened in any of a number of states — we will risk the state- 
ment that it occurred in a state a very high percentage of whose 
citizens are Southern Baptists and whose largest metropolis is called 
by many "the Baptist Capital of the World." 

W. W. F. 

Christians, Period 

LABELS, Dr. Leslie Weatherhead reminds us, are most 
often misleading in that they seldom give all of the 
contents in the bottle. Nevertheless, to use a Kiplingesque 
turn of phrases, in the thinking of most of us, liberal is 
liberal and conservative is conservative and never the twain 
shall meet. The gap between groups within a party, sect or 
denomination seems in many instances to be widening as 
liberal and conservatives "square off" for the coming struggle. 
Many politically wise observers say there is no hope for the 
present Administration in Washington unless it commits it- 
self unreservedly to the liberal policies and spirit of the New 
Deal and abandons its middle-of-the-road tactics. Many 
leaders close to the situation in the Northern Baptist Con- 
vention and to the Presbyterian denominations in which Bible 
Presbyterians have for some time been chafing at the bit, 
predict that a schism will come sooner than the worst fears 
will allow. They say that the gulf is so fixed, and the dif- 
ferences so irreconcilable, that an open split seems the only 

We in the Southern Baptist Convention cannot answer 
for other denominational groups. Fondly do we hope, fervent- 
ly do we pray that our wisdom may equal that of Roman 
Catholics in the matter of tolerance for dissentient views 
within the church family. If this "Mother Church" can nur- 
ture and foster so many children of diverse philosophical, 
theological, and temperamental outlook — and be at the same 
time the intolerant church that she is — then surely we Bap- 
tists, who claim an ardent allegiance to the principles of 

Christians, Period 213 

liberty of conscious and individual competency in the spirit- 
ual quest, ought to find room within our borders for those 
who in intellectual and spiritual honesty must be different. 
Crystalization, name-calling, labelling, factions, etc. are 
fundamentally foreign to the true genius of the Baptist faith. 
We are not liberals, we are not conservatives, we are not 
progressives, modernists or reactionaries. We are just Bap- 
tists who with our Bibles before us and the Holy Spirit with- 
in us seek to know the truth as God gives us to see it. And 
to no two of us does God parcel it out alike. We are not 
of Cephas, we are not of Apollos, we are not of Paul; we are 
of Christ who cannot be divided but who reveals himself to 
each of us in a manner consonant with our temperament, 
heritage, endowment, and background. No council of the 
earliest followers of Jesus, even including his disciples, could 
have wrung from them complete uniformity of theological 
statement. Their unity of faith consisted not in a common 
creed to which all must suscribe, but in a common loyalty to 
their risen Lord. This, and only this, was and ever will be 
"the fellowship of kindred minds which is like to that above." 
Baptists are never more truly "New Testament Baptists" 
than when they recapture this prophetic and dynamic spirit 
of the early church. So, just as in Christ there is no East or 
West, neither in Him is there liberal or conservative, modern- 
ist or reactionary. 

Commenting in a recent issue on the funeral of Chief 
Justice Harlan Stone, Life magazine observed that "his 
greatest accomplishment was that no one could decide wheth- 
er he was a conservative liberal or a liberal conservative." 
Can you decide which one Paul was? Or does it really matter? 

W. W. F. 

214 Christian Frontiers 

The Radio Conference at Ridgecrest 


Y THE TIME this issue goes to press there will be 
' held at Ridgecrest one of the most important con- 
ferences in many years. Under the direction of Dr. S. F. Lowe, 
who heads the Radio Committee of our convention, there will 
be assembled an impressive list of experts and leaders to 
guide the conference. Such men as Hon. C. J. Durr of the 
Federal Communications Commission and Hon. J. Leonard 
Reinsch, who is radio adviser to President Truman, will high 
light the program. 

With the coming of frequency modulations and the great 
advance in radio technology made during the war radio is in 
for a new day in America. Nothing should so concern us just 
now as "getting in on the ground floor" of the radio world 
of tomorrow. Congratulations to Dr. Lowe and his committee 
for their far-sightedness. Let us back them to the hilt. 

W. W. F. 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 215 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 

Edward A. McDowell 

(This article originally appeared in the January 1943 issue of The 
Review and Expositor and is reprinted through the courtesy of that 


'HE DEVELOPMENT of a conscience concerning 
man's treatment of man was one of the first fruits 
of Christianity's impact upon the Graeco-Roman world. This 
conscience did not dictate the abolition of slavery but it com- 
pelled the elevation of the slave to a position of greater dignity 
and encouraged the amelioration of the conditions under 
which be lived. Paul's plea to Philemon for the slave One- 
simus must be read against the dark background of slavery in 
the Roman Empire; otherwise the suggestion that Philemon 
might have Onesimus upon his return "no longer as a slave, 
but more than a slave, a brother beloved" 1 appears as a pleas- 
ant euphemism to cover a compromise. It is clear that Paul 
had no intention of advocating the overthrow of slavery. He 
sent Onesimus back to this master, understanding that he 
would return to his status as a slave. On other occasions he 
exhorted slaves to be loyal to their masters. 2 But in the plea 
of Paul for the slave Onesimus is the evidence of the begin- 
nings of a Christian conscience concerning man's treatment 
of man — a conscience which from the first century onward 
was to prod Christians of every age in the direction of justice 
and mercy toward their fellow men. The conscience was im- 
mature in the first century, not recognizing the full implica- 
tions of the Gospel of love; it has failed to develop to maturity 
through the centuries; it is immature today, but it has never 
allowed all Christians in any age to acquiesce completely in 
man's inhumanity to man. Nor will this conscience ever allow 
complacency at injustice and inhumanity; it will continue to 
drive brave souls to cry out against wrongs of man to man, 
as long as these wrongs exist, and it will never permit Christ- 
ian men to have peace in their hearts until they have brought 

' Philemon 16. 

a 1 Cor. 7:21; Col. 3:22; Eph. 6:5-8; 1 Tim. 6:1-2; Tit. 2:9-10. 

216 Christian Frontiers 

their practices toward their fellow men into some measure of 
harmony with the teachings of Jesus Christ. 

And so from the beginning the Christian conscience in- 
troduced something new into the life of humanity. "A slave 
was in the eye of the law not a persona,, but a res, i. e., he had 
no rights as a human being, could not marry or hold property, 
but was himself simply a piece of property which could be 
conveyed (res manicipi). During the Republican period the 
law left him absolutely at the disposal of his master, who had 
the power of life and death (jus vitcE necisque) ov^er him, and 
could punish him with chastisement and bonds, and use him 
for any purpose he pleased, without reference to any higher 
authority than his own." 3 Under the sanction of law and cus- 
tom the degradation of countless thousands of men, women 
and children in the Roman Empire was complete. There were 
good masters, and many individual slaves received good 
treatment and even affection, but no writer of the time re- 
cognized "the fact that slaves were potentially moral beings, 
until Christianity gave its sanction to dutiful submission as 
an act of morality that might be consecrated by a Divine 
authority." 4 The change the Christian conscience wrought is 
well illustrated in the case of Onesimus. He returned to his 
master Philemon, not as a res, but as a persona, for Paul sug- 
gested that he be received as a brother beloved. A brother 
beloved cannot be a res; of necessity he is a personal It was 
inevitable that this principle in time would spell the doom 
of chattel slavery. Is it not inevitable that it must spell the 
doom of every type of slavery, for if we are members and 
brother one of another, how shall one member countenance 
the enslavement of another, or how shall one brother ac- 
quiesce in the mistreatment of another brother? 

Slavery a Moral Problem 

It was not long after this first Africans were landed at 
Jamestown in 1619 that the American colonists were faced 
with the moral and religious problems involved in chattel 
slavery. The solution arrived at generally indicated that the 
Christian conscience was still at work, though obviously it 

Fowler, Social Life at Rome, p. 223. 
Fowler, op. cit., p 234. 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 217 

had made little or no advance since the first century. Slavery- 
was justified on the grounds that it provided a means of 
bringing the heathen slaves to a knowledge of Christ. It was 
a troubled conscience that made this compromise, a com- 
promise that found compensation and comfort in energetic 
missionary and evangelistic activity on behalf of the slaves. 5 
In 1758 the Quakers came out openly for the emancipation of 
all slaves. Patrick Henry commended them for their stand. 6 
There was some sentiment developed in other denominations 
for emancipation but the major religious interest of the 
churches was directed toward winning the slaves to Christ, 
not in securing their freedom. The prevailing attitude is well 
illustrated in a communication addressed by the Rev. Dr. 
Richard Furman in 1822 to Governor Wilson of South Caro- 
lina on behalf of the Baptist State Convention. Dr. Furman 
was pastor of the First Baptist Church of Charleston and the 
first president of the Baptist Triennial Convention, the first 
national body organized by Baptists in America. His com- 
munication to the governor was called forth by an attempted 
insurrection of slaves in South Carolina, an event which 
created intense excitement throughout the state. Extracts 
from the communication reveal the method so often employ- 
ed by the churches in resolving problems of conscience, 
namely, rationalization of failure to stand for the highest, 
plus action which does not conflict with tradition. Dr. Furman 

"... the right of holding slaves is clearly established 
in the Holy Scriptures, both by precept and example . . . 

"Had the holding of slaves been a moral evil, it cannot 
be supposed, that the inspired Apostles, who feared not the 
faces of men, and were ready to lay down their lives in the 
cause of their God, would have tolerated it for a moment, 
in the Christian church. . . . 

"The Christian golden rule, of doing to others, as we 
would they should do to us, has been urged as an un- 
answerable argument against holding slaves. But surely 

s The story is told well and in detail by Weatherford and Johnson 

in Race Relations, "Attitude of the Church," pp. 181-215. 
a Weatherford and Johnson, op. cit., p. 126. 

218 Christian Frontiers 

this rule is never to be urged against that order of things 
which the Divine government has established; nor do our 
desires become a standard to us, under this rule, unless 
they have a due regard to justice, propriety and the general 
good. . . . 

"Should, however, a time arrive, when the Africans in 
our country might be found qualified to enjoy freedom; and 
when they might obtain it in a manner consistent with the 
interest and peace of the community at large, the Conven- 
tion would be happy in seeing them free. . . . 

"And here, I am brought to a part of the general sub- 
ject, which I confess to your Excellency, the Convention, 
from a sense of their duty, as a body of men, to whom im- 
portant concerns of Religion are confided, have particularly 
at heart, and wish it may be seriously considered by all our 
Citizens: This is the religious interest of the Negroes. For 
though they are slaves, they are also men; and are with 
ourselves accountable creatures; having immortal souls, 
and being destined to future eternal award. Their religious 
interests claim a regard from their masters of the most se- 
rious nature; and it is indispensible." 7 
The good doctor goes on to emphasize the duty of masters 
to see that religious privileges are granted their slaves and 
declared it to be the duty of the government to provide laws 
that will prevent the slaves from "being oppressed and in- 
jured by unreasonable, cruel masters, and others; and to 
afford them, in respect of morality and religion, such priv- 
ileges as may comport with the peace and safety of the state." 
Be it said to the credit of the white church people of the 
South that they generally accepted this standard of respon- 
sibility as set forth by Dr. Furman. Methodists, Baptists, 
Presbyterians and Episcopalians encouraged evangelistic 
activity among the slaves. The slaves became members of the 
white churches, and though segregated, attended the same 
houses of worship attended by their white masters. Slaves 
were baptized by white ministers and were subject to the 
same church discipline as that provided for white members. 

7 From a collection of pamphlets in the Library of the Southern 
Baptist Theological Seminary. 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 219 

It was in this period that the Southern Negroes developed 
the foundations of that religious life which was to play such 
an important part in all their future progress. It was the 
white churches that gave impetus and sanction to the first 
efforts in America to provide the Negro with formal educa- 
tion. 8 

But slavery was the rock upon which three great denomi- 
nations broke up, even before the Union was torn in twain. 
Methodists were the first to divide, the cleavage taking place 
at the meeting of the General Conference at New York in 
1844. Baptists were next, the Southern Baptist Convention 
being formed at Augusta, Ga., in 1845. The break occurred in 
the Presbyterian church in 1853. A schism in the Episcopal 
church was only temporary, and was healed in 1865, imme- 
diately after the War Between the States closed. 


The saddest of all eras in the history of the United States 
was the Reconstruction era. Claude Bowers has rightly called 
it "The Tragic Era." Perhaps the most tragic of all circum- 
stances connected with this period was the utter incapacity 
of the churches, North and South, to provide leadership that 
would help heal the wounds of the stricken people. The 
churches perpetuated the bitterness that had severed them 
asunder and were therefore in no condition to offer wise and 
constructive leadership in this time of sorrow and crisis. 
Northern church leaders assumed an air of superiority and 
looked upon Southern church members as apostates who 
should welcome the efforts of the Northerners to convert 
them to their views. The Southern church leaders resented 
this attitude and scorned the efforts of their Northern breth- 
ren to "convert" them. The Northerners "believed that the 
Southern churches 'had been so completely leagued with 
detestable sin that its representative ministers are incapac- 
itated for the work of social and religious regeneration.' A 
•Methodist bishop asserted that 'the very conscience of the 
professedly religious portion of the South was debauched; 
that the ministry had been guilty beyond the power of lan- 
guage to describe in that they were debauchers, and I fear 

« Weatherford and Johnson, Race Relations, p. 349. 

220 Christian Frontiers 

that preachers and people were back slidden into a depth 
out of which even the mercy of God might fail to lift them'." 9 

It is not difficult to see that this attitude was in no way 
designed to salve wounds. Simkins and Woody point out that 
in South Carolina proffers of reconciliation were scornfully 
rejected and show how the views of South Carolina church 
members were reflected in the pronouncement of a committee 
of Presbyterians, which said: "How (addressing their Nor- 
thern co-religionists) will you justify, on Presbyterian prin- 
ciples, your intrusion in their (the Southerners') field of 
labor, your scattering their flock, your use of military power 
to keep possession of their church property? By what author- 
ity does your committee intrude into the diocese of another? 
Are you lords over God's heritage among us? Did we lose our 
spiritual liberties in the war?"' 

It was in this same tragic era of Reconstruction that what 
we know today as "race prejudice" was developed in the 
South. It developed while the churches bickered among them- 
selves and political leaders of North and South made blunder 
after blunder. It is true that during slavery the Southern 
white man looked upon the Negro as an inferior being but 
the average Southerner had no prejudice in his heart against 
the black man. As a matter of fact there was no psychological 
basis for prejudice, except perhaps on the part of that class 
denominated by the Negroes themselves "poor white trash." 
When the Negroes were first brought to the colonies they 
were "accepted on the same conditions governing the white 
indentured servants brought from England."" There is ample 
evidence that there was warm affection between the two 
races in the South, even though the Negro chafed at his lot 
and yearned for his freedom. But when that freedom came 
and the Southern white man was forced to accept by force 
of arms a new order of things that elevated the former slave 

9 Simkins and Woody, South Carolina During Reconstruction, p. 374f. 
The first quotation is from A New England Conference of Meth- 
odists, cited in Southern Christian Advocate, September 7, 1865; 
the second is from Bishop Clark of Cincinnati, cited in National 
Baptist, August 31, 1865. 

io Op. cit., p. 377. 

" Weatherford and Johnson, Race Relations, p. 104. 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 221 

to a position of equality with his masters and even placed the 
former slave in the position of lawmaker, judge and soldier, 
a deep feeling of resentment was born in the Southern white 
man's heart, a feeling which naturally became associated with 
the Negro, Negro leadership and Negro assertiveness. An- 
other way might have been discovered in those difficult days 
which would have altered all subsequent relationships be- 
tween the races in the South. How different the story might 
have been if the churches had been in position to act as 
peacemakers and encourage a sane and statesmanlike ap- 
proach to the entire problem! But they too were caught in 
the vortex of social confusion and ill will. There were pro- 
phetic voices raised even among Southerners, and the Christ- 
ian conscience was not entirely dead in the South. Governor 
Orr of South Carolina "professed to believe that the Negroes 
needed a representation in Congress and that Negro suffrage 
offered a tolerable way out of this impasse of military rule. 12 
Even Wade Hampton, famous cavalry leader of the Confed- 
eracy and the man who "redeemed" South Carolina from 
"carpetbag rule" was in favor of Negro suffrage as a com- 
promise, but in fairness it must be said that Hampton's idea 
was that the Negroes' votes would be controlled by their 
former masters. 13 One statesmanlike utterance of the time, 
which was said to have reflected "the sentiments of many 
worthy people" has been preserved. It was made by a Mr. 
Dudley speaking before the Taxpayers Convention which 
met in Columbia, S. C, May 9-12, 1871. A portion of the state- 
ment is worthy of repetition here because of its suggestion 
of "what might have been." Mr. Dudley said: 

"Surely, if ever there was a debt, founded on the strong- 
est obligation, it will be found in the humble claims which 
the colored man now makes upon his former owners, and 
this is, only that they may be protected in the rights which 
the results of the war have given them — rights which they 
never demanded for themselves, but have only accepted at 
the hands of others. 

"... Now, let this convention, composed as it is of the 

12 Simkins and Woody, South Carolina During Reconstruction, p. 83. 
«3 Simkins and Woody, op. cit, p. 83f. 

222 Christian Frontiers 

heroes of many a battle field, rise up to the moral heroism 

of proclaiming to the world their unalterable purpose to 

repay the kindness and fidelity of the colored man by an 

unreserved acknowledgement of his newly-acquired rights, 

and such a pledge coming from the representative men of 

South Carolina, who have never yet learned to equivocate 

or evade, will be respected by all those who are capable of 

appreciating properly the obligations of personal honor."' 4 

All honor to Mr. Dudley for those brave words! Would 

that the Christian conscience which spoke through him that 

day in Columbia might have prevailed, but Mr. Dudley's 

dream was not to be. Thad Stevens and his pseudo-statesmen 

in Washington were determined that their radical methods 

must prevail; the hot-heads of the South would answer with 

the Ku Klux Klan and the Red Shirts, and the Negro would 

be the victim of the white man's warfare and selfishness. 

And so there was spawned in this tragic era that un- 
American thing called "race prejudice"; here began that 
cleavage between two great races, which should never have 
been, a cleavage that has plagued both white and black man 
from the time of its beginning till the present. This cleavage 
may well be called "The American Tragedy." The nation and 
the churches must not rest until it is healed. 

Gains Were Made 

All was not loss during Reconstruction. Indeed there was 
much that was gain. Thrown upon their own resources the 
Negroes were compelled to develop leadership of their own; 
this leadership grew with remarkable rapidity. The public 
school movement in the South began during this period. In 
South Carolina the radical constitutional convention of 1868 
which laid the foundation of the public school system in that 
state and which framed a truly remarkably constitution was 
composed of 124 delegates, 76 of whom were Negroes. In this 
period arose the independent Negro churches, which to this, 
day have remained the most important factor in the lives of 
the Negroes of the South. A re-assertion of the Christian 
conscience is seen in the benevolent attitude of the white 

i4 James S. Pike, The Prostrate State, D. Appleton and Company, 
1874, pp. 266f . 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 223 

church members toward the formation of these independent 
churches. "The white Methodists (in South Carolina) soon 
realized the inevitability of the withdrawal and accommodat- 
ed themselves. The official organ of the white church was of 
the opinion that since the colored people 'will not remain in 
any church organization that does not admit them to the 
legislative and pastoral relation,' and that since 'the social 
relation of the two races preclude the idea of such equality,' 
independent Negro organizations were necessary. The cordial 
reception of the fraternal delegates of the African church by 
the general conference of the Southern church was approved 
in South Carolina and the whites of Charleston extended the 
use of Trinity Church to the Negroes until they could com- 
plete a church of their own."' 5 Simkins and Woody tell also 
of the co-operation white Baptists in South Carolina gave 
their black brothers in the formation of independent church- 
es: "We learn of the dismissal from white churches of their 
colored members, of the public being asked to contribute 
toward the building of houses of worship for 'these pious and 
worthy persons,' and of fairs being held to raise funds for this 
purpose. 'As the house of worship could not hold the congre- 
gation that attended it,' ran the report of a white assembly, 
'it was deemed best to constitute the colored members as a 
separate church, . . . and they are now known as the Pineville 
Colored Baptist Church. They have adopted the covenant 
and declaration of Principles set forth by the Welsh Neck 
Baptist Association.' The Negroes, until they could acquire 
the resources necessary to build a church of pine boards, 
were content with a shelter made of the branches of trees, 
a 'bush harbor' as they called it. So great was the success 
of the independent church that on May 2, 1877, a state con- 
vention was organized by the ten or more existing regional 
associations."' 6 

Relations Today 

Relations between the races in the South have in the 
main followed the patterns that were crystallized during the 
Reconstruction era. The tragic breach between the races re- 

is Simkins and Woody, Reconstruction in South Carolina, p. 387. 
i« Op. cit., p. 389. 

224 Christian Frontiers 

mains. Though living side by side in a land they both helped 
to create and both love, these races remain apart, practical 
strangers the one to the other. Contacts between the members 
of the races are frequent but neither race seems to know the 
mind of the other. The Southern white man's "understand- 
ing" of the Negro is a myth; the average white man knows 
very little concerning what the Negro is thinking for the 
reason that he does not make it his business to discover what 
the Negro is thinking and because the Negro does not choose 
to reveal his thoughts to the white man. Men who live on 
opposite sides of a chasm such as exists between the white 
man and the Negro in the United States do not reveal their 
inmost thoughts to one another. The Negro comes nearer to 
knowing the mind of the white man, but his knowledge is that 
of shrewd appraisal and deduction and not the result of the 
white man's frank revelation of his thoughts; often therefore 
the Negro is too sure of his conclusions and too confident of 
his ability to "read" the white man's mind. Manifestly the 
sort of "understanding" that exists between the races is 
worldly and un-Christian. There is little or no bridging of the 
gulf between the races even by Negroes and whites belonging 
to the same denomination. The Negro Baptist deacon who 
works on the farm of the white Baptist deacon year in and 
year out never sees the inside of the white Baptist church 
and the white deacon knows little or nothing of what goes 
on in the colored church. The good white Methodist woman 
may even fail to realize that she deprives her colored Meth- 
odist cook of the joy of attending services at the colored 
Methodist Church because she requires her servant's pre- 
sence in the kitchen on meeting day. 

The average white church member follows the traditional 
pattern of prejudice. This means that he prefers the standard 
of the world to the standard of Jesus — "a nigger is all right 
in his place" — this is his maxim, not "Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor as thyself." The Negro on his part is resentful, 
which is understandable if not Christian. But with his grow- 
ing resentment the Negro is losing something of his former 
poise of spirit and much of his good manners. In many Negro 
hearts there is deep bitterness, and with some, resentment 
has become an obsession. The younger generation of Negroes 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 225 

leans more and more toward an attitude of aloofness with 
regard to the white man. All of which reminds us that the 
breach between the races is real and that both whites and 
Negroes must work at the task if a work of reconciliation is 
to begin. 

Here it should be said that the Christian conscience is 
still alive and at work among both races in the South and 
the picture of race relations is not dark beyond hope. Even 
at a time when a candidate for governor in a great Southern 
states pitches his campaign on the basis of race prejudice 
and resorts to the sheerest and most contemptible dema- 
goguery to gain support, there are signs that the conscience 
of the Southern white Christian is uneasy. Perhaps there is 
more concern over the "race question" among Christian 
leaders of the South than at any time since the Reconstruction 
era. There are a few men and women in every denomination, 
white and colored, who see the tragedy of the present state 
of affairs and its relation to Christianity. These men and 
women continue to speak out, refusing to be discouraged 
when the groups to which they belong fail to heed them. 
These leaders are not wild radicals; for the most part they 
are unselfish Christians of deep conviction who are very much 
devoted to the South and who are anxious concerning its 
future. As illustrations of how the Christian conscience con- 
tinues to function among the churches of the South excerpts 
of speeches by two leaders, the one a Presbyterian, the other 
a Baptist, are pertinent. 

In a sermon preached as retiring moderator before the 
Presbytery of Atlanta, Dr. J. McDowell Richards said: 

"The Negro is in need of justice with reference to what 
is supposedly a commonplace of democracy — the ballot. I 
am aware that I am treading on dangerous ground when I 
say this, but I am convinced that the principle is basic 
both to Christianity and to democracy" . . . 

"It is time that we were facing the issue. It is time 
for some preaching on Christian duty in race relations, 
my brethren of the ministry. It is time for intelligent, 

'226 Christian Frontiers 

courageous leadership in church and community life, my 

brethren of the ruling eldership." 17 
Reverend Henry Alford Porter, D.D., Baptist minister of 
Charlottesville, Virginia, in a pamphlet, Christianity and 
Race, published by the Home Mission Board of the Southern 
Baptist Convention, Atlanta, declared it is the duty of the 
white man "to think of the Negro not merely as a member 
of a race, but as a person, with all that that implies of poten- 
tial values in the mind and soul, and to give opportunity and 
stimulus for the realization of these values . . . The race 
question is the supreme test of our religion." 

Constructive Attitudes 
Official pronouncements of the white denominations on 
the race question are usually courageous and constructive. 
The Seventy-seventh General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States meeting at Montreat, N. C, in 
1937 heard a very strong report from its Committee on Moral 
and Social Welfare. Evidently the recommendations were too 
strong for some Presbyterian ears, for a lengthy formal pro- 
test was lodged against the report by a group of commis- 
sioners. The tone and argument of the protest are significant 
as revealing the conviction of not only many Presbyterians 
but large groups of Baptists, Methodists and Episcopalians as 
well. "Some of the matters concerning which this report 
deals," read the protest, "are not only secular, but they are 
of highly controversial nature. The effort of the Assembly 
or its agents to deal with these economic, political or social 
problems in this way and as such, even though they have a 
moral aspect, is in striking contrast with the teachings and 
the example of our Lord as our Redeemer and as the great 
founder and head of the church. He said, 'My Kingdom is 
not of this world'." 18 Acting with good sense and courage the 
Assembly rejected the protest and stood by its committee. In 
its discussion of race relations the committee pointed out the 
many areas of discrimination against the Negro and said, 
"unless we are willing to solve our racial problems on the 

»7 Brothers in Black, published by the Commission on Interracial 

Cooperation, Inc., Atlanta, December, 1941. 
io Minutes of the Assembly, p. 59. 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 227 

basis of justice and righteousness the consequences will be 
fully as disastrous for our own privileged race as for the 
oppressed group in our midst. In injuring the Negro people, 
we are injuring and endangering the white race in America." 19 
The Social Service Commission of the Southern Baptist 
Convention in its report to the Convention meeting at Okla- 
homa City in 1939 made the following recommendation: 

"That we recognize the many inequalities and injustices 
which still exist in the dealings of organized society and of 
individuals with the Negro race and in the provision made 
for the advancement of the Negro race, such as the dispro- 
portionate distribution of public school funds, the lack of 
equal and impartial administration of justice in the courts, 
inadequate wages paid for Negro labor and the lack of ade- 
quate industrial and commercial opportunity for the Negro 
race as a whole; That we pledge ourselves as Christians and 
citizens to use our influence and give our efforts for the 
correction of these inequalities and for securing for the 
Negro opportunities for his full development in his educa- 
tional, industrial and religious life." 20 
And as evidence of wisdom, fairness and Christian for- 
bearance on the part of church leaders among the Negroes 
we present the following excerpts from an "Address to the 
Country" by the Fraternal Council of Negro churches of 
America meeting in Nashville, Tenn., February 5, 1936: 

"Finally, we call upon all to bow in humble submission 
to the teaching of brotherhood, of fair dealing. The Negroes 
are still a minority in this country, that if we had perfect 
organization of politics, of education, of finance, we could 
not succeed unless we had the good will of the majority. 
We are outnumbered 11 to 1. We need good will. 'Peace and 
good will' was the message of the angels when Christ was 
born. It was the message of Jesus in His entire life. There 
is no reason why a strong man should not exploit a weak 
man, or why a strong majority should not exploit a weak 
minority except the sense of fair play which is grounded 
in religion. Economics spell exploitation. Politics spell pow- 

i9 Op. cit., p. 105. 

20 Annual of the Convention, p. 141. 

228 Christian Frontiers 

er. Only religion spells good will, and as the influence of 
religion has grown through the centuries, men have become 
more civilized in their attitudes one towards another. This 
is the hope of Negro America, and to it we call attention of 
our leaders — we must not get away from the church . . . 

"We urge our people to keep up their traditional loyalty 
to their country; to abide by the laws; to set examples of 
peace and decency; to cultivate friendly relations among 
themselves and with their white neighbors; to join in all 
movements for moral uplift and civic betterment; to en- 
deavor to crush crime; promote education and uphold re- 
ligion. And God will bless you, and He will raise up friends 
for you. He will help you fight your battles and you will 
come forth conquerors." 21 
It is notable that this praiseworthy statement reveals that 
at least one large representative group of Negro religious 
leaders attach their hope for a better day to religion and the 
influence of religion upon the hearts of white men. "This is 
the hope of Negro America," the Negro Christian leaders 
said, "We must not get away from the church." 

Here indeed is hope for healing of the breach. But the 
Southern Christian conscience must become more than a 
troubled conscience if progress is to be made; it must become 
an educated and enlightened conscience, which means that 
it must be brought into line with the spirit and teaching of 

Negro Church Life 
It is interesting to note the manner in which the depressed 
economic condition of the Negroes is reflected in their church 
life. Negroes are known for their generosity and for their 
liberal support of their churches, but the contrast in what 
they are able to do for their churches and what the white 
people do is marked. The following figures are based on the 
census report of Religious Bodies for 1936 for the twelve 
Southern states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia: 

The average value of the white Baptist church in these 

z« Work, Negro Year Book, 1937-1938, Tuskegee, pp. 213, 215. 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 229 

states is $9,425; the average value of the Negro Baptist church 
$3,755; the average value of the white Methodist church in 
these states is $10,378; the average value of the Negro Meth- 
odist church 22 is $4,167. The average amount of expenditures 
of the white Baptist church per year in these states is $1,473; 
for the Negro Baptist church it is $602 per year. The average 
amount of expenditures per year of the white Methodist 
church in this area is $1,889; the average expenditure of the 
Negro Methodist church in the same area is $773. 

The remarkable fact illustrated in the above figures is the 
liberal support the Negroes have given their churches in 
spite of their depressed economic status. Their loyalty to their 
churches under adverse circumstances is a tribute to the 
quality of their Christianity. It is cause for concern, however, 
that the 10,650,000 white church members in these Southern 
states would acquiesce in conditions that compel the 4,350,000 
Negro church members in these states to accept a standard 
of church life so much inferior to their own. 23 

Closely related to the depressed economic status of the 
Negro and the consequent inferior standards of church life 
he is forced to accept is the increasingly grave problem of 
Negro ministerial education. Despite many handicaps Ne- 
groes have made great strides in education. R. B. Eleazer 
reports in his valuable brochure Twelve Million Negro 
Americans that there are now 109 Negro colleges in the U. S. 
with 45,000 students and that 2,500 Negro students are en- 
rolled in other colleges, while about 5,000 Negroes are award- 
ed college degrees every year. But the education of Negroes 

22 Based on reports for the largest Methodist body, the African 

Methodist Episcopal church. 

23 The figures are based upon tables in Religious Bodies 1936, Vol. 

1, U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, but 
allow for an estimated normal increase between 1936 and 1942. 
They also allow for the inaccurate report on Southern Baptists 
in the census reports. Correcting the Southern Baptist figures, 
the census reports show: Total number church members in the 
12 states named, 14,175,814; total number Negro church mem- 
bers 4,224,724 or 29 per cent of all church members. In these 
12 states in 1936 Negro Baptists numbered 2,941,824. The four 
largest Negro Methodist bodies totaled 1,013,260, all other de- 
nominations, 269,640. 

230 Christian Frontiers 

for the ministry has fallen far behind this remarkable record. 
Charles S. Johnson in The Negro College Graduate 24 reveals 
the seriousness of the situation in this statement: 

''In 1930 there were 25,034 Negro ministers, or one 
clergyman for every 475 of Negro population. The white 
ratio is one to every 885 or relatively about twice as many 
Negro as white clergymen. The educational preparation of 
ministers is less than that of any other group among the 
professions. The trend of college graduates toward the 
ministry is slight. Replacement of large numbers of un- 
trained ministers by educated Negro ministers offers one 
field of occupational absorption for college graduates. There 
is an estimated immediate need, on this basis (i. e. replace- 
ment) for about 4,000 college trained Negro ministers . . . 
"The educational preparation of the majority of the 
Negro ministers is less than that of any other group among 
the professions. Perhaps the best recent figures dealing 
with the education of Negro clergymen are those presented 
in the study of the Negro church by Mays and Nicholson 
(The Negro's Church). In a group of 591 urban ministers 
distributed in Northern and Southern cities, there were 427 
or 72.3 per cent who had no degree of any kind, collegiate 
or seminary. Nine and three-tenths per cent had A.B. de- 
grees only, 9.3 per cent A.B. and B.D. degrees only, 4.1 per 
cent B.D. degrees only, 3.7 per cent B.Th. and 1.3 per cent 
A.B. and B.Th. degrees. The urban ministers show a con- 
siderable higher level of training than the rural ministers." 
Negro Baptist leaders in Georgia made a survey in their 
state in 1938 which revealed that 91.11 per cent of the Negro 
Baptist ministers in the territory studied were without any 
special training, 6.12 per cent had only high school training, 
1.85 per cent had had theological courses and only .92 per cent 
held college degrees. 

Negro high school boys and college graduates are turning 
to the ministry in very small numbers. The ministry fails to 
attract them. The Negro Year Book for 1938 reports only four 
seminaries (there is one Catholic Seminary to be added to 
this number) for Negroes in the Southern states, though a 

a4 University of North Carolina Press, 1938. p. 270 and 263. 

Southern Churches and the Negroes 231 

large number of colleges offer theological courses and enroll 
theological students. The growing shortage of educated Negro 
ministers holds serious potentialities for the future. Leader- 
ship of the Negro race is now in process of passing from the 
ministers to the educators. Whether this be for the better or 
worse is not the question; the distressing fact is that it illus- 
trates a decline in the influence of religious leadership. A 
more serious portent for the future is the loss of educated 
Negro youth to the church. The thousands of young Negroes 
coming from the excellent colleges and universities for Ne- 
groes in the South are hardly to be blamed if they balk at 
attending churches whose pastors are uneducated and often 
illiterate. And because Negro youth refuses to listen to and 
follow the uneducated minister, thousands of Negro young 
people are slipping away from the church and its influence. 
The peril that this state of affairs has for the future of the 
Negro in the South and for the development of fraternal re- 
lations between the races ought to be seen by the white 
Christians of the South before it is too late. All of the major 
white denominations should get busy at once and give a 
helping hand to their Negro brethren in their struggle to 
build up and maintain a trained ministry. 

The time is past when Southern white Christians can dis- 
regard the challenge of the race issue. The present state of 
affairs must not drag out to some fortuitous solution. Some 
sort of solution of the problem is in the making. Is it Christ- 
ian? That is the question Southern white Christians must 
answer. And in seeking the answer let them remember that 
ultimately they must give account to the God of love and 
justice for the answer that they give. 

232 Christian Frontiers 


"In Spirit and In Truth" 

Hubert M. Poteat 

N NON-LITURGICAL churches, hymns afford the con- 
gregation virtually its only means of active participa- 
tion in the service. And yet hymn-singing is widely regarded 
as of relatively little importance, and is treated accordingly, 
being permitted as a rule to sink into a dull and dismal 
lethargy which is quite apt to spread to the whole service: 
the hymns are selected from a slender cycle which is travers- 
ed over and over again; the spirit of religious fervor is 
quenched by the indifferent, dawdling manner in which they 
are sung; the average minister has never taken the trouble 
to study the background and history of the great hymns, and 
the people never receive any information or inspiration to 
supplement their own slight knowledge of, and interest in, 
hymnology. As a result of this combination of ignorance and 
indifference, the singing of hymns, instead of being an act of 
worship, as it ought always to be, is looked upon as a mere 
incident of the service — holding its place solely because of 
immemorial custom. 

A fruitful soil is thus prepared for cheap, unworthy, and 
unworshipful songs. The purveyors of these travesties glibly 
inform the music committee that their books will awaken 
the congregation from its musical and spiritual lassitude; 
that the perfect cure for the lack of enthusiasm in the sing- 
ing is bound up between the covers of their latest books; that 
the proper way to stir the souls of the people is to begin with 
the feet, which, galvanized into frantic activity by sundry 
jigs, waltzes, and jingles, will communicate their exhilaration 
upward. The books are bought — and the people forthwith 
forget about worshiping God in spirit and in truth and begin 
to "worship" Him in ragtime and in jazz. The cheap book is 
not a cure for the disease; its adoption simply means the 
substitution of one malady for another. The cure, then, must 
be sought elsewhere, and. I believe it is to be found in the 
application of study, reflection, and prayer to this whole 
question of good and bad hymns. 

Cheap hymns and cheap hymnals are extensively and very 

"In Spirit and in Truth" 233 

shrewdly advertised. For example, they are to be found in 
most large denominational gatherings — conventions, summer 
assemblies, and the like — and they are frequently "furnished" 
by the publishers. "Gospel singers" would be lost without 
them; in point of fact, many of these gentry sell books during 
the course of the services — I have seen it with my own eyes. 
"Singing Conventions" should be called "Advertising Con- 
ventions," for agents, male quartets, and solo performers 
from various companies are always on hand to boost their 
wares. Hillbillies whine "hymns" over the radio and evoke 
tumultuous stamping of feet, whistling, and hand-clapping. 

But the widespread popularity of cheap hymns and hymn- 
als is due especially to the fondness of the public for similar 
secular stuff and to the fact that denominational leaders and 
boards have set upon them the stamp of official approval. The 
first point requires no elaboration; the second may be illus- 
trated by the fact that the copyrights, good will, etc., of the 
publishing company headed by the late Robert H. Coleman, 
of Texas, have been purchased by the Baptist Sunday School 
Board, which, no doubt, will joyously proceed with the highly 
remunerative task of feeding the Baptist public what the 
Baptist public wants or can be cajoled into thinking it wants. 

A quotation from the "foreword" of one of Mr. Coleman's 
productions sets forth the whole sorry business with lament- 
able clarity: "A lengthy foreword is unnecessary, as the 
friends will or should examine a book carefully before select- 
ing. This is all that we ask for this book, and we earnestly 
seek comparison with any book in all songland. Many months 
have been devoted to careful selection from multiplied thou- 
sands of songs; faithful counsel has been sought and obtained 
from faithful Pastors and experienced Evangelists and Song 
Leaders; and much money has been expended in securing 
the copyrights desired — in fact not a single song selected has 
been omitted because the price was too high, although large 
sums were asked for some of these very popular favorites." 


Well, what is a cheap song — an unworthy song? It is, I 
think, one which departs from the spirit of true worship and 
clothes itself in secular forms. Everybody knows that the 
popularity of a song will be determined almost entirely by its 

234 Christian Frontiers 

music; and thousands of churches and Sunday schools are 
howling every Sunday exactly the same sort of music which 
is to be heard in dance halls, in "singing commercials" on the 
radio, and in ten-cent movie houses. And the words, or the 
"lyrics," as the adepts say, are for the most part clumsily 
constructed doggerel or syrupy sentimentality or puerile 

There are three musical types which are in high favor 
among composers of cheap songs: waltz, ragtime, and jingle. 
Examples of the waltz are "Saved! Saved!" and "In the Gar- 
den"; of ragtime, "Fishers of Men" and "Brighten the Corn- 
er"; of the jingle, "Let a Little Sunshine In" and "Every Sun- 
day School Should Grow" (words and music by the Sunday 
School Board's musical adviser). 

A session with such incredible trash, under the leadership 
of a "Gospel singer" who loves it, for one reason or another, 
is a sight to drive Christian people to tears; the performance 
would not last one night at any tenth-rate vaudeville house 
in America. The singer marches to the platform, unlimbers 
his muscles and his larynx, tells a few jokes, and announces a 
"hymn"; while the people are fluttering the pages of their 
hymnals, the pianist reels off a few measures, keeping time 
with as much of his anatomy as he can move without pre- 
cipitating himself from his seat; after another joke or two 
and some pleasantries exchanged between singer and congre- 
gation, the people get their feet into action and something 
which is called the worship of God begins. Such monkey- 
shines and antics are disgraceful and sacrilegious beyond the 
power of words to express, and yet they are to be seen all 
over the land, every Sunday in the year. 

Young people are often criticized for their lack of rever- 
ence. How can we expect a boy to be reverent in the house 
of God when the hymns — his only medium of participation 
in the service — remind him so strongly of the dance he attend- 
ed Saturday evening? Incidentally, many churches use a good 
hymnal for the eleven o'clock hour, but for the Sunday school 
they provide jigs, jingles, and dance music. That procedure 
is tragic, for the simple reason that if children are trained in 
the Sunday school to love trash, trash they will demand when 
they come into the active life and work of the church. 

"In Spirit and in Truth" 235 

We have in our great hymnals songs which express de- 
voutly and worthily every emotion which can arise in Christ- 
ian hearts — songs which were born of a genuine experience 
of grace and not of the lure of fat profits — and yet publishers 
and writers continue to turn out their unholy product. There 
is one company, we are told, which owns the copyrights of ten 
thousand songs and which has two thousand "lyrics" which 
have not yet been set to "music." Now, if writers were as in- 
terested in the bringing in of the Kingdom as they vociferous- 
ly claim to be, they would not display such burning eagerness 
to take shelter under the wing of the great god Copyright and 
thus to be able to sell their wares for "large sums"; and if pub- 
lishers were really concerned about the evangelization of the 
world through hymns, they would hardly scramble so frantic- 
ally to expend those "large sums" for popular items and to 
build up their own bank accounts by issuing new books every 
year or two. IV 

There are, I take it, three vital elements in worship: 
preaching, prayer, song — and no man can say which is most 
important. Sermons and prayers are not turned out whole- 
sale and hawked up and down the country by bellowing, 
prancing evangelistic singers; why should hymns be thus 
treated? A minister who should write sermons for money 
would be justly and universally despised; and when a volume 
of sermons or prayers is published, the compiler has no 
occasion to refer to the "large sums asked for these very pop- 
ular favorites." I certainly have no objection to the accumula- 
tion of wealth by any man, so long as he is honest — and so long 
as he keeps his filthy hands off the service in the sanctuary. 
Cheap songs are bad enough in themselves, in all conscience, 
and when to their inherent unworthiness is added the fact 
that through their use men are making money out of the 
degradation of the worship of God, they become intolerable. 

Three arguments are frequently advanced for the use of 
cheap hymns; the first is that they "stir up the pep." If by 
"pep" the sort of hysteria which may be seen in certain types 
of revivals is meant, we may well dispense with it entirely. 
But the statement is more serious: it suggests that there is no 
"pep," or enthusiasm, in the great hymns. So assiduously has 
that mendacious heresy been disseminated that there are 

236 Christian Frontiers 

countless thousands of people who actually believe it. The 
second argument is that these cheap songs are not so difficult 
to sing as the standard hymns. Anybody who knows enough 
music to sit down at the piano and pick out with one finger 
songs of both types can readily demonstrate the absolute 
falsity of this contention. The third argument is that the great 
hymns are over the heads of the masses of our people, who 
must have songs of "a lower literary grade." I do not believe 
that wretched insinuation that our people are so feebleminded 
as to be unable to apprehend the true message of "In the 
Cross of Christ I Glory" or of "All Hail the Power of Jesus' 
Name," and I hereby challenge any jigster on earth to prove 


There seem to me to be three tests by which good hymns 
may be distinguished from bad hymns. The first is the test of 
time. I do not mean that all old hymns are good and that all 
new ones are bad; I do mean that if only those hymns are used 
which have survived the pruning and winnowing of the 
centuries and which are found in every worthy hymnal of all 
denominations, the worship of God is perfectly safe. The 
second is the test of mature taste and judgment; this does not 
call for discussion here. The third is the test of spiritual in- 
stinct — which will function with unerring accuracy if it is 
given a chance. Refer a given hymn to that instinct; ask its 
judgement upon the worthiness of words and music. For 
example, suppose you want to sing about heaven: set before 
your spiritual instinct "I Will Shout His Praise in Glory," 
and then consider "Jerusalem, the Golden" and decide which 
better expresses your idea of the future life. Illustrations 
might be multiplied indefinitely. 

The musical discrepancy between good hymns and bad is 
as wide as the world. The noblest music ever written is to 
be found in our great hymns— "Still, Still with Thee," "Fair- 
est Lord Jesus," "Hark, Hark, my Soul," "The King of Love 
my Shepherd Is," "Come, Ye Disconsolate," "Lo, He Comes, 
with Clouds Descending," "Dear Lord and Father of Man- 
kind," and hundreds of others. 

It should be our purpose and ideal to approach God's 
throne with our prayer and praise as reverently and as wor- 

"In Spirit and in Truth" 237 

shipfully as in us lies. Our Lord is no Mumbo- Jumbo to be 
propitiated with dance hall ditties. He demands the best and 
the worthiest offerings of devotion we can bring, and the 
emotions which ascend to Him on the pinions of song are too 
sacred to be denied by the cheap jingle of the street. The 
treasures of great souls are available to us all in our hymns; 
let us thank God for them, use them, and worship Him in 
spirit and in truth! 



Washington, D. C. — A new 
schedule for the release of con- 
scientious objectors now in Civ- 
ilian Public Service camps has 
been formulated by Selective 
Service headquarters here, ac- 
cording to the National Service 
Board for Religious Objectors. 

The new plan was determined 
after extension of the draft and 
calls for the discharge of all 
those who have completed 22 
months of service by the end 
of July, as well as all fathers. 

In September, men who have 
completed 20 months of service 
will be released. After October 
1, men will be eligible to apply 
for discharge upon completion 
of 18 months service. — (RNS). 


"The most effective means of 
combatting Communism is to 
exemplify the spirit of Christ," 
he declared, adding that while 
the furnishing of food and cloth- 
ing is important, the sending of 
the Gospel of Christ is of even 
greater importance. 

Referring to the Southern 
Baptists' current three-and-a- 
half million-dollar relief and re- 
habilitation campaign, the Mis- 
sion Board official declared he 
saw conditions of extreme suffer- 
ing during his recent tour of 

"In Jugoslavia, families mourn 
the loss of 1,600,000 killed in the 
recent conflict, while they bear 
an intolerable burden of tyranny 
imposed by the Partisan regime. 
Because the pains of hunger are 
more harassing than the plight 
of cold, they sell personal cloth- 
ing and bed clothing in order 
that they may get money for 
food for themselves and their 
children."— (RNS). 

Massanetta Springs, Va. — Em- 
phasizing the importance of 
sending food and clothing to per- 
sons in war-ravaged countries 
abroad, Dr. George W. Sadler, 
acting executive secretary of the 
Southern Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sion Board, told more than 800 
Baptists at a Sunday school 
conference here that "we dare 
not allow Europe to be painted 
red with a brush made of the 
shriveled linings of children's 
empty stomachs." 


Charlotte, N. C. — The Char- 
lotte Interdenominational Minis- 
terial Alliance has dispatched 
telegrams to President Truman 
and Attorney General Tom Clark 
asking "in the name of Christ 
and His righteousness" that the 
Federal government take all 
steps toward finding and prose- 



cuting members of a Georgia 
mob which recently killed four 

"We have noticed with a feel- 
ing of deep concern, the lynching 
near Monroe, Ga., July 25," the 
telegrams said. "We have follow- 
ed with keen interest the ex- 
pressed interest and attitude of 
the American public. It is alarm- 
ing to see how indifferent and 
even satisfied the local author- 
ities are regarding the affair. 

"Feeling as we do, in the light 
of previous experience, that the 
local authorities and the state of 
Georgia will do nothing to bring 
to justice these fiendish mur- 
derers, we entreat you in the 
name of Christ and His right- 
eousness to do whatever possible 
to apprehend these mobsters 
that they may be brought to 
justice."— (RNS). 


Nashville, Tenn. — Joint effort 
by the church and organized la- 
bor to achieve economic security, 
human equality, and social jus- 
tice was urged here by Willard 
Townsend, CIO official from 
Chicago, at the Race Relations 
Institute sponsored by the Amer- 
ican Missionary Association. 

Townsend, who is internation- 
al president of the United Trans- 
port Service Employees and a 
member of the CIO executive 
committee, set forth a six-point 
program in which the church 
and labor could cooperate: 

1. A guaranteed annual wage 
and full employment. 

2. Minimum wage scale of 65 
cents an hour. 

3. Non-discrimination and in- 
tegration of minorities. 

4. Slum clearance and com- 
munity planning. 

5. Adequate health provisions 
and hospitalization. 

6. Equalization of educational 
and recreational opportunities. 

Asserting that the church has 
been seeking a new basis of ap- 
proach to the common people, 
Townsend said that partnership 
with organized labor supplies 
such a basis. — (RNS). 


Silver Bay, N. Y.— The great- 
est obstacle to the world-wide 
spread of Christian missions is 
"the Jim Crowism of the church 
in the United States," Dr. Charles 
T. Leber of the Board of For- 
eign Missions of the Presbyte- 
rian Church in the U.S.A. de- 
clared here in a keynote ad- 
dress opening the 36th annual 
Silver Bay conference on the 
Christian Mission to the Postwar 

More than 300 delegates re- 
presenting church and mission 
groups throughout the country 
are attending the seven-day con- 
ference which is sponsored joint- 
ly by the Foreign Missions Con- 
ference of North America, the 
Home Missions Council of North 
America, the United Council of 
Church Women and the Mission- 
ary Education Movement. 

"We must strip the Church of 
a hard and stubborn layer of 


Christian Frontiers 

pride and prejudice which re- 
veals itself in a false sense of 
white superiority," said Dr. Le- 

As a case in point, he noted 
that when the Presbytery of 
Baltimore recently elected a Ne- 
gro moderator, two Presbyterian 
elders resigned in protest. 

"It is too late to argue about 
racial segregation," Dr. Leber 
told the delegates. "The urgency 
of the moment is upon us. It is 
easier to smash an atom than 
to break a prejudice." 


Madison, Wis. (RNS) — The 
rural church must help guide 
America's farm people toward a 
sound cultural and spiritual so- 
ciety, Dean I. L. Baldwin, head 
of the Wisconsin College of Ag- 
riculture, declared here at the 
25th annual Town -Country Lead- 
ership school. 

Speaking before 138 clerical 
and lay leaders from 19 states, 
Dean Baldwin said that the ru- 
ral church can have a great and 
beneficial influence on farming 
and farm life. 

"Farm people are the most 
important crop of agriculture; 
they deserve more attention and 
care than anything else that the 
farm supports," he asserted. 

"You of the rural church have 
a job to do in helping guide ru- 
ral America toward the best of 
educational advantages, ade- 
quate medical and dental care, 
modem conveniences in the 
home, attractive and happy sur- 
roundings, and a sound cultural 
and spiritual background." 


New York — An intensive cam- 
paign against newspaper, mag- 
azine, and radio liquor advertis- 
ing and drinking scenes in mo- 
tion pictures will be launched 
by the Northern Baptist Con- 
vention on Sunday, October 27, 
it was announced at the denom- 
ination's headquarters here. 

Actual promotion of the drive 
will begin September 1 when 
15,000 Baptist leaders will re- 
ceive preliminary letters of in- 
struction from the Council of 
Christian Social Progress, which 
is directing the project. 

Present plans call for North- 
ern Baptists to use specially pre- 
pared postcards and printed 
stickers as a means of protest 
to radio and film executives, 
newspaper editors and publish- 
ers.— (RNS). 


Jackson, Miss. — Negro Meth- 
odist churches in Mississippi 
will receive $100,000 from the 
Million Dollar Forward Move- 
ment to be carried on by Meth- 
odist in this state, Dr. Otto Por- 
ter, superintendent of the Jack- 
son District announced here. 

The remaining $900,000 will be 
divided as follows: Millsaps Col- 
lege, $350,000; the Methodist Or- 
phanage here, $250,000; Biloxi 
Assembly Grounds and Oxford 
Youth Camp, $100,000 jointly; 
ministers' pensions, $200,000. 


A Journal of Baptist Life and Thought 
Vol.I OCTOBER, 1946 No. 8 


Das Kelley Barnett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlator, Associate Editor William M. Poteat, Book Editor 

Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 

Sara Lowrey, Poetry Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 
H. B. Cross, Nashville, Tenn. Swan Hayworth, Vicksburg, Miss. 

George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. Withrow T. Holland, Haynesville, La. 

Adiel J. Moncrief, St. Joseph, Mo. 

J. M. Dawson, Washington, D. C. 

Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 

Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C. Blake Smith, Austin, Texas 

J. C. Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia Hubert R. Howard, Jr., Tulsa, Okla. 


George D. Heaton, Chairman 
Claude U. Broach Jasper C. Hutto, Secretary 

Eugene I. Olive J. Wade Baker 

Lee C. Sheppard E. Norfleet Gardner 

Fon H. Scofield Fred B. Helms 


Editorials 243 

Where There Is No Freedom 0. K. Armstrong 246 

Beauty for Ashes in Burma Paul Geren 253 

The Church They Want Hybert Pollard 256 

Books 263 

News 268 

How a Sunday Forum Functions 272 

Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laymen. Address all corres- 
pondence to Box 508, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Copyright 1946 by the Baptist 
Book Club. Second class mailing privilege pending. Subscription price, two dollars 
a year; twenty-five cents a copy. Printed by The Graphic Press, Inc., Raleigh, N. C. 

Who's Who In This Issue 

0. K. ARMSTRONG is a prominent Baptist layman of 
Springfield, Mo., who is the author of numerous articles on 
politics and on religion in such publications as the Reader's 
Digest and Better Homes and Gardens. 

PAUL GEREN, who has an A.B. from Baylor University 
and a Ph.D. from Harvard, is author of the popular book, 
Burma Diary, which is a unique interpretation of his ex- 
periences during the war as a missionary in Burma. He is 
now teaching at Berea College. 

HYBERT POLLARD is Professor of Religion at Linfield 
College in Oregon and has had considerable experience in 
dealing with veterans and their particular problems in the 
post-war world. 

HELMUT KUHN, whose review of a new book about 
Tolstoy is featured in this month's book review section, is 
Professor of Philosophy at the University of North Carolina. 


'Balkanization" of Christianity 

"OT INFREQUENTLY the newspaper columnist, 
upon whom we have come to rely quite heavily for 
both information and attitudes, rises to the role of the true 
prophet. Wrote much-maligned Drew Pearson recently in 
"The Washington Merry-Go-Round" : "If this columnist 
knows the United States, one of the greatest mistakes we are 
making is a tendency toward Balkanization — in other words, 
Italo- Americans are behaving as if they were Italians, Jewish- 
Americans as if they were Palestinians, Polish-Americans as 
if they were Poles — rather than as if they were Americans. 
They seem to forget that they took no oath to uphold Italy, 
Palestine, or Poland, and that splitting of our country into 
special groups can be disastrous. 

"Some of these alleged American citizens are threatening 
to vote next November according to whether Italy is given a 
soft peace or according to whether Palestine is given to 

It would be easy to draw and develop the analogy that 
millions of American Catholics are being led to think of them- 
selves as Catholics first, that is, members of a vast religious 
and political system (imperium in imperio, if you please) and 
Americans second. But the ax falls just now on American 
Protestants. For, despite the noble efforts of our church bodies 
to reach the spiritual unity of "one Lord, one faith, one 
baptism," the Balkanization of our religion goes on apace. 
This "splitting into special groups" is equally an intra-de- 
nominational problem. At the conventions one may observe 
the lines clearly drawn and the brethren squared off for the 
religious fray. There are the left-wingers, the right-wingers, 
the middle-of-the-roaders, the fundamentalists, the liberals, 
the modernists, the liturgists, the social-gospelers, et cetera 
ad infinitum, and when the voting time comes issues are 
decided and men are elected upon the basis of whether they 
adhere to the philosophy and theology of a special group. 

"Is Christ divided?" In the exact sense in which America 

244 Christian Frontiers 

is divided. Drew Pearson rightly reminds us that as citizens 
of the United States we took no oath of allegiance to another 
country nor swore to uphold a foreign government. Our 
supreme loyalty is to this nation. Likewise as Christians we 
are not told to give heart and soul and mind and strength to 
some creed or dogma or sect but only to the King of kings. 
But we have substituted the lesser loyalties for the greater 
loyalty and hence the tragedy of our atomistic, or Balkanized, 
Christianity. We do not read in the New Testament where 
Jesus says to His followers, "Go into all the world and make 
men accept the truth of my supernatural birth. Go compel 
them to believe in the literal truth of all the Scriptures thus 
far written and those you are to write. Go have them submit 
to a particular mode of baptism without which they can 
never be called Christians. Go have them endorse the West- 
minster or Philadelphia Confession (when such times shall 
come that these confessions shall be formulated)." But what 
says the Scripture? "Go ye into all the world and make 
disciples." That is, "go and bring men to accept Me as their 
Lord and Savior and to enthrone Me in their hearts as the 
supreme, compelling, all-motivating Loyalty of their lives." 
Here and here alone is the basis for that unity of faith that 
the great apostle speaks of. Not that there is no need or place 
for differences and lesser loyalties, but that these must ever 
be kept in their proper sequence and be made to subserve the 
supreme loyalty. Balkanization will vanish when the evangels 
of the faith preach in a glorious and courageous selflessness, 
"And I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men unto Me." 

Single Blessedness and the 
Housing Shortage 


ONG BEFORE the critical housing shortage in 
America we had grown accustomed to the advertise- 
ment, "Apartments For Couples Without Children." Now 
that the experts are warning us that the shortage will remain 
acute for five or six years we wonder if a premium will be 
placed upon bachelorhood and maidenhood as well as the 
childless marriage. According to Religious News Service this 

Single Blessedness and the Housing Shortage 245 

situation seems already to be developing in England. The 
Rt. Rev. Wilfred Marcus Askwith, Bishop of the Anglican 
diocese of Blackburn, has written in the diocesan bulletin 
the following warning: "It is next to impossible to find 
accommodation for assistant curates except by buying 
houses at scandalous prices. I am not sure it will not be 
necessary for me to say soon that I cannot ordain men who 
will not undertake to remain unmarried for six or ten years, 
and perhaps to institute clergy houses in towns in which 
assistant curates of several parishes may live together." 

The temptation is irresistible to observe what confusion 
worse confounded would arise should some scriptural literal- 
ist among the younger clergy whose matrimonial hopes are 
endangered call the bishop's attention to Paul's words to 
Timothy, "Let the deacons be husbands of one wife." It 
might also be observed parenthetically that the wisdom of 
the Roman Church in her insistence upon the celibacy of 
her clergy is thrown in sharp focus here. We witness its 
economy, its effectiveness and its simplicity here in the South, 
the Catholic mission field of the United States. The major 
emphasis to be made just here, however, is that while we 
do not profess to be informed on the methods and success of 
the British government in dealing with a national housing 
shortage far greater than ours, we are sure that the people 
of America should know that the greatest enemies to rapid 
and decent housing in this country are the powerful, irrespon- 
sible and determined lobbies in the nation's capital represent- 
ing the real estate and construction interests whose sole pur- 
poses have been to restrict the building program, to perpet- 
uate the shortage and thereby to reap their unconscionable 
profits. A herculean task is upon the President to clean this 
augean stable — and for that matter every other stable in the 
District of Columbia — as was done once before by a former 

246 Christian Frontiers 

Where There Is No Freedom 

O. K. Armstrong 

IS THERE freedom of religious worship in Soviet 
Russia? Dr. Louie D. Newton, president of the South- 
ern Baptist Convention, after a trip of 25. days visiting Russia 
as a guest of the Soviet government, says "Yes." 

While still in Moscow, where he preached to great throngs, 
Dr. Newton issued a statement in which he said,. "Baptists 
in Russia are as free to worship and to practice their religion 
as Baptists in the United States." 

In a news conference upon his return, Dr. Newton de- 
clared: "The Baptists stand for the same thing as the Russian 
government — renouncement of, and resistance to, coercion 
in matters of belief. . . . Religiously, we should regard Russia 
as our great ally. It is a virgin field for freedom . . . because 
Russia never knew freedom of religion until the present 
regime. When the U. S. S. R. was first formed, religion was 
contraband, but now the government has discovered that 
religion cannot be destroyed, so it has invited the church to 
come in the front door." 

In a report made to a mass meeting in Atlanta, this Bap- 
tist leader said: "The Soviet government has at last rec- 
ognized that religion is a vital thing — something that cannot 
be annihilated, and they are smart enough to grant what 
appears to be complete freedom of worship and religious 
ministries such as orphanage and hospital work. The Baptist 
preachers with whom I talked told me that they were free 
to preach what they believe. Indeed, not only Baptists, but 
apparently all the religious groups in Russia are now free to 
carry on their work." 

From these and similar statements it is clear that Dr. 
Newton believes there is freedom of religion in Russia. I 
believe that he is honestly mistaken. I say honestly mistaken 
— for I refuse to believe that Dr. Newton would consciously 
color the facts to support his theories. But I say also that he 
is tragically and dangerously mistaken. If there is complete 
freedom of conscience and religious worship in Russia, then 
we Baptists shall have to change our historic concepts of 
religious freedom. 

Where There Is No Freedom 247 

Regularly and consistently, as reports come in from 
observers of all kinds who come from behind the iron curtain 
of Soviet domination, we are told: "There is no freedom of 
religion in Russia, as the evangelical Christian knows it." 

Invited to fill the pulpit of the First Baptist Church in 
Waycross, Georgia, on Sunday morning, August 25, I spoke 
on "Baptists and Freedom." In my remarks, I challenged 
the truth of Dr. Newton's conclusions on freedom of worship 
in Russia. I also said this: 

"In his efforts to bring us into closer fellowship with 
Baptists in Russia or elsewhere, Dr. Newton deserves the 
praise and support of Baptists everywhere." 

Let me repeat that sentiment. The great need is for the 
creation of stronger ties among men of goodwill everywhere. 
The world needs a unified, active, vigorous fellowship of 
Baptists, representing every tongue and every land, to hold 
high the banner of Christ in this troubled age. In speaking 
for understanding, friendship, and cooperation among the 
peoples of the world, and specifically between peoples of 
Russia and the United States, Dr. Newton speaks for Bap- 
tists of the world. 

Also, let me defend his right to say what he pleases, to go 
where he pleases, to influence public opinion in the way he 
honestly feels it should go. Furthermore, I defend his right 
to analyze, explain or extol any system or way of government 
on earth. Obviously, he seeks to counteract what to him is a 
widespread misconception in this country, namely, that free- 
dom of religion in Soviet Russa is restricted. He has that 

But Dr. Newton must realize that we who disagree with 
him have the right to take issue with him over questions 
both of fact and of opinion. That would be true if he were 
only an obscure citizen. But Louie D. Newton is a prominent 
churchman. He holds the highest office in the Southern Bap- 
tist Convention, and is vice president of the Baptist World 
Alliance. Our right to take issue with him becomes a positive 
duty for those of us who believe that great harm can come 
to our church and our Christian cause by an unfortunate 
distortion of the facts, however well meaning may be his 

248 Christian Frontiers 

Let us consider the conditions under which Dr. Newton 
made his trip to Russia. He went, he says, upon invitation 
of the Soviet government. Considerable time elapsed between 
his application to go, and the invitation permitting him to go. 
Unless Dr. Newton was made an exception, his attitude to- 
ward Soviet policies was scrutinized minutely. He and his 
group were guests officially of the government, under con- 
ditions of their own making. No visitor is ever a free agent 
in Russia. Checking with a newspaper man of long experience 
in the Soviet Union, I was told: 

"No one, whether religious leader, business man, teacher, 
student or what, is ever given a conducted tour in Russia by 
the government unless the Politburo (Stalin and his close 
advisers) are quite certain he will say something favorable 
to the Soviet system, praise its accomplishments, or refute 
arguments against it." 

An officer of the Red army flew the plane for the party. 
An official interpreter was furnished. No doubt she was honest 
and upright, but she could not have been an interpreter with- 
out understanding her limitations. She could not have per- 
mitted any criticism of the Soviet regime to have reached 
Dr. Newton's ears — and held her job. 

Furthermore, these visitors, as all others who tour Russia, 
were under constant surveillance of the NKVD — the secret 
police. They may not have seen these exponents of terror and 
persecution, but they were there. They knew where these 
Americans were, at all times of the night and day. The move- 
ments of every foreigner in Russia are constantly spied upon 
and reported to government agents. Despite the genuine 
cordiality of Russian Baptists and people, as a guest of the 
Soviet officials Dr. Newton saw only what they wanted him 
to see and heard only what those who talked to him knew 
would not be dangerous to say. 

Now let us examine the proposition that there is freedom 
of religious worship in Russia. So far as we Baptists are con- 
cerned, freedom to worship God and to practice religion mean 
certain specific things. Here are some of them: 

1. Freedom from state control. Is religion in Russian 
free from state control? Of course not. The Soviet state is 
supreme in all matters. Such supremacy over the individual, 

Where There Is No Freedom 249 

— over his actions, work, and very thoughts — is the bones 
and meat of totalitarianism. 

Dr. Newton reports that he and Dr. R. W. Sockman, 
Methodist pastor of New York City, called upon Mr. Karpov, 
the governmental administrator of religious activities, the 
official "minister of cults." If the church is free and separate 
from the state in Russia, why would there be an official 

The most fundamental difference between a democracy 
and the regime of communistic Russia is the democratic con- 
cept of the dignity, worth, and rights of the individual, as 
against the doctrine that the individual exists only for the 
good of the state. 

A dictator may allow a church to hold its worship, but 
he will keep control over its property and activities. As Dr. 
Newton reports, the state owns the property of the Baptist 
churches in Russia. Would we call that separation of church 
and state? Or freedom? 

2. Freedom of religion means freedom to preach and 
speak without censorship. The very idea of liberty of worship 
presumes certain great freedoms, which we Baptists consider 
unalienable. Among them are freedom of speech, of the press, 
and of peaceful assembly. Without those rights, freedom of 
religion becomes a state-controlled sham. The Soviet govern- 
ment is the arch-enemy of these freedoms, at home and 

At the San Francisco meeting of the United Nations, we 
Baptists presented to the delegates a statement of principles, 
which pled that these unalienable rights be incorporated into 
the United Nations charter. Some pious expressions were 
incorporated, but we were told that no guarantees of religious 
freedom could be given, since it was necessary to compromise 
with atheistic Russia. Since then, wherever Soviet domination 
has been forced upon the little nations, the iron curtain of 
censorship — and in many instances, of persecution — has come 
down. Leigh White, in the Saturday Evening Post for last 
June 23rd, tells of conditions in Rumania, where before this 
war there were many Baptist churches: 

"There is no more freedom of expression now (under 
Russian control) than under the Nazis . . . Public gatherings 

250 Christian Frontiers 

for any purpose other than to further the ends of the new 
regime are forbidden." 

If that is true of peoples under Soviet tyranny, can any 
one believe greater liberties — or less tyranny — are allowed 
peoples of the Soviet homeland? 

3. Freedom of religion means liberty to criticize the 
government, to combat official evils and to propose improve- 
ments. This is so fundamental to Baptist belief and practice 
that it is never questioned in this country. 

The very life stream of a free democracy is public opinion, 
moulded and shaped by spiritual leaders. In no other way 
can mistakes of political leaders be corrected, and corruption 
of public officials exposed. As leaders of our churches, our 
pastors speak out without fear against sin in high places of 
government. If it were not so, the lamp of free government 
would go out. 

No one in his right mind would suggest that Baptists have 
such liberties in Russia. Here we might quote from Dr. Sock- 
man's report of the Russian trip, in the September 11th 
Christian Century: 

"Freedom for the churches to handle their own finances 
does not, of course, in itself mean full ecclesiastical liberty. 
Again and again we were told that the pulpits are free from 
governmental interference. But with that statement must 
be coupled the Russian conception of preaching. The sermon 
traditionally occupies a minor place in the Orthodox Church, 
and preachers, both Orthodox and Evangelical, do not deal 
with political and social questions . . . We were told, 'our 
preachers do not preach politics.' What the people — or the 
government — would consider political preaching and what 
would happen to flaming social prophets must be left to 

It should be remembered that the very concept of freedom 
in Russia is different from ours. Numerous Soviet spokesmen 
have made that abundantly clear. By freedom they mean 
freedom to support the government — not to oppose it. Re- 
ligious freedom to them would not under any circumstances 
mean freedom to criticize or oppose official policy. The same 
is true of their concept of democracy. The Soviet dictator 
signed the Yalta Declaration, which promised that nations 

Where There Is No Freedom 251 

might "create democratic institutions of their own choice 
... to form interim governmental authorities broadly repre- 
sentative of all democratic elements in the population." But 
he did not mean our type of democracy at all! By democracy, 
the Soviet means their own brand of totalitarianism. All who 
oppose — including freedom-loving Americans — are "fascist." 

4. Freedom to practice religion means freedom to carry 
on the many educational, training and evangelistic activities 
of the church. No Baptist familar with Soviet control of our 
churches in Russia has ever reported that such freedom 

Freedom to teach and train the young is a necessary re- 
quisite for religious freedom. In no other way can souls be 
won and lives enlisted to Christian service. That's why we 
have Sunday schools and training unions. Now let us turn 
to Dr. Newton's report, as published in several Baptist state 
papers : 

"We did find that there are no Sunday schools in Russia. 
I asked very particularly about this, and the Baptist pastors 
everywhere told us that the law forbidding the teaching of 
the Bible in the schools had been interpreted to mean that 
there must not be any 'schools for Bible teaching.' " 

Another requisite for freedom of worship and practice is 
the right to send missionaries and to receive them from other 
lands. The Soviet will permit representatives of the "cults" 
to attend certain conferences and conventions outside Russia, 
but only if assured that such representatives will not do or 
say anything to indicate opposition toward the doctrines or 
programs of the totalitarian state. 

During the recent great war, governments of all the 
democracies sent chaplains with all the fighting forces. These 
men of God carried the influence of religion to men who faced 
hardships and death. The Soviet Politburo did not grant this 
freedom to Russian Baptists, nor to any other religious group. 
Religion no more followed the Red army than it accompanies 
Red statesmen. 

The historic fact is that at the time of the revolution of 
1917 in Russia, liberal forces, truly democratic, hoped to 
establish a representative parliament and a republican form 
of government to replace the despotism of the Tzar. They 

252 Christian Frontiers 

were prevented from doing so by the Bolshevists seizing 
power. Led by Lenin, a reign of terror began, in which the 
educated, the cultured, the leaders of liberal thought and 
action, were murdered. In due course, Joseph Stalin took 
control. Utterly ruthless, he imposed his iron will upon these 
patient peoples. To force the peasants to give up their land 
and property, he starved more than two and a half million 
men, women and children, — a crime so vast and ghastly as 
to be matched in history only by the crimes of Adolph Hitler. 

And after joining Hitler in wanton aggression against 
Poland, with the understanding that they would divide up 
most of the little nations of Eastern Europe, Stalin sent to 
Hitler at Christmastime of 1939 a telegram in which he de- 
clared that their everlasting friendship had been sealed in 

That such an arch-criminal, declared enemy of all religion, 
the antithesis of all Christian idealism, could be restoring any 
freedom of conscience and worship for any but selfish reasons 
is unthinkable. It is understandable that Stalin and his 
Politburo hoped to enlist the active support of religious, 
political and other leaders in this country. It seems, there- 
fore, that when any prominent Baptist leader makes a pil- 
grimage to Stalin's birthplace, he should make it clear that he 
goes as a private citizen and not to infer any approval, by 
the great fellowship of Baptists, of the dictator or his godless 

It seems to me that in the coming struggle between the 
forces of Christian liberalism and atheistic totalitarianism, 
there should be no question where Baptists will stand. 

Beauty for Ashes in Burma 253 

Beauty for Ashes in Burma 

Paul Geren 

. . . "To give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for 
mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness." 

Isaiah 61:3 

If you were here with us 

And could see the country over which war has recently 

You would see a sight 
Which is at once full of melancholy 
And hope. 

Brayton Case, who has eyes for such seeing, 
Showed it to me. 

In the center 

Where the house of bamboo with a thatched roof 

Once stood, 

There is now no house. 

On the earth there are ashes 

And a bit of charcoal washed clean by the rain. 

Their somber silence 

Is witness to the fate of the house. 

A few thin blades of green grass 

Are pushing timidly up through the ashes — 

Timidly to see if the war has really passed by. 

To the north of where the house stood 

Is the jackfruit tree, 

And it is full of blossoms. 

To the south 

And to the east 

Are lime trees, 

And they are full of fragrant blossoms. 

To the west 

Is an orange tree, sweetly in bloom like the others. 
The setting which held the house is there, 
Earth below, 

254 Christian Frontiers 

Sky above, 

And trees around. 

The place is like a ring 

Whose precious stone has fallen out of its setting. 

The setting is faithful to its purpose 

And yearns for the return of the stone. 

Now look far away. 

Over the paths and hills a line of people are moving toward us. 

They carry their belongings in baskets hanging from their 

heads by leather straps. 
They have their lame 
And their halt: 
Their dead 

They have left behind 
But there are seeds in the basket, 
There are dahs in their hands for cutting bamboo, 
There are muscles in their shoulders 
For moving timbers, 

There is resolution in their minds for the making of a home. 
Soon a home will be in the setting. 

And we — we have pulled down and laid waste. 

But the earth and sky have held us and watched us. 

And the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting. 

We have eaten ashes for our bread. 

But the jackfruit tree is in bloom this spring. 

Charity "beareth all things, 

Believeth all things, 

Endureth all things." 

We have been made like ashes 

And charcoal. 

But the orange tree is fragrantly in blossom, 

And the oranges will grow. 

And the love of Christ 

Is tender for the healing of our ashes and burns. 

"Come unto me all ye that labor 

Beauty for Ashes in Burma 255 

And are heavy laden, 
And I will give you rest." 

Even if we have been reduced 

To ashes and charcoal, 

The earth is heavy with God's might. 

The sky sometimes shines with his hope. 

The air is full of his love. 

Then come, all of us who alike have been reduced to charcoal, 

Come burned hands, 

Black hands, 

Brown hands, 

Yellow hands, 

White hands, soft hands, calloused hands, 

Stubby hands, artist's hands. 

Let us build a house on the ashes and the grass, 

Under the sky, 

Set in among the jackfruit and the orange trees. 

"And let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us: 
And establish thou the work of our hands upon us; 
Yea, the work of our hands 
Establish Thou it."— 

256 Christian Frontiers 

O 1 

The Church They Want 

Hybert Pollard 

|N A RECENT July Sunday, five hundred were 
present at a church service; one hundred of these 
worshippers wore the lapel button which indicated honorable 
discharge from the armed services of the United States. 

Now, that these men are out of the service, settled in 
civilian life, and back to the church again, what do they 
demand of the church? This article endeavors to suggest 
features of "the church they want." 

These suggestions grow out of replies to many letters, 
sent out through the co-operation of pastors and chaplains, 
asking: "What do you desire, and expect, of the church, 
when you return?" This material is also based upon records 
of many contacts and conversations of the author with re- 
turning service people. When the answers are sorted out 
and added up, certain strong emphases appear. These are 
given here. 

For convenience, these major suggestions have been 
placed in two divisions: those relevant to the program of 
the church and to the message of the church. 

Only Work Will Work 

A sit-and-listen program will not attract and hold service 
men even though a pulpit be filled by the best preacher in 
America. Men must have work if they are to be reached by 
the church. There is no substitute. Only work will work. Said 
a Southern boy, "If they don't hurry up and give me work, 
I just don't believe I can keep myself sticking around," and 
he spoke for all. 

Everywhere the validity of this principle is recognized. 
A drastic readjustment, however, must be made in the office- 
holding habits of the churches if this principle is to be put 
into operation. Opportunities for office must not be limited 
to the few openings which occur in the natural course of 
events. Openings must be created. This can be accomplished 
in two ways, both of which should be used by every church. 

The Church They Want 257 

Room may be made for the service men by expansion of 
the program. The chief limitation upon the program, in most 
churches, is personnel. Many, many appropriate and profit- 
able activities could be added if only the right persons were 
available to head them up and carry them through. Now 
that the men are back, the churches can and should create 
many new activities to absorb their leadership. 

Room may be made for the service men by arranging 
vacations for a good portion of the habitual office-holders of 
the church. Some, in every church, have held office far too 
long for the good of themselves and the church. Others have 
held office for a long time because of admitted efficiency. A 
good minority of both should step down for the sake of the 
service man. People who resign and who are efficient would 
be re-absorbed within two years, so great is the need in 
every church for adequate leadership. If a reasonable part 
of the habitual leadership of any church will step aside and 
make room for enthusiastic and Christian service men with 
their new insights and their fresh experiences of God, there 
will come to that church a new power in its program and a 
great new flood of spiritual life. 

Many service men have traveled more and seen more in 
two or three years than the ordinary person would have 
experienced in fifty life-times. Such men will return with a 
rich cargo of new ideas and spacious dreams for the church. 
To those v/ho remained at home, lacking the unique contact 
with reality and global vastness experienced by the service 
men, these ideas may seem revolutionary and these dreams 
unrealistic. But the influence of the service man constitutes 
the very irritation and stimulation we need, if we are to 
readjust the program of the churches to meet the demands 
of the new post-war world. For the sake of the Kingdom of 
God and for the sake of our own souls we would better listen 
to these ideas and hear these dreams. 

Service men will be qualified to fill every office in the 
church which a man can fill. A few will be in the thirty and 
forty brackets, but most will be in their twenties. Churches 
may think they are too young for larger responsibilities. But 
service men are mature for their years. Churches must forget 

258 Christian Frontiers 

the boys who left home and see the men who have returned. 
Service men should add strength to the choirs and make 
good ushers; war experience has cured reticence and timidity 
and made them meetable and socially aggressive. Service 
men will be indispensable in missionary programs and schools 
of missions, adding authenticity and realism by saying "I 
was there." As leaders and teachers of youth the service men 
should prove a veritable gold mine for the church. 

World Peace 

Almost every conversation leads inevitably to the demand 
that the church take a part in establishing and maintaining 
world peace. Sentences like these sear the memory: "I risked 
my life on fifty-one missions, I gave the four best years of 
my life for the cause of peace, and, up to this minute, I have 
got nothing." This is evidently the most disappointed and 
confused area of the service man's life and thinking. At this 
point he is literally agonizing for light and leadership. He 
will greatly appreciate and respectfully consider the con- 
victions proclaimed by his own church and minister what- 
ever they are. Neglect of this central issue of his life is the 
one thing he cannot forgive. 

Many leaders of the church are very much opposed to the 
so-called "social gospel." These very leaders, however, have 
made an exception of prohibition and have been its most 
active proponents. It is very urgent now, if the interest of 
the service man is to be retained, that a similar exception 
be made for the issue of world peace. Nobody has the one 
and only answer; each minister must give his own with fear 
and trembling. No better general answer could be given than 
that suggested recently by a wise chaplain, "Men sick of war 
will be interested in any practical program to prevent its 
recurrence. Show the indissoluble connection between the 
spread of the Christian way of life and the establishment of 
peace. Enlist their interest in, and their support of, Christian 
enterprise at home and abroad." 

A More Co-operative Church 

One of the most insistent of all emphases is co-operation. 
A pastor who has received more than two thousand letters 

The Church They Want 259 

from service men during the war and since says, "Boys write 
over and over again: 'Why do not the churches get together? 
We worshipped together in the Islands, why not here?'" Upon 
closer inquiry it is clear, however, that the every-day service 
man is not interested in organic unity or federal organization. 
He knows little and cares less about these things. What he 
is thinking about is definitely his own community. He de- 
mands that his church be tolerant. Churches whose sectarian 
zeal gets itself expressed in opposition to, and criticism of, 
other denominations will lose the good will of their service 

The returned service man says very positively that the 
churches should worship together much oftener. He insists, 
in his conversation, that the churches should completely 
co-operate in supporting good and big causes in the com- 
munity. He thinks they should spend less energy in merely 
keeping themselves going. He thinks that the churches 
should unite in providing care for the people in need in 
their own communities; he is deeply disappointed with the 
impersonality and professionalism of the colossal organiza- 
tions which served him overseas. Churches must increase 
the co-operation and outreach of their program in the local 
community if they desire to get the enthusiastic support of 
returned service men. This presents a real problem to 
churches of a rather severely independent tradition, because, 
strangely enough, men who have grown up in such com- 
munions are the most insistent upon co-operation. 


The message of the gospel is eternal and changeless, but 
from its inexhaustible riches certain emphases need to be 
drawn forth to meet the particular needs of a given age. 
Letters and conversation from service men suggest certain 
aspects of the message of the church which they need most 
and which will appeal most to them. We give below the 
emphases which appear most often. 

Medicine For Hate 

With the stimulating frankness of youth, good Christian 
boys warn us that they are coming home with a heart full 
of hate, dare us to do something about it, and beseech us to 

260 Christian Frontiers 

take the dare. Here indeed is a very definite and very real 
need — and a desperate need. A man of the Navy writes: 
"My experience in this war taught me to hate the Japanese 
people more than words can tell. I could go on forever tell- 
ing of the many reasons why I hate the Japs. I know that a 
good Christian does not hate. I know that I am not alone in 
my opinion of the Japs. So I believe that one of the church's 
biggest jobs is going to be the exchange of the hatred that 
war has bred for the love that a real Christian should have." 
What a need! What a challenge! What shall the church 
say? Shall it say, "Forgive or be unforgiven?" Shall it say, 
"But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your 
Father forgive your trespasses?" Yes, perhaps, at rare inter- 
vals, but so strong a medicine might easily paralyze the 
soul. Should the church use the discoveries of psychology 
and point out that hate is poison and has a degenerating 
influence upon body and soul? Yes, this truth should be 
frankly faced and used for what it is worth, which is not 
too much in the case of hate-bedeviled men. There is only 
one cure and only one way of success and that is to displace 
the nagging hate of enemy peoples by a great, strong purpose 
to redeem these very peoples. This can be done by leading 
the returned servicemen into a new interest in, and support 
of, Christian missions in lands of the last war, and a new 
confidence in the gospel to work its age-old miracles unto 
even enemy peoples. 

Positive Standards 

Conversations and letters beg the churches to avoid a 
negative and denunciatory message. An officer of the Navy 
may well be allowed to speak for all: "A series of denuncia- 
tions of drinking, swearing, dancing, gambling, etc, etc, will 
be the quickest way to antagonize. The Christian message 
must be positive, not negative." Good old fashioned sermons 
of denunciation will alienate many service people from the 

On the other hand, there is an ever-recurring demand 
that the church, in the post-war period, take an uncom- 
promising stand against all low standards of life. Many 
service men of church-going background, who took for 

The Church They Want 261 

granted and thought very little about moral standards before 
the war, have become so disgusted with much of the life they 
have seen in the services that to them now the most im- 
portant function of the church is to proclaim and demand 
high standards. A corporal of the Marines when asked what 
he expected of the church after the war, got a dozen of his 
buddies together to talk it over, and they wrote: "A Puritan 
spirit brought to the foreground, and we mean it literally as 
Webster gives it." A seaman writes: "The question you asked 
was a very good one, and, after thinking it over, have decided 
that the most important thing I expect of the church after 
the war is that the high standards that our country has been 
fighting for should be upheld by the church. If they are 
maintained we will feel that the struggle was not in vain." 
Sharp, clear cut sentences come out in conversation. "Use 
direct methods against liquor traffic." "Strike out against 
low morals where found in motion pictures and radio pro- 
grams." "Keep American girls wholesome and clean." "Let 
the church return to its primary social function, namely, 
that of being the conscience for society." 

At first sight, these demands for an uncompromising 
message seem radically opposed to the demand that there be 
no denunciation. But, on second thought, these appear to be 
two sides of same experience and sentiment. Warning us 
that denunciation is harmful if not deadly, these letters re- 
veal that there is a widespread insistence among Christian 
servicemen that the church stand up and be counted as it 
has not done since the days following the Civil War. It now 
seems clear that if the church will take a new and clear-cut 
stand for high moral standards in personal and national life, 
thousands of service men will give it solid support. 

A Word of Authority 

Much that the men say seems to be in search for a word 
of authority for men who have been under authority. While 
outwardly this authority will be the one thing of all things 
from which they are most thankful to escape, yet inwardly 
they seem to feel that, with the freedom of civilian life, there 
is an urgent need for a word of authority to be spoken to the 
soul. These men say that the chaplains who spoke with 

262 Christian Frontiers 

authority, with conviction, and who spoke without equivoca- 
tion, are the chaplains who got the hearing from the men. 
The men feel that this is an important observation for the 
guidance of the church in the delivery of its post-war 

The magnificent words of a much decorated chaplain 
represent this sentiment at its best: "The church must right 
now return to the preaching of the gospel in its entirety; 
pastors and leaders must return to what God has spoken in 
his Word. A complete return to New Testament preaching 
will cleanse the church of its undesirable elements. A 
functioning New Testament church has nothing to fret about 
in facing its returning men. In the fellowship of such a 
church, battered men and wounded minds will find the 
healing that cannot be offered by sciences. Let the church 
return to its most supreme task, that of leading sinful men 
and women to the Saviour, and it will have its benches filled 
with men who have seen death." 

Over and over again, in conversations and letters, there 
comes to the surface a hopeful plea for a greater sense of 
reality in our services, in our sermons, and in Christian 
experiences. Chaplains, in their messages, under the urgency 
of the war and under the guidance of the Spirit of God, seem 
to have attained remarkable success in putting aside all that 
was introductory, extraneous, and temporary and to have 
struck deep into eternal reality. The men are hoping, now 
that they have returned, that they may experience in the 
home church something of the same deep sense of reality. 
As a help, a naval man suggests: "Church services should be 
short, should be warm hearted, straight from the shoulder, 
and practical. The service man will be less critical of the 
leading soprano in the choir than of the preacher who just 
doesn't know what life is all about and talks over his head." 
A captain of the Army says: "Sermons should be clear, short, 
and straight-forward gospel messages." Therefore, it seems 
that those who would speak to returning service people from 
pulpit or class desk should seek directness, should be com- 
pletely earnest, and should have a high sense of the central 
reality of God. 


Priminitivism and Christianity in Tolstoy 

By Helmut Kuhn 

1. Split Personality 

Tolstoy's greatness as an artist 
can hardly be questioned. But at 
the age of fifty, after passing 
through a spiritual crisis, the 
novelist turned preacher, and 
Tolstoy's greatness as a theol- 
ogian is questionable indeed. So 
Mr. Janko Lavrin*, a recent 
critic, who is unstinting in his 
praise of the novels and stories, 
examines with frank displeasure 
the long series of evangelistic 
books and pamphlets which flow- 
ed from the pen of the ageing 
squire of Yasnaya Polyana. Like 
most fastidious readers of the 
tractates with which Tolstoy 
hoped to reform the world Mr. 
Lavrin is dismayed at the writ- 
er's lack of balanced wisdom, 
compensated for by zealous in- 
sistence on a few fine and a 
number of eccentric ideas. 

As a matter of fact the depth 
and subtlety of human under- 
standing which characterizes 
Tolstoy's novels accords ill with 
the stark naivete of his preach- 
ing. But Mr. Lavrin is not in- 
terested in solving the riddle of 
this disharmony. Approaching 
Tolstoy as a psychologist he 
hopes to find the clue to an un- 
derstanding of his entire literary 
work in an incurable cleavage of 
his personality. In Tolstoy, he 
holds, the soul of a pagan sen- 
sualist was tragically chained to 

*Tolstoy. An Approach. New York: 
Macmillan, 1946. Pp. 166. $2.00. 

the soul of an ascetic and moral- 

This psychological explanation 
explains very little. As a rule a 
split personality results in a 
wrecked life rather than in a 
creative achievement. But wheth- 
er correct or not the explanation 
seems irrelevant. Unless we have 
been unprofitable readers of War 
and Peace, Anna Karenina, and 
the Folk Tales Tolstoy must 
have made us feel de te fabula 
narratur; in plain English: these 
stories of mine are about you, 
my dear reader. Never mind Tol- 
stoy's troubles and forget if you 
can that sordid gossip on Tol- 
stoy's private life with which 
biographers regale you. The real 
question is not whether Tolstoy 
is a case of psychiatric interest 
but whether you, Tolstoy's read- 
er, are an integrated person or 
rather the patched-up fragment 
of a man. Once this personal 
anxiety is felt a universal prob- 
lem emerges: What about human 
nature? Is it perhaps split not 
accidentally in this or that un- 
fortunate individual but in every 
one of us so that we, each and 
all, are in need of a cure? 

This is the question which Tol- 
stoy the narrator rouses in the 
minds of his readers. His work 
pulsates with the yearning for 
salvation. This yearning is in 
Anna Karenina's despairing and 
sinful love as well as in Levin's 
quest of inner peace. Unforget- 


Christian Frontiers 

table is the parable of the plight 
of man in the Confession, the 
chief document of Tolstoy's con- 
verson. Man is likened to a trav- 
eller who, pursued by an enraged 
beast, seeks shelter in a well. 
There he suspends himself by 
clutching a twig which is slowly 
being gnawed off by two mice 
taking turns, one white, the other 
black. Below him with open jaws 
the dragon of death waits. Mean- 
while the poor wretch puts out 
his tongue hoping to find sweet- 
ness in a drop of honey that 
oozes from the twig. 

But Tolstoy is not content with 
asking: how can we be saved? 
nor with instilling the anguish 
of this question into the char- 
acters of his novels. He feels 
compelled to formulate an an- 
swer. So he conceives and 
preaches the gospel of the saving 

2. Return to Nature 

A professor stares sadly into 
the emptiness of his once crowd- 
ed lecture room. "Why, it is still 
the same lecture, with not a 
word changed for years," he 
puzzles. Obviously the error of 
the disappointed pedagogue con- 
sists in forgetting that life is 
process. The solution of yesterday 
will no longer serve today, nor 
today's solution for tomorrow. 
There is no escape from this 
process, neither into the past nor 
into the future. Though we cling 
to the past we do not succeed in 
preserving that which was. For 
the past solution, transferred to 
the changed environment of our 
own day, is actually a different 
solution and willynilly the pro- 
fessed conservative becomes an 

innovator. Again by throwing 
ourselves on all that is new, 
oblivious of the old framework 
within which new solutions must 
be found, we cut ourselves adrift 
and are finally carried along by 
the stream of tradition. Inadver- 
tently the rebel turns ultra-con- 
servative. It follows that every 
solution, in the majority of cases 
a mixture of old and new, must 
be judged on its own merits. 
Neither venerable age nor nov- 
elty as such is good. 

As a rule there are both gain 
and loss in the process, and even 
amidst splendid achievements 
we find some cause for a wistful 
backward glance. The Golden 
Age both in the life of nations 
and individuals is not entirely 
fictitious. Christ desires us to be 
grown-up in spirit. But at the 
same time, looking with tender- 
ness upon childhood, he tells us 
to become like children. 

At times, when alarm spreads 
in a civilization because of the 
apparent insolubility of its press- 
ing problems, the longing for the 
past becomes a dominant idea 
and even an obsession. The im- 
possible is attempted and "back 
to nature" becomes the watch- 
word. After the Western world 
has suffered several attacks of 
this nostalgia, a century after 
Rousseau, Tolstoy takes up the 
old cry in more strident notes. 
Lost in the maze of Western 
philosophy, horrified at the 
hollowness and corruption of 
Westernized Russian society, he 
passes a verdict on civilization, 
cursing progress and all its 
works. He endeavors to become 
like the simple-minded children 



of the Russian soil and urges the 
rest of the world to do likewise. 
He undergoes a conversion. But 
he does not become converted to 
Christianity but to the devotion, 
real or alleged, of the Russian 
peasantry, and this home-spun 
religion he identifies with Christ- 
ianity. He does not take upon 
himself the Cross of Christ but 
shoulders the sc3'the of the pea- 

Two curses attend primitiv- 
ism, and Tolstoy escapes neither 
of them. In the first place the 
harder the primitivist strives to 
assimilate himself to his idol, the 
less he resembles it. It takes 
highbrows and decadents to 
invent down-to-earth thinking. 
With all his prodigious labors, 
with donning the peasant's shirt 
and self-made boots, with a dis- 
play of hoes and sickles in his 
study, with experiments in un- 
cleanliness and lice, with exalt- 
ing folk-songs and despising 
Shakespeare as a fourth rate 
poet, Tolstoy succeeds in fool- 
ing neither himself nor the 
world. He remains what he is: 
the pampered and irritable child 
of a highly differentiated civil- 
ization, the aristocrat and man of 
letters with no small interest in 
his world-wide fame, the tor- 
mented soul torn between unbe- 
lief and desire for belief, a man 
growing ever more problematic 
to himself by virtue of affecting 
the simplicity of faith. Peasants, 
like kings, are born. Their dig- 
nity, like the dignity of kings, 
consists in coveting no promo- 
tion. Tolstoy finds himself doom- 
ed to the role of the unsuccessful 

In the second place the primi- 
tivist ideal is a will-o'-the-wisp. 
It lures the pursuer on and on 
till he sinks into bottomless 
depths. Once we engage in the 
backward path, regress proves 
endless. Let us become like the 
primitive Russian peasant, Tol- 
stoy urges. But the Russian pea- 
sant, looked at from closer quar- 
ters, is soon found wanting in 
primitivity. So our guide presses 
on. "The Kaffirs are the only 
hope left," he declares. But even 
the most primitives dies more 
painfully than a tree, and the 
glory of quiet vegetation eclipses 
animal existence. Then it dawns 
upon us where the path leads: 
"Oh why did I awake? When 
shall I sleep again?" (A. E. 
Housman) The noble savage, the 
glorified common man, the pea- 
sant patriarch, the blessed Kaffir, 
the dreaming tree — all these are 
only foreground figures. Behind 
them and through them, some- 
thing else beckons: oblivion and 
nothingness. For all conscious 
life is vanity, vexation of spirit, 
fatigue of body and mind. 

Tolstoy loved the people as a 
collective rather than the indiv- 
iduals composing the people. The 
people is for him innocent revel- 
ry of the senses visited by dreams 
of God, the maternal womb of 
preconscious life, deliverance 
from the torture of insular indiv- 
iduality. This love of the people 
Tolstoy adorns with great moral 
principles derived from the Ser- 
mon on the Mount, and he ven- 
tures to call it Christian. Actual- 
ly his conceptions of love and the 
brotherhood of men are opposed 
to Christianity. Christ's love im- 


Christian Frontiers 

mortalizes individuality with the 
promise of His kingdom. The 
love of Tolstoy, like that of Scho- 
penhauer and the other preach- 
ers of the saving return, obliter- 
ates individuality as a passing 
affliction. These are two different 
and mutually incompatible prom- 
ises: here salvation of individ- 
uals as individuals from sin and 
its consequences which include 
death; there salvation of indiv- 
iduals from individuality and its 
consequences which include con- 
scious life. 

3. A Prophetic Voice 

It is necessary to call Tolstoy's 
theological vagaries by the right 
name. Otherwise we would add 
confusion to confusion and pro- 
vide excuses for the Tolstoyans 
still at large in the literary 
world. But after we have strip- 
ped the master of both the 
apostle's staff and the philoso- 
pher's mantle we hasten to re- 
store to him, with all the rever- 
ence due to the gifts of genius, 
those great honors to which he 
is entitled. 

The true epic poet, by the 
power of his evocative imagina- 
tion, transports us to a world of 
his own creation. As we move in 
this world, mingle with its in- 
habitants in the hide-and-seek 
game of their social life, and then 
witness the secret scenes of their 
lives, their hopes and agonies, 
we come to realize with a mix- 
ture of joy and amazement that 
this imaginary world is more in- 
tegrated, meaningful, and, so we 
are tempted to add, more real 
than the world in which we 
ordinarily live. Few works of 
literature rival War and Peace 

and Anna Karenina in the power 
of casting this peculiar spell up- 
on the mind. The wisdom en- 
shrined in Tolstoy's epic vision 
puts to shame our criticism of 
his philosophical eccentricities. 
His insight into life is no less 
admirable for being imaginative 
wisdom — a wisdom not at the 
beck and call of the one so en- 
dowed. He knows in the way in 
which a child or seer knows. The 
same imaginative gift enables 
the doubt-ridden Tolstoy to 
teach in his Folk Tales some 
great simple lessons under the 
form of legendary tales. So in 
Where Love is there is God he 
teaches through the experiences 
of a poor cobbler the lesson of 
St. Matthew 25:40: what we do 
unto the least of our brethren 
that we do unto our Lord. In 
How Much Land a Man Needs he 
uses the story of the life and 
death of an enterprising farmer 
to teach the lesson of the vanity 
of greed. And in more than one 
story he teaches the lesson of the 
irresistible power of the human 
conscience and of that greatest 
of all evils which consists in a 
hardened and an unrepentant 
heart. The reader of these tales 
will not readily forget them. 

Reading Thackeray we feel 
that this eminent writer said all 
he had to say in a form suited 
to his genius. This is not true of 
Tolstoy. That passion which 
makes every character and scene 
in his great novels glow with 
vitality seems at the same time 
to chafe at the limitations im- 
posed by the realistic novel and 
to yearn for greater visions. This 
artistic form, developed by the 



secular, sceptic, and observant 
spirit of Western bourgeois so- 
ciety, seems not entirely congen- 
ial to a mind in which the strug- 
gle between good and evil rages 
in primeval ferocity, with no 
convenient compromise in sight. 
This observation may give us 
pause. Should it be that in gen- 
eral Tolstoy's confusions are the 
re-inforced echo of confusions 
rampant in our Western civil- 
ization as whose adopted rebel 
son Tolstoy grew up? Should we 
level our criticism at this our 
civilization rather than self- 
righteously censure Tolstoy's 
errors? Tolstoy might well be 
right in the verdict he passed 
upon the Western world, though 
he gave the wrong reasons for 
it. Listening to him in the mood 
which these and similar reflec- 
tions engender we discern the 
voice not only of a great novel- 
ist but of a prophetic warner. 

The Eternal Gospel. 
By Gerald Heard. 
New York: 
Harper & Brothers. 1946. 

"The Eternal Gospel" is the 
published version of the Ayer 
Lectures delivered by Gerald 
Heard in the spring of 1946 
at Colgate - Rochester Divinity 
School. Those who are familiar 
with Mr. Heard's earlier writ- 
ings will recognize this as part 
of the same piece of cloth. 

The thesis of this series of lec- 
tures is that there is, running 
like a bass theme through all the 
great religions, an Eternal Gos- 
pel which is both more and less 
than any particular one. This 
Mr. Heard defines as "that es- 

sential sense of obligation and 
intuitional moral knowledge 
which has emerged and become 
defined as the common denom- 
inator and working factor in all 

the great religions (and) 

it is that element owing to which 
those religions are great and en- 

There is a striking parallel be- 
tween Heard's development of 
the idea of an Eternal Gospel 
and Aldous Huxley's Perennial 
Philosophy — a fact which Heard 
himself points to. One must say, 
for this reason, that "The Eter- 
nal Gospel" possesses the same 
virtues and the same limitations 
as "The Perennial Philosophy". 

No one can read this book 
without being almost overwhelm- 
ed by Heard's sincerity, clever- 
ness, and prodigious learning. 

Running the Country. 
Edited by A. N. Christensen 

and E. M. Kirkpatrick. 
New York: 
Henry Holt & Company. 1946. 

Riding the crest of the current 
wave of anthologies comes this 
weighty volume of essays on 
"American Politics in Action" by 
such reporters of the scene as 
Max Lerner, Charles Beard, Wil- 
liam Allen White, and the late 
President. Hardly a problem of 
federal, state, or local govern- 
ment is left unheeded by some 
discussion in these one thousand 
pages. Anyone who desires an 
encyclopaedic coverage of the 
field of American political sci- 
ence for reference use will find 
it here. 



Green Lake, Wis. (RNS)— Del- 
egates to the third National Mis- 
sions Conference of the North- 
ern Baptist Convention focused 
their attention on national and 
international aspects of racial 
problems during their eight-day 
meeting here. 

The conference was led by 
Richard I. McKinney, of Storer 
College, Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 
a school for Negroes; the Rev. 
Jobu Yasumura, worker in re- 
settlement of Japanese-Amer- 
icans for the American Baptist 
Home Mission Society; Joel Or- 
daz, Baptist youth leader of 
Monterrey, Mexico; and a quar- 
tet of Seneca Indians from the 
Tonawanda Reservation, in New 
York. Negroes, Japanese-Amer- 
icans, and white persons were 
among the delegates. 


Tacoma, Wash. (RNS)— Only 
an organized plan to take care of 
Baptists in Germany will avert a 
serious setback for the denom- 
ination in that country, Dr. W. 
0. Lewis, of Washington, D. C, 
general secretary of the Baptist 
World Alliance, told 1,200 del- 
egates to the 28th meeting here 
of the North American Baptist 
Conference. The delegates rep- 
resented 250 German Baptist 
churches from 36 states and five 
Canadian provinces, formerly 

known as the German Baptist 

Dr. Lewis said many Baptists 
who fled before the advancing 
Russians and Germans during 
the war moved as a Baptist unit, 
taking their ministers with them. 

Discussing the plight of dis- 
placed persons in Europe, Dr. 
Lewis declared that many "re- 
fuse to return to their native 
lands and are staying in occupied 
zones." He predicted that some 
will come to the U. S., "moving 
as a unit so as not to disrupt 
their religious group." 

The delegates adopted a reso- 
lution commending President 
Truman for "opening up our 
country" to displaced persons 
from Europe. In another resolu- 
tion the conference went on rec- 
ord as seeking the immediate re- 
call of Myron C. Taylor as the 
President's personal represent- 
ative to the Vatican. 

Dr. George A. Lang, of Roches- 
ter, N. Y., was re-elected to a 
three-year term as moderator. 
Other conference officials elected 
include: Alfred Burnadt, Bur- 
lington, Iowa, vice moderator; 
Rev. George Hensel, Bridgeport, 
Conn., recording secretary, and 
Prof. Frank H. Woyke, Roches- 
ter, N. Y., executive secretary. 


New York.— (RNS)— A $50,000 
grant for work among displaced 
persons in Europe has been 
made by the Northern Baptist 
Convention, it was announced 



here by the Rev. Quintin Light- 
ner, chairman of the denomina- 
tion's World Relief Committee. 
The allocation will be adminis- 
tered through Church World 
Service, joint Protestant relief 
agency; the Baptist World Alli- 
ance, and the American Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society. 

Northern Baptists also will es- 
tablish a home for orphans in 
Poland. A fund of $30,000 has 
been allotted to begin its work. 
Administration of the project will 
be in charge of Dr. Edwin A. 
Bell, European representative of 
the American Baptist Foreign 
Mission Society. 


Knoxville, Tenn. (RNS)— De- 
spite a movement to bar Bishop 
G. Bromley Oxnam from Knox- 
ville, the president of the Fed- 
eral Council of Churches has re- 
ceived a second speaking engage- 
ment here. 

He had first accepted an in- 
vitation to address the East 
Tennessee Education Associa- 
tion's annual meeting, which 
brings about 7,000 teachers to 
Knoxville. Now he has agreed 
to address the Knoxville Ex- 
change Club at noon October 31, 
the day before he is to address 
the East Tennessee teachers. 

Club President Henry A. Til- 
ler extended the invitation. 
Charles G. Mynatt, club program 
chairman, said Bishop Oxnam 
had changed a speaking sched- 
ule so he could come to Knox- 
ville in advance of the speaking 
engagement for the teachers. 

The club is not defending Bis- 
hop Oxnam, Mr. Tiller said, but 
"defending the constitutional 
right of a free people to free 

"The invitation permits Bishop 
Oxnam to choose his own sub- 
ject, and if he wishes to take the 
entire time to dignify the allega- 
tions against him with a denial, 
he is privileged to do so. There 
are no strings attached to the 

Bishop Oxnam will tour the 
Tennessee Valley as guest of the 
Tennessee Valley Authority be- 
fore speaking at the teachers' 
meeting November 1. 

The bishop will come here 
October 29 from New York City 
at the invitation of the TVA 
board of directors, and may 
speak elsewhere in the valley. 


Dallas, Texas. (RNS)— Texas 
Baptists for the fiscal year be- 
ginning November 1 have incor- 
porated into their budget $4,000,- 
000 for missionary work, over 
$700,000 more than was allocat- 
ed for the current year. 

The action was taken by the 
state executive board of the de- 
nomination, and while it must be 
approved by the next conven- 
tion, scheduled for Mineral 
Wells, November 12 to 15, sub- 
mission of the recommendation 
by the board is tantamount to 

The board also considered lit- 
erature which will be distributed 
to the 3,300 churches in the state 
outlining a church budgeting 


Christian Frontiers 

A $900,00 expansion program 
was approved for Baylor Uni- 
versity in Waco; $750,000 for a 
chapel, a memorial building, and 
additional dormitory space at 
Hardin-Simmons at Abilene. 

The board also completed 
plans for a State Mission Week 
of Prayer for mid-October in 
which a $100,000 offering will be 
asked for the rehabilitation of 
rural churches. 


Grand Rapids, Mich. (RNS)— 
Racial discrimination within the 
Methodist Church was attacked 
by the National Conference of 
the Methodist Youth Fellowship 
which voted at its sixth annual 
meeting here to urge the General 
Conference of the denomination 
to "enact the necessary legisla- 
tion that will allow and promote 
the merging of any racial groups 
in the same area ..." 

The Conference recommended 
that the Commission to Consider 
the Relation of All Races in The 
Methodist Church "be encourag- 
ed to take a public stand through 
statements and policies for equal- 
ity and brotherhood in our deal- 
ings with the Negro congrega- 
tion within our Methodist 

The Conference also asked 
Methodist youth organizations 
to sponsor an increasing number 
of inter-racial meetings of youth 
and their advisors. 

Abolition of the Central (Ne- 
gro) Jurisdiction of the Church 
was urged, and its presence was 

condemned as an act of racial 

"We hereby resolve," the state- 
ment concluded, "that we, as 
members of the National Con- 
ference of the Methodist Youth 
Fellowship and as Christians, de- 
siring to do the will of God re- 
vealed through Jesus Christ, 
pledge ourselves and our support 
to do all that we can to eliminate 
racial misunderstanding and to 
foster brotherhood within our 
own groups and among all men; 
and that we will work with all 
people interested in and working 
for the promotion of good will 
and brotherhood." 


Atlanta, Ga. (RNS)— An addi- 
tional $5,000 in rewards was 
offered for the arrest and con- 
viction of the mob which lynch- 
ed four Negroes last July near 
Monroe, Ga., by the National 
Baptist Convention, U. S. A., Inc. 
at its annual meeting here. 

The convention delegates, rep- 
resenting some 4,000,000 Negro 
Baptists, also went on record as 
favoring passage of a Federal 
anti-lynching bill and a Fair Em- 
ployment Practices bill, as well 
as abolition of the Jim Crow sys- 

Dr. D. V. Jemison, of Selma, 
Ala., was re-elected president of 
the convention, and the Rev. J. 
P. Barbour, editor of the Nation- 
al Baptist Voice, was named del- 
egate to the meeting of the Bap- 
tist World Alliance in Copen 
hagen next year. 



In his address before the con- 
vention, Dr. Jemison pleaded for 
equal rights in the courts and 
equal opportunity for education 
and at the polls. 


Valdosta, Ga. (RNS) — Some 
800 delegates, including repre- 
sentatives from the West Coast, 
attended the 28th annual meet- 
ing here of the Primitive Bap- 
tist Bible Conference. 

All officers of the organization 
were reelected. They include Dr. 
L. A. Baker, Miami, Fla., chair- 
man; Fred L. Cannon, Atlanta, 
vice chairman, and Mrs. M. M. 
Jennings Macon, Ga., secretary- 


Atlanta, Ga. (RSN)— The Rev. 
John Hardin Marion, Jr., of Rich- 
mond, Va., has been appointed 
director of the newly-organized 
Committee on Christian Social 
Relations of the Presbyterian 
Church in the U. S. (Southern), 
it was announced here. 

Establishment of the new 12- 
man committee was authorized 
last June at the annual General 
Assembly of the denomination. 
The Assembly specified that one 
Negro and one woman be in- 
cluded in the committee's mem- 

Purpose of the committee will 
be to provide guidance for church 
members in "all areas of Christ- 
ian relationship." 


Charlotte, N. C. (RNS)— The 
North Carolina Synod of the 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. 
(Southern) at its annual session 
here adopted a resolution recog- 
nizing the right of labor to or- 
ganize and asking ministers to 
study conditions of labor and 
wages. A study of management 
and labor also was asked. 

Another resolution deplored 
the increase in liquor drinking 
and drunkenness and the in- 
crease in divorce. 

Sympathy for the Jews of 
Europe was expressed in a reso- 
lution which instructed a com- 
mittee to "urge and beseech" 
President Truman "to increase 
his efforts to bring Jewish re- 
fugees to the United States that 
they may have homes here." 


London — Buyers at an auction 
of English and foreign Bibles 
and New Testaments here paid 
$4,200 for a first edition of John 
Eliot's Indian Bible, which was 
printed in 1663 at Cambridge, 

The Bibles and Testaments 
formed part of the library of the 
late Sir R. Leicester Harms- 
worth and included a defective 
copy of Miles Coverdale's ver- 
sion. Printed in 1535, the Cover- 
dale edition, of which no perfect 
copy exists, was sold for $8,000. 
The same buyer also gave $5,200 
for the first edition of Thomas 
Cromwell's "Great Bible," print- 
ed in 1539. 




'HE FORUM of the Hayes-Barton Baptist Church, 
Raleigh, N. C, is one of the adult groups in the 
Training Department. It was organized in 1936 "to provide 
a medium of expression for the members and to provide 
training for church leadership." The organization was first 
named "The Young People's Forum." This was later changed 
to "The Forum" as it was an adult organization and the 
membership was not to be limited to any age or group. 

The Forum has maintained an average attendance be- 
tween thirty and forty. It meets each Sunday night before the 
Evening Worship. Refreshments or a light supper is served 
for which each member pays ten cents per person. The 
members rotate in taking the responsibility to serve. In this 
way a couple serves only about two times a year. 

Following refreshments or supper a program is presented. 
The programs are arranged by a Program Committee and are 
presented mostly by the members. Occasionally an outsider 
is invited to speak and to lead a discussion on some specific 
topic. Current events are freely discussed with special regard 
for their bearing on religious life. Occasionally a series of 
studies on some general theme is undertaken such as "The 
Christian Home" or a study of stewardship preceding the 
Every-Member Canvass. 

The social life of the members of The Forum centers 
largely in the church. Besides a New Year's Party in January 
and a Birthday Party in February, The Forum members 
meet often during the year for social gatherings at the homes 
of the members during the winter and at the park or lake 
in the summer. Several of the members have recreation 
rooms in the basement of their homes. 

Officers are elected semi-annually and no officer except 
the Secretary is eligible for re-election until after one year 
after the expiration of his term of office. Officers elected are 
President, Membership Vice President, Vice President in 
charge of programs, Vice President to serve as Social Chair- 
man and Treasurer, and Secretary. 


A Journal of Baptist Life and Thought 

Vol. I NOVEMBER, 1946 No. 9 


Das Kelley Barnett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlator, Associate Editor William M. Poteat, Book Editor 
Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 

Sara Lowrey, Poetry Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 
H. B. Cross, Nashville, Term. Swan Hayworth, Vicksburg, Miss. 

George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. Withrow T. Holland, HaynesvUle, La. 

Adiel J. Moncrief, St. Joseph, Mo. 

J. M. Dawson, Washington, D. C. 

Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 

Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C Blake Smith ' Austin ' Texas 

J. C Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia Hubert R. Howard, Jr., Tulsa, Okla. 


George D. Heaton, Chairman 
Claude U. Broach Jasper C Hutto, Secretary 

Eugene I. Olive J. Wade Baker 

Lee C. Sheppard E. Norfleet Gardner 

Fon H. Scofield Fred B. Helms 


Editorials 275 

The Bible a Progressive Revelation S. L. Morgan, Sr 280 

They Serve Without Weapons W. M. Hammond, Jr 291 

Why Democracy Fails.- R. F. Howes 298 

Books 303 

News 307 

Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laymen. Address all corres- 
pondence to Box 508, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Copyright 1946 by the Baptist 
Book Club. Second class mailing privilege pending. Subscription price, two dollars 
a year; twenty-five cents a copy. Printed by The Graphic Press, Inc., Raleigh, N. C. 

Who's Who In This Issue 

S. L. MORGAN, SR., is a retired Baptist minister now 
living at Wake Forest, N. C. He is a frequent contributor to 
The Biblical Recorder and other Baptist publications. 

W. M. HAMMOND, JR., is a resident of Elgin, Illinois 
and has been actively working in behalf of conscientious 
objectors in prisons and camps. Now engaged in research 
for another article about CO's, he will be glad to answer any 
questions on that subject addressed to him in care of 
Christian Frontiers. 

R. F. HOWES is Professor of Law at Stetson University 
in Florida, has an LL.B. from Cornell and an S.J.D. from 
New York University, and has been a frequent contributor 
to this magazine. 

OUR REVIEWERS: Book reviews for this issue were 
written by J. Winston Pearce of the First Baptist Church 
in Durham, N. C; S. T. Stovall of New York City; and 
Howard McClain of Mercer University in Macon, Ga. 


Forty-One Lynchings 

THE WASHINGTON POST says that there have been 
41 lynchings since V-J Day. According to our Wash- 
ington contemporary all of the victims were Negroes and 
nearly all of them were veterans of the recent war. We have 
no information about the number of lynchers who have been 
punished for their brutal, cowardly crimes but judging by 
the past we would say that not a single one has been punished. 

Lamar Caudle of Wadesboro, N. C. who is now Assistant 
Attorney General of the United States made a speech at the 
recent North Carolina Bar Association meeting that pleases 
us greatly. He is a North Carolinian as were his father and 
grandfathers and though he now lives in Washington, D. C. 
he is still a Southerner and a North Carolinian. In his address 
he came out vigorously for a federal law that would ad- 
equately protect civil rights violations. He evidently had in 
mind some of these 41 lynchings and advocates a federal law 
to deal with the lynchers. 

These 41 lynchings should add all the weight needed to 
insure the passage of an anti-lynch law at the next meeting 
of Congress. It is perfectly evident that those who shed 
crocodile tears over the danger to states rights are in reality 
fighting for the right of a bunch of cowardly hoodlums to 
commit a brutal murder. The time for the passage of a federal 
anti-lynch law is long past due. 

It has been proved over and over again that the commun- 
ity in which a mob takes the law in its own hands will pro- 
tect the members of that mob. There are always some good 
citizens who are deeply humilated over the fact that such 
a crime has been committed in their community but up until 
the present time they have found it impossible to do any- 
thing about it. Opposing an anti-lynch law is nothing short of 
advocating the protection of lynchers. 

An anti-lynch law is no more a violation of states rights 
than was the Lindbergh kidnaping law. That anti-kidnaping 
law stopped a veritable epidemic of kidnapings. The fact that 

276 Christian Frontiers 

the law is on the statute books of our federal government 
enables many a fond mother to sleep peacefully at night who 
otherwise would spend her nights in sleepless horror. We 
are confident that an anti-lynch law would have prevented 
the 41 lynchings that have taken place since V-J Day. 

We are glad that both the Attorney General of the United 
States and his brilliant young assistant are calling for a law 
from Congress that will protect the citizens of the United 
States against those who would violate the rights of man 
guaranteed by the Constitution. Such a law, according to 
both the Attorney General and the Assistant Attorney Gen- 
eral, is essential if the constitutional rights of man are to be 
protected. Let the law be passed. 

John Arch McMillan 
Editor, Charity and Children 

Raison D'Etre Christian Frontiers 

THE PURPOSES for launching this periodical have 
already been outlined for our readers in previous 
issues. However, a good deal of uncertainty, and even suspi- 
cion, still persist as to the why's and wherefore's of another 
journal within a denomination amply stocked, if not surfeit- 
ed, with religious literature. In Douglas Steere's introduction 
to an English translation of Kierkegaard's Works of Love 
(Translators: David F. Swenson and Lillian Marvin Swen- 
son) are some words which we should like unblushingly to 
apply to the purposes and objectives of Christian Frontiers. 
Writes Dr. Steere of Kierkegaard: "He sought to point 
out how a man might become a Christian when he was 
already one. Kierkegaard never tired of pointing out that 
there is a certain immunity to the full implications of 
Christian commitment built up by imbibing it in diluted 
form from birth. He felt himself, therefore, called to the 
'role of the missionary within Christendom.' Writing in Den- 
mark a century ago to reach a church well established in a 
broad pattern of bourgeois security, to a people who rendered 
lip service to this church but who in personal, social and 
political decisions took little account of their obedience to 

Welcome iLabor Unions.' 277 

God and His revelation, to a generation that had not yet 
openly rebelled against Christianity but who were quietly 
burying it under a deceptive funeral coverlet of roses and 
ferns of surface observance, Kierkegaard presented by means 
of a whole religious literature the costly claim of what it 
meant to be a Christian " — W.W.F. 

Welcome Labor Unions! 

THE SOUTH is marked for increasing industrialization 
by capital. We welcome an industrialized South for 
it means that the Southern region will receive a fairer share 
of the national income. The South is also marked for or- 
ganized labor. We welcome the efforts now being made to 
organize Southern labor, for organized labor in the South 
means a more just distribution of the increased wealth which 
is bound to come with expanding industrialization. 

The Southern Baptist Convention has gone on record as 
approving organized labor and collective bargaining. The 
Convention meeting in 1938 at Richmond, Virginia, adopted 
the following resolution: "We recognize the right of labor 
to organize and to engage in collective bargaining to the end 
that labor may have a fair and living wage, such as will 
provide not only the necessities of life, but for recreation, 
pleasure, and culture." As Southern Baptists we must now 
decide whether to rebuff or welcome the efforts on the part 
of the C. I. 0. and the A. F. of L. to organize unions to the 
end that collective bargaining will be possible. 

In an un-Christian society organized according to the will 
of the "power of the prince of the air" the ethic of the re- 
generated individual, Christian love, stands about as much 
chance of directly influencing the group antagonisms of 
capital and labor as the proverbial snowball in the lower 
regions. Let's be realistic: labor in its attempt to gain power 
will resort to methods that the Christian conscience motivated 
by love cannot sanction; capital in its efforts to maintain a 
dominant role in the struggle will resort to methods that 
are equally repulsive to the Christian conscience. For the 
church simply to exhort capital and labor to be good little 

278 Christian Frontiers 

boys and not throw rocks at each other is so much unrealistic 
preaching. Make no mistake about it, they are both going to 
throw rocks. At the present time management in the South 
has more rocks to throw. If the organized campaign of the 
A. P. of L. and the C. I. O. is successful in the South, the now 
unequal struggle for power will be balanced. Out of the 
balance for power will come collective bargaining and with 
collective bargaining approximate justice. 

Southern Baptists have their choice: either preach a hor- 
tatory irrelevant gospel of love to both groups, which as far 
as capital and labor are concerned, is so much sugar-coated 
nonsense; or to preach a gospel of love implemented with the 
justice which comes when power is balanced between capital 
and labor. That justice will come only when labor is or- 
ganized in the South. Let the churches therefore implement 
the worthy resolution made at Richmond and welcome the 
growth of organized labor as a means to a justice which is 
long overdue. — D.K.B. 

Patriotism Without the Flag-waving 

THE ASSOCIATED PRESS carried a dispatch October 
3 about a flag salesman who declared, "It takes war 
to jolt Americans into showing their patriotism." The sales- 
man based his judgment on the way flags have been selling 
in the postwar era. "The month the Marines raised the his- 
toric flag on Iwo Jima I sold $380 worth of flags. Now I am 
lucky if I sell two a week." Now that the shouting and the 
tumult have died what patriotism still stands will be dem- 
onstrated without flags. It will be the kind that no scoundrel 
will want to make his last refuge. The sober patriotism of 
today and tomorrow will diagnose the heart of America to 
discover any of the diseases that ravaged the conquered na- 
tions. With bold surgery it will root out racism, bigotry, and 
economic exploitation. 

In specific language this means it will fight to a finish the 
Ku Klux Klan, poll taxes as a pre-requisite for voting and 
such laws of segregation as deprive people of economic 
opportunity. It means also that some form of anti-lynching 

Patriotism Without the Flag-waving 279 

legislation must be enacted, that some plan for the extend- 
ing of the benefits of modern medicine and hospitalization to 
those who are unable to afford them must be agreed upon, 
that some way to work out whereby all the children of the 
nation may have equal educational opportunities. Among the 
laboring masses it means the assurance of steady employ- 
ment, decent wages and working conditions, and a sense of 
security from the dangers and uncertainties that have 
plagued them since the beginning of the Industrial Revolu- 

In foreign policy this patriotism calls for the willingness 
on the part of our government to grant democracy to peoples 
everywhere, to support free trade and a policy that looks 
toward the lifting of embargoes and discriminating tariffs, 
and to assume the leadership which destiny has thrust upon 
her to lead the world out of the chaos and destruction into 
lasting peace even at the cost of giving up much of our 
national sovereignty. In short, the true patriotism means the 
recognition that victory by arms is but temporary and that 
the ultimate victory over fascism in whatever form can only 
be achieved by more, and more, and yet more democracy. 

It will take more than war to jolt us into this kind of 
patriotism. On the contrary the recent war has jolted much 
of it out of us. Though it be a truism to say so, this kind can 
come only through the prayer and fasting of vital religion. 

— W.W.F. 

280 Christian Frontiers 

The Bible A Progressive Revelation 

S. L. Morgan, Sr. 

THE CHRISTIAN world faces a graver problem than 
the atomic bomb. Graver, because stark fear and 
common sense alike are at work in the open on the problem 
of the atomic bomb and seem likely to find a solution. But 
the other problem lurks in secret and unobserved. It lurks 
hidden like a slow poison in one of the major saving virtues, 
"loyalty to the Scriptures," and in the amiable dictum of Bible 
lovers, "I believe all the Bible is equally inspired, and I believe 
it from cover to cover." The danger lies in the fact that this 
is a plausible half-truth, and the implication of it is not 
observed by millions who say it. 

This fact lately struck me like a blow between the eyes 
in the earnest remark of an admirable man — an intelligent, 
sincere, influential Christian man: "I think we ought to have 
dropped 100 atomic bombs on Japan." I challenged him 
soothingly. He replied, "But didn't God tell the Israelites to 
destroy utterly the wicked peoples of Canaan?" I said, "But 
would you find any authority for such cruelty in the New 
Testament, especially in the teaching and example of Jesus?" 
He answered earnestly, "I'd take the Old Testament as 
authority as soon as I would the New!" 

That danger has lurked in the virtue of "loyalty to the 
Scriptures" ever since Luther and Calvin hurled against the 
vaunted "authority" of the Roman Church the greater author- 
ity of the "plain Word of God," and interpreted the Old 
Testament literally as well as the New, and as having the 
same finality. It led to a world of abuse and centuries of 
persecution and the torture of millions and the throttling of 
science and the progress of the human race. Worse still, it 
put on the Bible itself a burden too heavy to bear, and turned 
and still turns thousands away from the Bible and religion 
as doubters or avowed sceptics by making the Old Testament 
mean what Christ himself declared it cannot mean. 
The Warning of History 

Looking for a solution, let it not be forgotten that up to 
300 years ago theologians branded as heretics scientists like 

The Bible a Progressive Revelation 281 

Copernicus and Galileo for teaching that the earth is round 
and moves. Didn't the Bible expressly settle it? For it spoke 
of the "four corners of the earth," and the earth as standing 
on "foundations." Luther spoke with contempt of "that fool 
Copernicus" for saying the earth moved. Even the great 
Wesley as late as 1768 said, "To give up witchcraft is to give 
up the Bible." For didn't the Witch of Endor call up Samuel 
from Sheol? And didn't the law of Moses say, "Thou shalt 
not suffer a witch to live" (Ex. 22: 18)? and so on the 
"authority" of the Old Testament 100,000 poor wretches, 
many of them mentally diseased, were tortured to death as 
witches in Europe and 20 in Salem, Massachusetts. 

Over and over the Old Testament represents God as order- 
ing the slaughter of enemies, even to women and babies, and 
to "cut off from the people" those who disobeyed even lesser 
Mosaic laws. Hence it seemed clear that the Old Testament 
gave authority for the slaughter of St. Bartholomew and the 
torture of millions of heretics! And it was the familiar 
language of the Old Testament that God "smote" people with 
sickness and "sent" plagues and epidemics as punishment 
for sin. And so theologians branded it as heresy — a wicked 
"interference with divine sovereignty" — when scientists pro- 
posed to head off an epidemic of smallpox by vaccination! The 
sad blunders and cruelties of history warn those who would 
press the letter of Scripture. 

The Bible A Progressive Revelation 

The Bible as a progressive revelation is confidently pro- 
posed as a key to the problem. The suggestion that any of 
the Bible is outgrown comes as a shock to one schooled to 
believe all the Bible is equally inspired and hence equally 
true and authoritative. This overlooks the fact that repeatedly 
Jesus referred to certain Old Testament passages only to 
supersede them as outgrown: "It was said to them of old 
time . . . but I say unto you," explaining it by saying "I came 
to fulfill the law," meaning He came to fill it full of the 
meaning God from the first wanted to express, but could not 
because men's ears were too dull or their hearts too hard to 
understand or accept the fuller meaning. While defending 
the Mosaic law against its distortions by the rabbis, He 

282 Christian Frontiers 

spurned the entire code relating to "clean" and "unclean" 
and ignored and sometimes condemned laws relating to 
sacrifices, insisting only on inwardness of life. He constantly 
assumed, sometimes expressly declared, that much of the 
Old Testament was outgrown: "It was said to them of old 
time . . . but I say" (Mt. 5:21-44). Following are some of the 
outgrown ideas: 

1. Inadequate Ideas of God 

Once attention is called to it, it is self-evident that the 
older books of the Old Testament express ideas of God's 
character and conduct that are at variance with the ideas of 
God as revealed by Jesus. In the older records God "walked 
in the garden in the cool of the day;" He visited Abraham 
and sat down to a meal and talked familiarly to him. As has 
been true of all primitive peoples, the Hebrews ascribed to 
God their own frailties: He changed His mind, He "repented," 
He was often "angry." He was a local and tribal God; He 
loved his chosen people Israel, but hated their enemies, 
declaring, "I will be an enemy unto thine enemies" (Ex. 
23: 22). He is called "a man of war," leading Israel to battle, 
sometimes commanding brutal acts to enemies. He ordered 
Saul, "Go and smite Amalek . . . slay both man and woman, 
infant and suckling" (I Sam. 15: 3). Under His order 
Amalek's king Agag was "hewed in pieces before Jehovah" 
(I Sam. 15: 33) . And the record says of the peoples of Canaan 
that God "hardened their hearts, to come against Israel in 
battle, that He might utterly destroy them," with the result 
that Joshua killed their kings, and slaughtered their people, 
leaving alive "none that breathed" (Joshua 11: 20). 

Jesus gave quite other ideas of God, saying, "Ye have 
heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a 
tooth . . . that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, 
and hate thine enemy; but I say unto you, 'Love your 
enemies, and pray for them that persecute you.' " God did 
not love Israel more than others, "for He maketh His sun 
to rise on the evil and the good, and sendeth rain on the just 
and the unjust" (Mt. 5:38-45). 

Other strange, inhuman acts are ascribed to God, unthink- 
able to the God reveaed by Jesus: He "sent a pestilence" on 

The Bible a Progressive Revelation 283 

the people and killed 70,000 because David had taken a census 
(2 Sam. 24: 15). It is said of Moses that God "sought to 
kill him" at a wayside inn, which his wife averted by quickly 
circumcising their son: and then "God let him alone" (Ex 4: 
25, 26). He expressly told Abraham to kill and offer up his 
son Isaac as a burnt offering (Gen. 22: 2). 

Only one conclusion seems tenable: since God is "from 
everlasting to everlasting" the same, these ideas of God 
were vague, inadequate, to be outgrown and abandoned for 
the truer, nobler ideas of God revealed by psalmists and 
prophets and at last "fulfilled" in the loving, suffering Father 
revealed by Jesus. Always the same, He never could have 
been such a God as "they of old time" thought He was: 
vengeful, cruel, able to order the slaughter of "infants and 
sucklings," and Himself to kill thousands of innocents, as 
for the sin of David. His holiness was a fire burning against 
sin, and sin could not be condoned. But He never could have 
done nor ordered anything inconsistent with the character 
of the loving, suffering Father pictured by Jesus as "loving 
the world," suffering over the one lost sheep, rejoicing in the 
return of the prodigal. "They of old time" apprehended Him 
but dimly; Jesus revealed Him clearly. God was, and always 
had been Christlike. He never could have said, commanded, 
nor done anything inconsistent with the God and Father of 
Jesus, who loved and pitied and forgave. Set it down, that 
all theories of Old Testament interpretation or inspiration 
must bend to this essential, obvious truth. 

2. Ideas of Justice and Right 

The Old Testament begins with a moral code crude and 
tribal. In the prophets that code rises to a demand for indi- 
vidual justice and righteousness. Jesus raised it at a stroke 
to a demand for holiness, justice, love, forgiveness, brother- 
hood, sacrifice for others. 

Old Testament ethics leaves woman degraded, the subject 
and slave of man. Adam blamed his sin on the woman, and 
God put a curse on her for her sin: her husband should "rule 
over her," and the pain of child-bearing was added as a 
penalty. Abraham was given the recognized right to bring 
a concubine and her child into the home as a rival of his 

284 Christian Frontiers 

wife and child — and then to drive her and his child into the 
wilderness, maybe to die. For any trifle or whim the husband 
had the legal right to divorce his wife, he the sole judge, she 
with no right of appeal. A daughter had hardly the slightest 
right over her person. Lot had the unchallenged right to 
offer his daughters to the lust of the Sodomites to protect 
his men guests, and Jephthah the right to sacrifice his 
daughter as a burnt offering to fulfill a vow. 

The high moral demands of the prophets improved wom- 
an's status, but Jesus lifted her immediately to the dignity 
of a person of infinite value and the equal of man. He treated 
her with infinite respect, and declared the law of Moses giv- 
ing the husband the power to divorce her at will mis- 
represented the mind of God and was but a concession to 
man's "hardness of heart." He put in its place the law of 
mutual love, declaring the two "one flesh" and equal. Paul, 
notwithstanding certain archaic concessions to Jewish tradi- 
tion and local custom in Corinth, really wrote the Magna 
Charta of woman: "There can be ... no male and female; for 
ye are all one in Christ Jesus" (Gal. 3:28). It was a major 
moral revolution. 

Human slavery, if recognized throughout the Bible, 
changed as the concept of God changed from harshness to 
kindness. At first Jehovah was thought to order the slaughter 
of even women and children of enemies. Next as a gesture of 
mercy he was thought to authorize slavery in place of slaugh- 
ter. Still the Mosaic law left the power of life and death to the 
master. One broke the law only if he killed his slave outright; 
he went scot-free if the slave "continue a day or two ... for 
he is his money" (Ex. 21:2). 

Jesus at once went beyond the noblest prophets in de- 
manding humaneness and mercy for all men. He declared 
every human being a child of God, infinitely dear to the 
Father, and of infinite worth. Such is the tone of all the New 
Testament. Slaves were to be treated kindly as brothers, and 
were welcomed into the church as equals. The greatest moral 
revolution of all time had begun, never to end till every man 
was free. 

The Bible thus begins with even God vengeful and cruel 

The Bible a Progressive Revelation 285 

and commanding vengence on enemies; many of the psalms 
are prayers for vengeance, even the prophecy of Nahum, a 
paean of joy over the ruin of Nineveh. Some prophets like 
Jonah struck a higher note, he pleading that Nineveh be 
given a chance to repent and be saved. Isaiah reaches the 
mountain top and catches a vision of universal good will and 
brotherhood. Jesus goes all the way and proclaims God a 
universal Father who "loved the world," and gave his son 
to redeem it and to set up a universal kingdom of love, all 
men to be brothers; teaching men to forgive, and dying with 
the prayer, "Father, forgive them." From first to last, the 
Bible is thus a "progressive revelation" of God and his moral 
demands. "Revelation is not a lightning-flash; it is like the 
dawn, brightening into the full day."* 

3. Ideas of Approach to God and Prayer 

Strange as it may seem, far into the Old Testament men 
are represented as knowing almost nothing of a personal 
approach to God in prayer. Save for a few devout souls, 
private or personal prayer is seldom mentioned. The individ- 
ual was lost in the group and the priest interceded for the 
group, and mainly not through prayer, but sacrifice. God was 
terrible, and the people feared a direct contact, pleading with 
Moses, "Let not God speak with us, lest we die." Besides, 
they thought of God as present and reachable only at special 
places. Jacob fleeing from Canaan awakes from his dream 
surprised to find God present so far from home. Only after 
the temple was destroyed and sacrifices ceased, and the 
prophets began to demand inward holiness of the individual, 
did prayer become general. Even before then, great prophets 
like Isaiah and Amos began scathing condemnation of feasts 
and sacrifices as substitutes for inwardness of life and for 
justice and mercy — and penitent prayer. They cry, "I de- 
spise your feasts . . . your burnt offerings. Incense is an 
abomination unto me . . . Wash you, make you clean" (Amos 
5:21-22; Isa. 1:11-17). 

In recorded prayers we see an amazing evolution parallel 
with the changing concept of God from vengeful to loving. 

*W. N. Clarke: Sixty Years with the Bible, p. 221. 

286 Christian Frontiers 

Dying Samson prays to kill his enemies with him, and many 
of the psalms are little more than prayers for vengeance — 
almost curses. But some recorded prayers also begin to ex- 
press a deep sense of personal sin and longing for cleansing 
and holiness, notably Psalms 51 and 139. 

Entering the New Testament, we find Jesus all at once 
lifting prayer to the highest level of the spiritual and univer- 
sal. No longer is it an attempt, like Abraham's pleading, to 
bend God's will to the human, but to surrender the human 
will to the divine, seen at its best in Jesus' prayer in Geth- 
semane, "Thy will be done." No longer is it for self and one's 
own people, but for God's universal rule: "Thy kingdom 
come, thy will be done on earth as in heaven." Never again 
prayer for vengeance on enemies, but prayer in the spirit 
of Jesus and Stephen, dying: "Father, forgive them"; "Lay 
not this sin to their charge." No more thought of appeasing 
an offended deity, but Jesus communing face to face with a 
loving Father, and teaching that such prayer is a universal 
privilege: "Enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut 
thy door, pray to thy Father who is in secret." This is pro- 
gressive revelation at its highest. 

4. Ideas of Sin and Suffering 

The Bible begins with the idea that suffering was always 
a penalty for sin. Man sinned in Eden, and the penalty was 
suffering and death, with a curse put also on Nature. The 
problem was aggravated for the early Hebrews by their idea 
that God was terrible and vengeful, easily displeased and 
angered. Storm or flood, rain or drouth, famine, pestilence 
or war, came or went according as Israel pleased or dis- 
pleased Jehovah. Good deeds and sacrifices might avert suffer- 
ing by winning his favor. The belief long went unchallenged 
that sickness, suffering, or calamity was a sure sign that one 
had sinned. Prosperity was proof that one was righteous. 

Distrust of this doctrine grew strong in the later Old 
Testament period. Many of the psalms lament that the 
righteous are afflicted and the wicked prosperous. Ecclesiastes 
waxes cynical and bitter before the baffling problem; there 
is no justice; "all things come alike to all . . . to the righteous 
and to the wicked." Groping toward the light through the long 

The Bible a Progressive Revelation 287 

Old Testament period, the noblest minds, it may be said, 
reached the following consensus: 

1. Suffering or misfortune by no means always proved one 
a sinner. Job was written expressly to prove the contrary. 
Baffled by the problem of why God sent such suffering on 
him, he stoutly maintained his own innocence against his 
accusers, and finally God vindicated him fully. But the belief 
persisted even into the New Testament that suffering was 
proof of sin, so that people asked Jesus of the man born blind, 
"Who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born 
blind?" Jesus answered, "Neither." 

2. That God uses suffering to discipline his people. The 
individual and the remnant in Israel were to be purified in 
the furnace of affliction, and under the heel of the oppressor 
to be refined into a saved and saving remnant, whom God 
could use for His purpose. 

3. That justice is not always done now, but "wait and 
see." God is just and will right wrongs, either in this life or 
a future life. And so in the furnace of affliction was forged 
the doctrine of a resurrection. It seemed a necessity, if God 
was to be just and reward the righteous and punish the 
wicked. And so the resurrection grew into a live hope in the 
400 years between the Testaments. 

4. That God's purpose is to use suffering to redeem from 
sin. Here the Old Testament reaches its highest peak, notably 
in Isaiah the fifty-third chapter, picturing the "Suffering 
Servant" willingly, vicariously suffering and dying to save 
Israel, a near approach to the cross in the New Testament. 

The New Testament views the relation of sin and suffering 
far differently. Suffering and misfortune are never viewed as 
punishment sent by a vengeful God. Some suffering is re- 
tributive, as one must reap what he sows, but in the New 
Testament it never looks back to sin as a reason for God's 
sending it in punishment. God is ever a tender Father dealing 
impartially with all, "making His sun to rise on the evil and 
the good." Jesus expressly rejected the age-old idea that a 
man could be born blind as a punishment for sin. By pouring 
out His life in healing all manner of sickness He revealed a 
God who hated sickness and suffering, and co-operated With 

288 Christian Frontiers 

man to fight disease. And so Jesus set Himself against the 
accepted theory that God sent diseases and epidemics as 
punishment for sin — indeed a revolutionary attitude. By this 
attitude and His sacrificial ministry of healing beyond all 
others He has inspired the entire modern ministry of healing 
and preventive medicine. He thus indeed started a major 
revolution in the thinking of the race: that God, instead of 
being a vengeful deity sending epidemics as a "scourge of 
God" to punish sin, is rather a loving Father revealing to 
doctor and scientist the means of heading them off! 

And Jesus even redeemed suffering by putting a beauty 
and glory about it, when borne for His sake. He sent His 
disciples into the evil world to redeem and change it, bidding 
them to "rejoice and be exceeding glad" when suffering un- 
justly for Him and His cause. And here is one of the marvels 
of the Bible, that suffering for ages had been accepted as 
punishment for sin, and endured with sorrow and tears, but 
Jesus astoundingly turns it into a blessed privilege, to be 
borne cheerfully and joyfully! And this becomes the dominant 
tone of the New Testament. The cross of Christ is a thing to 
glory in. Paul even longed to "know the fellowship of His 
sufferings," that so he might be a partner with Christ in 
redeeming the world from sin and suffering. Indeed, the 
mission of the Christian is to choose a life of suffering and 
sacrifice, counting it a joy to "bear the cross" with a view to 
destroying sin and suffering and bringing in Christ's king- 
dom. It is the peculiar glory of the New Testament that it 
reaches the note of joy in suffering. Suffering and tragedy 
surround the disciples throughout, but the New Testament 
is "far and away the most exultant and jubilant book in 
the literature of religion."* 

5. Ideas of Man and Immortality 

The special limits of this article preclude more than a 
reference to these related ideas, and the reader is referred 
especially to Posdick's discussion of the entire subject in his 
valuable book, A Guide to Understanding the Bible, to which 
the writer acknowledges much indebtedness. 

♦Fosdick, Harry Emerson: A Guide to Understanding the Bible p.193. 

The Bible a Progressive Revelation 289 

The Bible begins with the individual man so lost in the 
clan and the tribe that not even his moral acts are his own 
apart from the group. His sin and penalty clung to all his 
group, so that for Achan's sin he and all his clan were stoned 
and burned. In Sheol the individual was without value in 
God's sight, cut off from his notice and interest, not a person 
but a shadow, and left abandoned, joyless, hopeless. 

By late Old Testament times the prophets had so separated 
the individual from the group that each person was counted 
morally responsible, and so valuable in God's sight that God 
was present even in Sheol to reward the righteous and punish 
the wicked. God was just and so must vindicate His justice, 
and even call the dead back from Sheol to a judgment of re- 
wards and penalties. Resurrection and immortality became a 
dream of seers and prophets in the later Old Testament days 
and grew to a definite doctrine by the time the New Tes- 
tament opens. Jesus lifted it to a blessed hope by declaring 
that every man is of infinite value in God's sight, and im- 
mortal. The Christians died triumphantly, sure that death 
was but the gateway to a richer, fuller life. Paul discounted 
the doctrine of a physical resurrection — the raised body was 
"spiritual" — but all the New Testament treats immortality 
as a radiant certainty: "This mortal must put on immortality." 

All the above ideas in the early Old Testament period 
were "understood as a child," "seen through a glass, darkly," 
the light upon them growing ever brighter until in the blaze 
of Christ's person and teaching they at last stood out in bold 
relief. He definitely ignored the entire law and ritual relating 
to sacrifices, to "clean" and "unclean," expressly set aside 
certain of the Mosaic statutes as outgrown, and put higher 
laws in their stead. Most of all He revealed God as loving, 
suffering, forgiving, and so by His nature utterly incapable 
of doing or approving any of the unethical and cruel acts 
attributed to him in the Old Testament. 


Viewed thus, the Old Testament is nonetheless a revelation 
real and profound. If the Hebrew people found in it confused, 
inadequate ideas of God, nonetheless He was the Omnipotent, 
who called the Universe into being. "In the beginning God" 

290 Christian Frontiers 

stood as the first word of their Bible and dominated their 
whole view of life here and hereafter. He searched the deeps 
of all hearts, demanding, "Be ye holy, for I am holy." His 
high moral demands lifted them above all the peoples round 
about them in incomparable moral grandeur. Through all the 
centuries, their Book has made them a people apart, the 
miracle of history. 

At times the Old Testament seers reached mountain^top 
experiences with God and poured out passages of sublime 
beauty, rivaling the finest gems in the New Testament. Such 
are Psalms 23, 46, 103, 121, and other gems of rare tenderness 
and beauty in Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Hosea. 

It may be declared with confidence that the above frank 
treatment of the Old Testament as an imperfect, progressive 
revelation to be fulfilled in the New Testament, instead of 
undermining faith in the Bible, actually promotes reverence 
and love for it. The usual method of trying to explain away 
or apologize for the immoral or cruel acts or commands attrib- 
uted to God, or to make saints out of the patriarchs, does not 
get by with even thoughtful children. With many people, the 
result has been to lower respect and reverence for the Bible 
as a whole, and often to undermine faith in religion itself. 
The frank method proposed makes the Old Testament seem 
real, and awakens new interest in it. Thus treating it, one no 
more needs to apologize for it than for the acorn for not being 
an oak, or for a child for not being a man. Each is seen as a 
step toward a glorious fulfillment; the acorn to grow into the 
oak, the child into the man, the Old Testament into the New, 
with Christ its glorious center. The Old Testament as the 
early stage of God's revelation, to culminate in Christ and the 
New Testament, becomes a thing entitled to reverence and 
love, and to one's reverent, earnest study. To harmonize it 
with the New Testament is no more possible than to har- 
monize the child with the man. Trying to do so only be- 
wilders, and often undermines confidence in the Bible as a 
whole. To let it mean what it does mean is to make it real 
and a thing glorious and beneficent. 

This idea will be carried forward in a second article, and 
a technique proposed for getting over this idea to the people 
in home, class, and church. 

H ] 

They Serve Without Weapons 291 

They Serve Without Weapons 

W. M. Hammond, Jr. 

"IGH UP in the forest-clad mountains of the Pacific 
Northwest, three young men slump on the ground 
around a small fire, tired from strenuous work, but content 
now that hunger has been eased. They are virtual strangers, 
brought together by that grim Western necessity which con- 
fronts every able-bodied male when fire strikes at the precious 
timberlands. For two days and nights, they and hundreds of 
other men have fought the inferno which has persisted in 
leaping from crown to crown in the tall trees and even now 
can be heard crackling and sputtering across the river, its 
many leaping tongues casting alternate patterns of light and 
shadow over all the twilight. Curiosity about their fellows 
runs high among these men. One is dressed in the dull, drab 
uniform of a prisoner, and his voice is hard and bitter as he 
speaks to the tall, battle-scarred Marine. 

"Yeah, you got a flock of medals for killing Japs, shooting 
'em down out of the air by the dozen. And I get sent up — for 
life — because I cut loose and kill one Jap down in California. 
There ain't no justice." 

The Marine is puzzled, too. "If you think that's funny, 
what about the 'conchie' here? He's up because he refused to 
kill Japs." 

Who is this third man, this "conchie?" He is a conscientious 
objector to participation in war, now assigned to a Civilian 
Public Service camp in Oregon, and on duty as a firefighters' 
crew leader. Marines, soldiers, federal prisoners, and plain 
civilians are under his direction, for his work with the U; S. 
Forestry Service he has learned how to organize men and 
lead them through a victorious battle with western man's 
most deadly enemy, fire. He is one of many unsung heroes 
of peace, who in this and countless other ways, serve without 
weapons. He may be a Southern Baptist c.o., for Baptists are 
well represented among the conscientious objectors. 

For the benefit of the record, a conscientious objector is a 
serviceman, yet he is no ordinary serviceman. In the words 
of the Selective Service Act, section 5 (g), 

292 Christian Frontiers 

"Nothing contained in this Act shall be construed to re- 
quire any person to be subject to combatant training and 
service in the land or naval forces of the United States, 
who, by reason of religious training and belief, is con- 
scientiously opposed to participation in war in any form. 
Any such person claiming such exemption from com- 
batant training and service because of such conscientious 
objections whose claim is sustained by the local board 
shall, if he is inducted into the land or naval forces under 
this act, be assigned to noncombatant service as defined 
by the President, or shall, if he found conscientiously 
opposed to participation in such noncombatant service, 
in lieu of such induction, be assigned to work of national 
importance under civilian direction." 

Approximately 13,000 draft-age young men from all parts 
of America and from all walks of life have declared themselves 
as conscientious objectors and have been so recognized by our 
government, which assigned them to work of national im- 
portance under civilian direction in the Civilian Public Serv- 
ice camps and projects. Another 3,000 men were unable to 
secure proper classification from prejudiced draft boards, or 
were unable to accept the principle of conscription, and have 
willingly suffered prison sentences ranging up to five years, 
rather than disobey the inner voice of God which called them 
to love their fellowman and do him no violence. These men 
came from every known denomination. Southern Baptists 
have had 50 men inducted into Civilian Public Service; Nor- 
thern Baptists have had over 200. Methodists have had ap- 
proximately 500 men, as have the Friends. The Brethren and 
the Mennonite groups have each had over 1,000 CPS-men, yet 
there is no denomination not represented among the men who 
make this testimony to a better way of love as seen in the life 
of Jesus. 

Is this not a soft way of sitting the war out? Let's look 
at the record of some of our Southern Baptist conscientious 
objectors and learn the facts. What our 50 men have done and 
experienced will be typical of all Civilian Public Servicemen. 
But let's not be naive like the soldier who went with a bunch 
of his buddies from Ft. Meade to visit the first CPS camp, at 
Patapsco, Maryland, to see what the "conchies" were like. 
Visitors and hosts found themselves congenial despite their 

They Serve Without Weapons 293 

differences, and began to share inside information on how 
life was really lived. Asked the soldier of one of the c.o.'s, 
"How much do you guys get?" 

The Civilian Public Serviceman was brief. "Two fifty a 

"Jumping catfish!" exploded the soldier, "That's more 
than the Air Corps gets!" 

The conscientious objectors has usually experienced an 
aura of mystery and of hush-hush which makes it easy for 
him to be amused at such naivete. Actually, no CPS-man 
received any pay for his services. Those in church-operated 
CPS camps were provided with $2.50 monthly spending 
money, by the administering committees. Men on special 
projects in farms, hospitals, guinea pig projects, etc., received 
$15 monthly allowance which had to cover all personal ex- 
penses including clothing, postage costs, care of wife and 
children, travel to home on furlough, and all other such 
luxuries which he might wish to have! 

Here is a Southern Baptist Civilian Public Serviceman 
from Tennessee — a farm boy. He has a wife and child, and 
has never had more than a small income. In CPS he finds he 
has only $2.50 a month for all personal expenses. Further, 
he finds that the government does not provide for his main- 
tenance. The Friends, Brethren, and the Mennonites are 
operating the camps, but they welcome him and provide for 
him since he himself has no savings and his denomination 
has not offered help. The peace churches also use their limited 
funds to provide a small, hardly adequate allowance for the 
living expenses of his wife and child. 

Another Southern Baptist young man, raised in South 
Carolina and Kentucky, goes to CPS. He has put himself 
through three years of college and has no funds. He is re- 
quired to serve in CPS, the peace churches accept the fact of 
his impecunity and offer to meet the cost of his maintenance 
up to the limit of their ability. Yet he has never seen one of 
their churches, and has not been Influenced by them. Why 
should he accept this favor from strangers? Where is his own 
denomination? He finds that officially they have done noth- 
ing to meet the situation. Undaunted and unwilling to be a 

294 Christian Frontiers 

burden to small groups already overloaded with men not of 
their own flock, he goes to friends and borrows money — re- 
payable after the war — to pay the $30 monthly cost of his 
mantenance in camp, even though for all he knows he may 
be in camp for four years or more. His case and the previous 
one are typical. Is this a soft way? 

Conscientious objectors in CPS have rendered more than 
41,000,000 man-hours of unpaid labor. If they had received 
merely army base pay of $50 per month, the value of their 
work would be approximately $9,000,000. Had they been 
paid what the work is worth at current wages and salaries, 
the value would have been more than $35,000,000. 

Who has received the benefit of this labor? All of the 
citizens of the United States have been beneficiaries, at least 
indirectly. The President, in designating what should be 
"work of national importance under civilian direction," open- 
ed the way to many types of service. Southern Baptists and 
other c.o.'s in Civilian Public Service camps have worked in 
forest service and soil conservation services, and in national 
parks, with the General Land office, and in Bureau of Re- 
clamation work. Others have engaged in public health, hook- 
worm control in southern states and Puerto Rico, building 
sanitary privies, digging deep wells, educating the people, 
screening houses, with $2.50 per month pin money, with no 
maintenance provided, no wages, no dependency aid, no com- 
pensation insurance or death benefits, inadequate use of edu- 
cational training and technical skills. They received nothing 
but the bare chance to work 2,600,000 man-days in these 
jobs, and an opportunity to stick it out as a testimony that 
they believe in a way of love which is so much a part of the 
will of God for mankind that they cannot violate it by war. 

Other conscientious objectors, including Southern Bap- 
tists, working on special projects in Civilian Public Service 
have worked in mental hospitals, among the mentally ill, 
and in several general hospitals. They toiled long hours at 
tedious, unglamorous jobs, but many have become expert in 
ministering to the mentally ill, and their unpaid service had 
enabled dozens of hospitals all over the country to maintain 
and to improve their services in time of a shortage of qualified 
help. There were 1,200,000 man-days of service here. 

They Serve Without Weapons 295 

Southern Baptists and others in CPS have worked on the 
nation's farms, planting and harvesting crops, helping main- 
tain the nation's food supply, particularly milk for the large 
cities, and devoted more than 138,000 man-days of unpaid 

They have worked on state farms and agricultural experi- 
ment stations, helping operate experiments and maintain 
records. They have worked as dairy herd testers, for the 
improvement of production, contributing approximately 
443,000 man-days of work. 

Southern Baptists and other c.o.'s in Civilian Public Serv- 
ice projects have submitted to disease and experiment, as 
human guinea pigs, to advance medical knowledge. Under- 
going the full ravages of starvation, prolonged malnutrition, 
typhus, jaundice, influenza, atypical pneumonia, malaria, sea- 
sickness, overexposure to cold and frostbite, etc., these men 
have braved death itself that science might be able to prolong 
human life and relieve the suffering caused by these despoil- 
ers of mankind. Many trained and experienced c.o.'s served 
as technicians and research men in these and other projects. 
One Baptist CPS-man, working on vital experiments with the 
dread polio disease, in the Yale University laboratory to which 
he was assigned, contracted the disease himself and died. 
Truly he gave his life that others might live — service without 
pay, without compensation for dependents, and with only 
occasional recognition. 

Why does it happen that our 50 Southern Baptist con- 
scientious objectors found no help in CPS from their denom- 
ination as such, making it necessary for them to depend 
largely upon the historic peace churches? What did this 
mean to these men? And to the peace churches? Why 
shouldn't the peace churches be glad to help? 

It is true that the peace churches have been glad to help. 
They have underwritten the maintenance expenses of every 
man who has come to the camps unable to provide his own 
costs, but this has been a tremendous load. It has cost them 
over six million dollars to care for their own men — and yet 
these small groups (Friends, Brethren, and Mennonites) with 
a total membership of approximately 350,000 souls, have had 

296 Christian Frontiers 

to spend over $2,500,000 in behalf of men of other churches. 
Some of the other churches have taken vigorous action to 
carry the whole expense for all of their men, and in fact all 
of the major denominations except Southern Baptist and 
Catholics have been active in attempting to meet the respon- 
sibility for their own men. They have repaid the peace 
churches some, and are continuing to repay them, although 
they still have a moral obligation amounting to approximately 
$1,500,000. Compared with the other denominations (most 
having far more c.o.'s than we) which have met their respon- 
sibility 100 per cent or at least 50 per cent, Southern Baptists 
have provided only about 15 per cent of their costs in the 
program. This is considerably below every other well-known 
denomination in the country. 

The peace churches are patient, but the strain upon their 
small membership has been heavy — too heavy for them. 
Imagine every member contributing an average of $45 for 
this work in addition to maintaining all the regular denom- 
inational work including a foreign mission staff almost half 
the size of ours! They have made sacrifices as individuals and 
as churches, partly on behalf of Southern Baptist men. Offi- 
cially, Southern Baptists have done nothing to date beyond 
passing several commendable resolutions affirming the right 
of our conscientious objectors to their beliefs, permitting the 
Executive Committee to act as handler for any voluntary 
contributions which come in for maintenance of CPS-men, 
and directing the Executive Committee to study the situation 
and take action. As of the present, the peace churches are 
still carrying a burden of about $18,000 — our load — in the 
interest of Southern Baptist men alone. 

The peace churches do not consider that we have a "debt" 
to them. Our Civilian Public Servicemen know that we are 
not legally obligated to the peace churches in any way, even 
though they are unanimous in testifying that their beliefs are 
largely the result of years of being influenced by Southern 
Baptist preachers, teachers, and Sunday School and Training 
Union lesson writers. Yet by our negligence in this time of 
opportunity which has been with us now for five years, we 
are shouting loudly. To the peace churches, our negligence 

They Serve Without Weapons 297 

has been saying for five years, "We do not care what you 
think of us. We do not care what your burden is. Carry it 
yourself for we do not wish to face the fact that our preachers, 
teachers, and lesson writers are charged with having helped 
to create it." 

To our conscientious objectors, our negligence says, "We 
do not care to maintain fellowship with you to the extent of 
aiding you in your time of need. Our resolutions in favor of 
your right to your beliefs were engineered by a small group 
of liberals who were temporarily emotional about the historic 
Baptist principles of freedom of conscience and liberty of 

Brethren, if we do not mean these things, then in the 
name of Jesus Christ, who is the Prince of Peace, let us 
immediately make known to our men, to our sister denomina- 
tions, and particularly to our little sister denominations, the 
peace churches, that we do value fellowship with our brothers 
who are our c.o.'s, that we do value our historic, traditional 
principles of liberty of worship and freedom of conscience, 
and that we are more than willing to contribute to the peace 
churches an offering — not a debt payment — of $18,000 and 
more as a testimonial that we are alive to the threat which 
our principles have suffered in our day. 

Let us not do this with more and better resolutions, but 
let us dig into our own pockets for a personal contribution, 
specifically designated for CPS through the Executive Com- 
mittee, let us go to our state conventions this fall and appro- 
priate money, let us write to our Executive Committee which 
has received Convention authority to act, and beseech them 
individually and collectively that as a result of their study 
they may immediately make a bold stand which will redeem 
this situation from the oblivion of a negligence which history 
will one day mistakenly condemn as having been a planned 
act more criminal and ignoble than simple negligence. 

298 Christian Frontiers 


Why Democracy Fails 

R. F. Howes 

|UT OF THE political confusion which is Georgia and 
Mississippi one fact seems to stand out clearly: it 
was the "best" people and the "worst" people who are 
responsible for the triumph of Bilbo and Talmadge in their 
respective states. As someone has said, the two greatest 
enemies of democracy in American are those who think we 
already have it and those who fear we may someday get it. 
These classes constitute a definite challenge to democratic 
government everywhere, not only in the Southern states of 
America, but in the large cities of the North and wherever 
an intelligent and alert electorate fails to develop that eternal 
vigilance which is the price of liberty. 

Democracy, like patriotism, calls for perpetual guardian- 
ship lest it become the refuge of the self-seeker and the 
scoundrel. No aspirant for public office since the days of 
Jefferson has ventured to appeal to the electorate save in the 
garb of democracy. On election day we are all democrats — 
even the Republicans! On that day we all believe in liberty 
and equality under the law — in a government of and by and 
for the people which, as Jefferson said, "shall not take from 
the mouth of labor the bread that it has earned." But to 
profess these principles and to make them living reality in 
the ordinary affairs of life are quite different matters. 

In no emphatic sense have we ever had democracy in 
America. Not more than 150,000 voters out of an estimated 
population of 3,500,000 had anything to say about the adop- 
tion of the Federal Constitution of 1787, so severely was the 
suffrage restricted in the several states. And in many polling 
districts of the South today the situation is not appreciably 
different. In a recent presidential election but 3.9 per cent 
of the population of South Carolina participated, in Mis- 
sissippi but 4.6 per cent, in Georgia 5.1 per cent, in Louisiana 
6.9 per cent, and in Texas 8.8 per cent. Religious tests, edu- 
cational requirements, property ownership, residence, pay- 
ment of taxes, white primaries, all have played a prominent 

Why Democracy Fails 299 

and determining part at different times and places in keeping 
millions from expressing their will at the polls. 

But this is not the heart of the matter. We may be well 
supplied with democratic machinery yet not have democracy. 
And however important religious and political liberty may 
be, the economic aspect of American life today constitutes 
the greatest challenge to the American system. Democracy 
in its social and economic aspects is an offshoot of middle 
class commercialism, creating, as did the slave power in its 
own day, a culture of its own, calling upon church and 
school and press to perpetuate Herbert Spencer's "Social 
Statics" as the final and God-given system for the American 
people. And with what success? During 1945, of the Nation's 
46,000,000 family units 9,300,000 had an income of less than 
$1,000; 12,400,000 had an income of more than $1,000 and 
less than $2,000; while 10,300,000 had an income of more 
than $2,000 and less than $3,000. By the close of 1945, at the 
end of a period of unprecedented prosperity, in cash, bank 
accounts, and government bonds, 40 per cent of our popula- 
tion had accumulated but $70 per family, 50 per cent of our 
families had in cash, bank accounts, and government bonds 
but $169 per family, while 10 per cent of our families had 
$78,000,000,000 or $16,739 per family. 

Religious liberty is important, but no government in the 
last analysis can touch its free exercise within the soul of 
man; political liberty is imperative, yet we may fully possess 
it and live in poverty and degradation; but no system, by 
whatever name, which fails to supply the material founda- 
tions of human welfare without which all other liberties are 
largely abortive, can long escape the charges of generating 
widespread discontent wherein Bilbo, Rankin and Talmadge 
secure their following. Exploiting prejudices, appealing to 
cupidity, encouraging jealousies, they ride into power as the 
self-appointed saviour of a disaffected people, as demagogues 
seeking their own personal advancement, or as venal tools 
of special interests who seek private profit under the existing 
social and economic status quo. 

Nothing, however, is to be gained by condemnation of 
personalities or reprobation of unclean methods. Both are the 

300 Christian Frontiers 

natural and inevitable products of social and economic mal- 
adjustment. We should rather recognize that we have not yet 
created that type of democracy in America that brings to all 
the people a just and equitable share of the national wealth 
and income through which alone (as Madison, Calhoun and 
Webster united in saying) democracy becomes possible of 
attainment and capable of perpetuation. The time has come 
for a national social and economic Bill of Rights. 

Bilboism is at once a cause and a product of a mal- 
adjusted society. Peculiar to the South only in that we have 
here the largest number of low income groups in the Nation's 
population, it finds a fertile field for the exploitation of those 
characteristics which poverty and attending Ignorance pro- 
duce. When economic (and political) power rests in the 
hands of a closed social and economic group, those who hold 
and those who are dispossessed alike distrust any funda- 
mental change in the established system. With nothing to 
share the poorer members of the dominant race instinctively 
repel any threat to the enjoyment of the little they possess. 
Rising industrial groups, not yet securely established as in 
the older regions of the North, envision the coming of the 
labor union as a menace to the easy profits they so recently 
contemplated; while the small business man, pressed by 
competition of larger units organized on a national scale, 
easily finds in "Jewish capital" the cause of his approaching 
disaster. And those descendants of the "old regime" whose 
traditions go back to the "days before the War," see nothing 
to admire in the newer culture of the market place whose 
periodic cycles of prosperity and depression the New Deal 
attempts to stabilize as the economic center around which 
our present civilization revolves. Here is the material which 
challenges the wit and wisdom of democracy and the religion 
of the Christian Church. 

Great crises in a nation's history call for reconsideration 
of fundamental principles. Independently of the War, Amer- 
ican democracy, as democracy everywhere, is faced by the 
greatest challenge of its history. New or foreign ideologies 
seem to promise greater good than our traditional political 
philosophy offers. There is no way of meeting this challenge 

Why Democracy Fails 301 

but on its own ground. The cure must be suited to the nature 
of the disease. We must demonstrate that the American 
system not only promises but actually provides a fuller and 
richer life than that produced by the economy of other lands 
or peoples. At the root of our problem lies the fact of poverty 
which in the educational field has already all but excluded 
the children of the lower income groups from several of the 
professions. The small business man will need practical 
assistance of the same nature that government has long 
supplied to larger business units. Schools and colleges must 
be opened to all our citizens irrespective of race or religion. 
Scholarships and other assistance must be forthcoming to 
make the gesture a reality. Fair employment practice acts, 
such as New York now has, will do much to ease race and 
religious tension. The Federal Anti-lynching Law is a threat 
to no observer of the law of the land. Anti-Poll Tax legisla- 
tion challenges the prerogative of no honest citizen. The 
problem must be attacked from all angles but no solution 
will be found which does not recognize the economic factors 
in even racial and religious prejudices — factors which draw 
the line between superior and inferior, creating the personal 
and social distinctions upon which they feed. These things 
are the common task of Church and state: the production of 
a Christian civilization of which neither has cause to be 

In this task Southern Baptists, because of historic ante- 
cedants, professed principles, and numerical superiority, 
should lead the way. Originating among the lower social and 
economic groups of Europe and England, espousing an ex- 
treme form of democratic church government, adhering in 
principle to the prophetic rather than the priestly interpreta- 
tion of religious obligation, this expansive membership might 
be expected to provide the natural leaders of a social gospel. 
But not so. While here and there a prophetic voice is raised, 
for the most part the religious emphasis is other worldly; 
piety is conceived largely and satisfied in the avoidance of 
the grosser forms of personal indulgence, and through con- 
formity to bourgeois standards of honesty, thrift and a re- 

302 Christian Frontiers 

suiting material prosperity, indicating the approval of the 
God of Things as They Are. 

All these (however good and desirable in themselves) are 
quite acceptable to those who advocate and practice the social 
and economic principles which perpetuate the cultural de- 
gradation of millions of our citizens of both races. Both 
Bilbo and Talmadge hold membership in Southern Baptist 
churches. Whether we will or not we are judged by their 
pronouncements and condemned by their conduct. Is the 
church but a cross section of society at large, membership 
in which calls for nothing but vocal profession of the accep- 
tance of the revolutionary principles of Him who gave His 
life because of racial and religious intolerance and bigotry, 
because of a social and legal and economic system ordained 
and established by men who in all ages think of the earth as 
the special preserve of those whom Hamilton called "the 
few, the rich and the well-born?" If so, treason has already 
entered His camp, and the fallen torch will be carried by 
others who find in Christianity and democracy the symbol 
and the power of the struggle for the mastery of the life and 
destiny of man, the battle of the "eternal spirits that contend 
for all that men do or say: the spirit that creates and the 
spirit that denies, the hope that man can raise himself a 
little nearer God, and the mocking doubt that human nature 
can ever change its ways." 

Herein speaks the true voice of America and the South. 
A clear majority of the voters of Georgia rejected Talmadge 
and his gospel of hate in the recent election. It was due only 
to an antiquated electoral system that he won the doubtful 
victory that was his. The true sentiments of the South and 
of America are expressed in the words of a great Baptist 
layman, now senior senator from the State of Florida, who 
recently said, "I come from the South's poor and God being 
my helper, so long as I have the power, I will try to lighten 
the yoke upon their galled necks. As long as I live I will 
challenge the feudal tradition in the South and those who 
would preserve it to continue a kind of economic slavery." 
Southern Baptists, and all others, will do well to follow this 


River of Years. 
By Joseph Fort Newton. 
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 
Company, 1946. 390 pages. Auto- 
biography. $3. 

Stephen Leacock once wrote 
about a character as one who 
"mounted his horse and rode off 
in all directions." That is what 
Joseph Fort Newton did as a boy 
out on the wide-open spaces of 
Texas over a half century ago; 
he has been doing it ever since; 
he is still at it and, I am sure, 
will keep riding in all directions 
until death hangs the "sickle at 
his garden gate." Then, as soon 
as there has been time for the 
rider to change horses, the spirit 
of Joseph Fort Newton will be 
"riding off in all directions" 
again, to explore the eternities of 

He has ridden in quite a few 
ecclesiastical directions. His min- 
istry was begun as pastor of a 
small Southern Baptist Church 
that met in a little schoolhouse 
in the forks of the roads out on 
the plains of Texas. Then he rode 
off to minister to an interdenomi- 
nation, a nondenominational 
church, in St. Louis. Ere long he 
was riding to become minister of 
a Disciples Church in Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. After eight years, 
he was riding again, this time to 
become minister of a Congrega- 
tional Church, the old and far- 
famed City Temple in London, 
England. After the first World 
War was over, his "heart was 
turning home again" and he be- 
came the minister of a Universal- 

ist Church in New York City. 
From the Church of the Divine 
Paternity in New York, he rode 
off in the direction of the Episco- 
pal Church, in which church he 
now, for the present, shall we 
say, serves. 

Dr. Newton has ridden off in 
many other directions and inter- 
ests. Even as a boy he became 
interested in Masonry due to an 
experience that his father had 
undergone as a soldier in the 
Southern Army. While riding in 
this direction he has written 
more than a half dozen books on 
Masonry, two of which have been 
translated into several different 
languages. For years he edited 
a Masonic magazine. 

He has been a life-long student 
of Abraham Lincoln. His biog- 
raphy, Lincoln and Herndon, is 
well known and appreciated by 
all Lincoln students. He has 
given scores of addresses on Lin- 

He has known and had contact 
with a host of people in every 
walk of life. His appreciation of 
these and his great love for them 
is seen in his conversation with 
Bishop Garland about being or- 
dained as a priest in the Episco- 
pal Church: "Nothing would 
make me happier," he said, "than 
to be ordained by every church 
in Christendom, by bishop, pres- 
bytery, or any other authority; 
but I should insist, in my heart 
at least, on having the taxi-driver, 
the washer woman, the ditch 
digger, the flapper with her 
painted finger nails, the baker, 
and, not least of all, the chubby 


Christian Frontiers 

hands of a little child laid upon 
my head, giving me their human 
blessing. Then perhaps I might 
be a priest of the human soul, 
healing its hurts, uttering its 
deepest desires, answering even 
its unasked questions, and also, 
a prophet of the love of God, 
which is all that matters." 

His estimates and appraisals of 
men and their work may be cor- 
rect or incorrect, but they are 
always scintillating. For instance, 
of Emily Dickinson, he says: "She 
was Stardust, lightning, and fra- 
grance all mixed up with a 
smile." "Tom Sykes, a Yorkshire 
man with a bucket full of brains 
and a heart of fire." "John Dewey 
is the most overrated thinker of 
my generation." Of George Ber- 
nard Shaw, he says: "There is 
a dual Shaw and there is a duel 
always going on between them 
... he suggests lavender and 
China tea in dainty old world 
cups . . . aggressive, vastly con- 
ceited, saying old truths back- 
wards, laying claim to an 
omniscience that would astonish 
most deities — a genius with a 
jazz mind." 

He has been an interpreter of 
life and our times, particularly 
of America to England and Eng- 
land to America. One may differ 
violently with his view of the 
meaning and relative amount of 
freedom in America and England, 
but it is an indication that he 
has done some pretty hard riding 
in that direction. The same is 
true of what he says about de- 
mocracy there and here. 

Dr. Newton loves to play with 
words and phrases. They do his 
bidding perfectly. What he says 
of G. K. Chesterton in this regard 

is likewise true of himself: "He 
led words into the arena, first in 
single file, then four abreast, then 
in regiments; the feats they per- 
formed were hair-raising." 

"He mounted his horse and 
rode off in all directions." If you 
like to ride in many directions, 
you will approve River 0/ Years; 
if you like to ride in one direc- 
tion only, you will not approve 
it. But I dare you to read it and 
say that you have read a more 
interesting autobiography in the 
last ten years! 

J. Winston Pearce 

The Peace That Is Left. 

By Emile Cammaerts. 

New York and London: Harper 

and Brothers, 1946. 150 pages. $2. 

Pacifism was popular before 
the last war, and serving in the 
Armed Forces made many men 
seek a new adjustment between 
their Christian ideals and war. 
Some had sworn not to bear arms 
and had to weigh an old oath 
against a new duty. 

Emile Cammaerts addresses 
these men. His reflections on 
peace touch some problems that 
might have been developed prof- 
itably — such as the suffering of 
innocent individuals in a guilty 
group, the difference between the 
active sin of aggression and the 
passive sin of possession, and the 
continuous necessity of working 
for peace. 

The author would found world 
peace on individual love of God. 
From the Christian individual he 
proceeds ideally to a beautiful 
community of nations. Dreams 
of a harmonious world are of 
course necessary, but reflection 



alone tempts one to over-estimate 
men and pattern an impossible 
social order. 

For illustrations the author 
harks back frequently to knight- 
hood and more ancient history, 
but seldom cites pertinent as- 
pects of the present. His style 
does flow easily after the packed 
rhetoric of the opening chapter, 
and often a flashback to some 
event of the New Testament will 
highlight a decision that Christ 

At the end of the book the 
reader is left to work out his own 
peace of mind between holding 
to an ideal and living in an im- 
perfect world. He must decide on 
practical concessions and judge 
whether the end justifies the 
means. He must find out if exert- 
ing his clumsy efforts against 
new and difficult problems can 
in spite of partial success keep 
life interesting and make it sat- 

S. T. Stovall 

Of One. A Study of Christian 
Principles and Race Relations. 
By T. B. Maston. 
Atlanta: Southern Baptist Home 
Mission Board, 1946. 

Dostoevsky has asked: "If you 
have no God what is the meaning 
of crime?" General Mac Arthur 
has emphasized the fact that our 
world's main problem is a theo- 
logical one. It is in the same vein 
that an increasing amount of at- 
tention is being given to the 
theological and moral aspects of 
the problems and situations 
growing out of the contacts of 
various racial and culture groups. 
In Myrdal's classic study of 

Negro-white relations (An Amer- 
ican Dilemma) he has pointed 
out that the so-called "Negro 
problem" is really a moral issue, 
stating that "the American Negro 
problem is a problem in the heart 
of the American." 

It is somewhat surprising, yet 
understandable, that the leading 
denominations of the South have 
been so slow in developing a vital 
and realistic approach to the 
problems resulting from our bi- 
racial culture. In the past the 
Baptists in the South have pro- 
duced, in so far as it has been 
possible for me to ascertain, only 
two books which have tried to 
deal with these problems. Both 
of them (Riley, The White Man's 
Burden, and Smith, Christianity 
and the Race Problem) are over 
20 years old and deal with the 
issues in terms of the enlightened 
paternalism of the post Civil War 
days. It is, therefore, of greatest 
interest to us that a Southern 
Baptist leader has presented a 
study of our racial problems in 
terms of enlightened Christian 
and sociological thought for this 
atomic era. 

In Of One Dr. Maston has done 
a very excellent job of bringing 
together the best insights of 
sociological study and has inter- 
preted them in terms of Christian 
principles. The five chapters deal 
constructively with the religious 
issues involved in our present 
racial relationships as is illus- 
trated by their titles: "Thy art 
a Samaritan," "Who is my neigh- 
bor?" "No respecter of persons," 
"Our Father," and "Teaching 
them to observe." He has pointed 
out the way in which we have 
been conditioned by our culture 


Christian Frontiers 

to have prejudices against those 
who are of different racial and 
national backgrounds. He also 
says very definitely that the 
"color line" was not a barrier in 
any way to the actions of Jesus 
and points out this challenge: 
Shall Baptists follow Jesus in 
crossing the color line? 

The various chapters delineate 
the main trends and forces which 
are involved in contemporary 
Negro life. He also gives a good 
discussion of the verdicts of the 
sciences — which verdicts defi- 
nitely indicate that there are no 
basic differences, as far as can 
now be known, between any 
racial groups as such. 

The most interesting parts of 
the book, however, involve the 
ways in which Dr. Maston has 
developed the Christian prin- 
ciples that should be applied in 
the efforts toward solving these 
very difficult situations. "The 
Churches' obligation," he points 
out, "are three-fold: to proclaim 
the ideal, to practice the ideal, 
and to maintain pressure toward 
that ideal." In developing this 
realistic approach he recognizes, 
however, that there are very 
serious and disturbing questions 
which immediately come to the 
mind of a Southerner. He shows 
that the Bible clearly implies 
the equality of all races, that 
intermarriage is really not an 
important issue in the Negro's 
mind, and that for these reasons 
we must not allow either the 
questions of social equality or 
amalgamation to be barriers in 
our efforts to work with Negroes 
toward their achieving "first-class 
citizenship" in the areas of polit- 
ical, economic, educational, and 

social justice. 

In achieving these goals Dr. 
Maston points out that we must 
carefully balance the radical and 
conservative points of view: that 
in original Christianity "the ideal 
was radical; the application of 
the ideal was conservative." He 
further says, "The conservative 
point of view will help us to be 
patient with the imperfections of 
society while the radical point 
of view, in the proper propor- 
tions, will save us from a com- 
placent indifference to those 

It is very encouraging that the 
Southern Baptist Home Mission 
Board has published this book, 
and that it is being actively pro- 
moted for use in study courses 
in our Baptist churches. It is 
arranged in easy-to-use form and 
is written simply enough to be 
understood by any young people 
and adult group. It is to be hoped, 
however, that it will be taught 
by individuals who can help use 
this material to redirect desires, 
emotions, and feelings. 

This book is a beginning. It 
has been preceded in Southern 
Baptist circles by a serious con- 
cern on the part of the growing 
number of ministers and lay 
people, and by a growing number 
of articles which emphasize simi- 
lar points. In the future we must 
have a continuing serious effort 
not only in practice but also in 
ideas to be propagated through 
books that will help redirect 
the attitudes and emotions of 
Southern white people towards' 
Christian expressions of racial 

Howard McClain 


Britain Between 
East and West 

By Maurice Cranston 

Paris. (WP)— The Paris Con- 
ference has been one thing above 
all else: an experiment in open 
diplomacy. And the result? There 
have been no secrets. But neither 
has there been any diplomacy. 
The trouble is that statesmen 
discussing their relations in the 
full view of the world tend to 
address not their fellow delegates 
from other nations, but their 
voters at home. The old Church- 
hill - Stalin - Roosevelt harmony 
was based on discussions which 
none of them would have dared 
to conduct in the presence of 
800 reporters. There was doubt- 
less a shady element in the old 
Big Three dealings, but at least 
the United Nations meant some- 
thing then. Does anyone believe 
in the United Nations now? 

The Wilsonian settlement of 
1919 had at least that merit; 
people believed in it. Today we 
are all cynics, with perhaps one 
illusion left: that another war 
is historically unlikely for 20 
years at least. So people nowa- 
days are apt to say of their states- 
men at Paris or in sessions of 
the UN: "Let them quarrel; I'm 
really too busy with my private 
life to care." Or rather that is 
how people react in the West. In 
the East they say: "The states- 
men quarrel. We must prepare 
for war." 

And this is the real division in 
the world today, the division be- 
tween people serving only them- 
selves and people serving a false 
prophet; for the West has no 
ideal at all, and the East has a 
mistaken ideal. You may say, is 
not Free Capitalism, Rugged In- 
dividualism, an ideal? I think 
not. It was — when it had to be 
fought for. Where it has been 
achieved, and has only to be 
enjoyed, it is no longer inspiring. 

The alarming features of the 
modern world are the growing 
selfishness in the West — black 
markets in France, sharp prac- 
tice and shoddy workmanship in 
British industry, feverish money- 
grubbing in America — and in the 
East, militarism and chauvinism. 
A far cry from the idealism of 
Rousseau, Cromwell and Jeffer- 
son to the racketeering in the 
capitalist nations today; a far cry- 
also from the Marxist ideal of 
international proletarian unity to 
Tito's naked imperialism. 

Many people outside England 
have said to me recently: "Eng- 
land is geographically between 
America and Russia, politically 
between Capitalism and Com- 
munism. Cannot she act as 
mediator? Would it were so! But 
this analysis of Social - Demo- 
cratic Britain is not accurate: 
she is not between Capitalism 
and Communism, but against 
both. This is what the outside 
world will not understand about 
Britain. She has never really 
abandoned the values of Feudal- 
ism in favor of Capitalism. She 


Christian Frontiers 

approves of peers and Labor 
peers, is indeed ruled by a feudal 
House of Lords and a working- 
class House of Commons, but 
disapproves of any nouveau riche. 
Britain is between Feudalism and 
Socialism, yes, but this fact does 
not put her in any strategic posi- 
tion to mediate between Capi- 
talism and Communism. 

Social-Democratic Britain is as 
dead against Communist totali- 
tarianism as is Capitalist Ameri- 
ca, and since totalitarianism is 
very much the issue today, 
Britain and the U. S. are in 
substantial harmony. Russia in- 
terprets that unanimity as con- 
spiracy; hence the rift. 

Clearly, if there is to be peace 
for even 20 years, Russia must 
be reassured that the West does 
not mean to attack her. To the 
West the Soviet Union may seem 
stupid to think that a Britain 
which is quickly divesting her- 
self of India, and an America 
which has demobilized her army 
at top speed can mean any war- 
like business, but the Russian 
leaders have a psychotic kink (as 
most Communists have) — some- 
thing you only realize when you 
see them in debate. It is most 
unwise to expect the Russians 
to act reasonably in their present 
state of mind. They are blinded 
by the fervor of their faith. 

Where does hope lie? From 
what I have seen of Europe late- 
ly, I should say: a little more rea- 
son in the East and a great deal 
more faith in the West. Asked for 
one piece of advice to the states- 
men of the world, I would say: 
"In the name of God and human- 
ity consign the atom bomb and 
all means of making it to the 

bottom of the ocean. The stupid- 
ist Russian Communist would 
understand that gesture — which 
would go a long way towards 
healing the breach between East 
and West." 


Richmond, Va. (RNS)— A call 
to church leaders to take the ini- 
tiative in analyzing group ten- 
sions and in discovering ways to 
promote racial good will was 
voiced here in a resolution adopt- 
ed by the Virginia Council of 

"Christian people have the 
responsibility as well as the chal- 
lenge to apply their profession 
of brotherhood," said the resolu- 
tion. "Lynchings and riots, like 
some diseases, can be prevented 
or controlled, but if ignored they 
become epidemic." 

Church leaders, said the Coun- 
cil, should advocate wider use of 
Negro policemen; undertake 
community projects which tend 
to build racial unity; and provide 
classes in race relations in church 
leadership schools and summer 

A second resolution adopted by 
the church group expressed the 
hope that prayers for peace 
might be offered in all public 
services and that special prayer 
services might be arranged. 

"The present international sit- 
uation gives us grave concern," 
said the resolution, "and we feel 
that these critical days of deci- 
sion call for the mobilizing for 
peace of all the spiritual re- 
sources of Christendom. The de- 



cisions of the present peace 
conference in Paris will mean 
far more than the ending of 
World War II . The future peace 
of the world hangs in the bal- 


Philadelphia. (RNS) — Presi- 
dent Truman was urged to pro- 
claim an immediate amnesty for 
the 1,500 conscientious objectors 
still in federal prisons and to 
restore full civil rights to the 
4,500 others who have already 
completed their jail sentences in 
a resolution adopted here by the 
55th triennial General Conven- 
tion of the Protestant Episcopal 

Specifically mentioning mem- 
bers of Jehovah's Witnesses, the 
resolution asserted that "the con- 
tinued punishment of men for 
fidelity to their religious beliefs 
or humanitarian beliefs violates 
freedom of conscience." 


Wolfville, Nova Scotia. (RNS) 
— Repeal of a ban against the use 
of women deacons in the Baptist 
Church was recommended at the 
meeting here of the United Bap- 
tist Convention of the Maritime 
Provinces of Canada. 

Cooperation between the 
Church and the Canadian gov- 
ernment in building up public 
opinion against liquor drinking 
was also urged. Convention dele- 
gates came here from the prov- 
inces of New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. 


New Orleans, La. (RNS)— Dele- 
gates to the convention of the 
Catholic Committee of the South 
here returned to their homes 
with a program of Catholic social 
action in economic and agricul- 
tural fields spelled out more 
clearly than ever before, in the 
opinion of leading Catholic lay- 
men in attendance. 

Highlighting the decisions 
reached was that the region must 
look within itself and solve 
through its own human and 
physical resources the problems 
confronting it, without depend- 
ence on outside help. Former 
Governor Sam Jones of Louis- 
iana characterized the goal as 
"the development of a positive, 
constructive, aggressive program 
which will not look to the out- 

In the field of agriculture the 
program calls for: 

1. Arresting the departure from 
the South of "poor whites" and 
Negroes whom mechanization of 
agriculture is displacing. 

2. Introduction of a diversity 
of small industries in middle- 
sized and smaller cities which 
can use unskilled and semi- 
skilled workers with a farm 

3. Encouragement of all meas- 
ures which will limit the number 
of displaced Southern workers. 

4. Exploring possibilities in 
potential new industries as, for 
example, the discovery that stock 
feed can be developed from de- 
hydrated sweet potatoes. 

5. Processing products for 


Christian Frontiers 

Southern consumption in the 
South from the farms, mines, 
and forests of the South. 


Richmond, Va. (RNS)— Faced 
with the fact that Richmond had 
half as many divorces as mar- 
riages last year, some 200 min- 
isters will meet for a one-day 
marital counseling institute here 
on November 11. 

Major part of the day will be 
devoted to a discussion of meth- 
ods preachers can use effectively 
in pre-marital instruction and 
post-marital counseling of their 
parishioners and others who seek 
such aid. Leaders of the various 
denominations and faiths will 
explain each church's stand on 
marriage and divorce as set by 
its governing body. 

Preliminary work for the in- 
stitute is being done by a com- 
mittee, headed by an Episcopal 
minister, which is gathering sta- 
tistics on divorces and marriages 
in the city and also seeking to 
discover causes for the divorces. 


Atlanta, Ga. (RNS)— The 
Southern Baptist Home Missions 
Board here has adopted a new 
plan to enlist World War II vet- 
erans in work of the churches, 
according to Dr. J. B. Lawrence, 
Executive Secretary-Treasurer of 
the Board. 

The Rev. John D. McReady, of 
Morganton, N. C, and the Rev. 
Troy B. Yopp, of Shreveport, La., 
both former chaplains, will direct 

the program. 

An appeal by churches to au- 
thorities on veterans' housing, 
employment and adjustment 
problems is now under way. 


Laconia, Iowa. (RNS) — One- 
hundred and fifty special depu- 
ties blocked all roads into this 
town and refused to allow a 
group of 35 carloads of Jehovah's 
Witnesses to enter and hold a 
religious meeting. 

Sheriff Lewis Johnson said the 
Witnesses were "turned back 
peaceably at the edge of the 
town" after he had enlisted the 
aid of law-enforcement officers 
of three neighboring counties 
and commissioned the special 

The "blockade" followed a sim- 
ilar attempt to hold a meeting 
a week earlier which wound up 
in a melee in the public park 
when a group of war veterans 
halted the gathering. Some 30 
persons suffered minor injuries 
in the fracas. 

As a result, Mayor Lo Goode 
announced he and Sheriff John- 
son had agreed that visitors 
should be kept out of the town, 
and even a scheduled ball game 
was canceled. 

Mayor Goode said permission 
was denied the Witnesses to en- 
ter Laconia "to avoid violence" 
because the opposition group dis- 
agreed sharply with some of their 

Charles Sellers, of Des Moines, 
a Witness spokesman, said the 
group may bring legal action "to 
protect our God-given rights and 
our Constitutional rights." 




Washington, D. C. (RNS)— A 
determined effort will be made 
to enlist the support of every 
Baptist denomination in Amer- 
ica behind the Joint Conference 
Committee on Public Relations, 
Dr. J. M. Dawson, executive sec- 
retary of the group, told 50 Bap- 
tists representing the four larg- 
est Baptist conventions gathered 
here for a Joint Conference ses- 

Invitations to all Baptist bod- 
ies either have been issued, or 
will be issued, Dr. Dawson said, 
adding that he is optimistic 
eventually every Baptist group 
in America will be united behind 
the Joint Conference. 

There are 14,000,000 members 
of the four largest Baptist con- 
ventions now supporting the 
Joint Conference Committee. If 
all Baptist groups united behind 
the movement, it would repre- 
sent more than 16,000,000 con- 
stituents, Negro and white. 


Memphis, Tenn. (RNS)— Be- 
cause Ivy Boggs, a Dallas, Texas 
layman, stopped to talk football 
to a homeward bound school 
boy last winter, the Southern 
Baptist Brotherhood has added 
a new plank to its program. 

Boggs won the lad's confidence 
and asked him to go to Sunday 
school the next Lord's Day. The 
boy scoffed at the invitation and 

went on his way. But the invita- 
tion was renewed two consec- 
utive weeks, the boy joined a 
Sunday school class, and now 
the whole family is enlisted in 
church work. 

"Men ought to be soul win- 
ners, winning other men," Boggs 
agrees, "but most men are too 
bashful to talk to other men 
about Christianity. Men will not 
hesitate to invite boys to Sun- 
day school, however." 

Out of that philosophy, Boggs 
set down a program where all 
the members of his Baptist Bro- 
therhood pledge to take some 
non-church-going boy to Sunday 
school four consecutive Sundays. 

Boggs calls his plan the "Man 
and Boy Movement," and it has 
been tried the past several 
months by Baptist men through- 
out Texas. Special commenda- 
tion has come to Boggs on the 
idea from the Dallas police de- 
partment and from FBI Director 
J. Edgar Hoover. 

Meeting here the Southern 
Baptist Brotherhood Committee 
endorsed the plan as "one of the 
finest and most far reaching 
activities possible for men in the 


Flint, Mich. (RNS)— Sunday 
school students from Methodist, 
Protestant Episcopal, and Con- 
gregational churches here filled 
the chapel of Temple Beth El to 
participate in the synagogue's 
Feast of the Tabernacles. 

Temple Beth El, one of this 
city's two Jewish congregations, 


Christian Frontiers 

developed the inter-faith pro- 
gram in 1945, and the repetition 
this year is being publicized na- 
tionally by the Union of Amer- 
ican Hebrew Congregations. 

The observance, which is in 
the nature of a harvest festival, 
was presided over by the rabbi, 
who explained the Old Testa- 
ment ritual. At the close, the 
children filed to a booth where 
each received a sample of the 
harvest fruit. 

people, and be faced with a long- 
time feeding program. 

"We need wheat, fats, and 
milk especially, in Europe to- 
day in addition to special med- 
icines such as insulin, and cloth- 
ing. It is deemed best to have 
goods, needles, and thread sent 
which will enable people to 
work, making their own cloth- 
ing. Shoes for children and 
workers are badly needed." 
— (RNS.) 


Philadelphia — A warning that 
the German people will starve if 
present occupation policies are 
followed is contained in a re- 
port on public health in Ger- 
many released here by the Amer- 
ican Friends Service Committee. 

The AFSC warning is based 
on a report made to the Quakers 
by Maj. Gen. Morrison C. Stayer, 
who until April 14 was chief of 
public health, public welfare, 
and education of the American 
military government in Ger- 

Germany's manpower, scienti- 
fic genius,, and industry are be- 
ing dissipated as the spoils of 
victory, the AFSC said. 

"Peace cannot be built on 
starvation," the report declared. 
"Unless proper food is given 
soon, the people will not have 
energy to work, and instead of 
highly-disciplined, clean and me- 
thodical people, we will have a 
lowly, debased, gangster-type of 


Atlantic City, N. J. (RNS)— A 
big stumbling block in the cur- 
rent peace negotiations is the 
"Anglo-Saxon sense of the white 
man's superiority," Mrs. Harper 
Sibley, of Rochester, N. Y., pres- 
ident of the United Council of 
Churchwomen, said here. 

Addressing educators repre- 
senting 175 of the country's pri- 
vate schools at the National Con- 
ference on Religion in Secondary 
Education, Mrs. Sibley declared 
that this "superiority complex" 
was much the same as any Aryan 
superiority claimed by the Nazis. 

She said the United States was 
wrong when it placed hemis- 
pheric solidarity over an ideal 
and voted to admit Argentina to 
the United Nations. 

"Subsequent events proved 
Russia was right in voting 
against the move," she said. "I 
covet my country that she'll be 
so great that she shall be the 
first country to admit that she's 


A Journal of Baptist Life and Thought 
Vol. I DECEMBER, 1946 No. 10 


Das Kelley Barnett, Editor-in-Chief 
William W. Finlator, Associate Editor William M. Poteat, Book Editor 
Almonte C. Howell, Advisory Editor Marjorie E. Moore, Advisory Editor 

Sara Lowrey, Poetry Editor 


W. O. Carver, Louisville, Ky. 
H. B. Cross, Nashville, Tenn. Swan Hayworth, Vicksburg, Miss. 

George B. Cutten, Chapel Hill, N. C. withrow T. Holland, Haynesville, La. 

J. M. Dawson, Washington, D. C. 

Adiel J. Moncrief, St. Joseph, Mo. 
Clyde V. Hickerson, Richmond, Va. 

Edward H. Pruden, Washington, D. C Blake Smith, Austin, Texas 

J. C Wilkinson, Athens, Georgia Hubert R. Howard, Jr., Tulsa, Okla. 


George D. Heaton, Chairman 
Claude U. Broach Jasper C Hutto, Secretary 

Eugene I. Olive J. Wade Baker 

Lee C. Sheppard E. Norfleet Gardner 

Fon H. Scofield Fred B. Helms 


Editorials 315 

Why Christian Missions? Theron D. Price 319 

Patterns of Fascism — Southern Style Raven McDavid 328 

News 341 

Christian Frontiers is published monthly (except July and August) by the Baptist 
Book Club, a non-profit fellowship of ministers and laym.en. Address all corres- 
pondence to Box 508, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Copyright 1946 by the Baptist 
Book Club. Second class mailing privilege pending. Subscription price, two dollars 
a year; twenty-five cents a copy. Printed by The Graphic Press, Inc., Raleigh, N. C. 

Who's Who In This Issue 

THERON D. PRICE, who has his Doctor of Theology 
degree from the Baptist Seminary at Louisville, Ky., is now 
with the Department of Religion of Mercer University in 
Macon, Ga. 

RAVEN McDAVID, who explores the problem of Fascism 
in the South for this issue, is from Greenville, S. C, has a 
Ph.D. degree from Duke University, where he wrote his 
dissertation on the political aspects of Milton's thought, and 
has taught in several universities. At present he is engaged 
in phonetic research and the study of dialects. 



What To Preach About 

'NCREASINGLY the average pastor is plagued with 
requests and invitations to preach on, and build his 
service around, various causes, organizations, and memorials. 
If he has any independence and creativity about him he is 
irked sufficiently by his denominational headquarters for its 
insistence upon the use of his pulpit to promote and propagate 
its far-flung, though most worthy, agencies. However, the 
loyal pastor usually fits in with the denominational program. 
But the heavy barrage of appeals from endless secular or- 
ganizations to reach the public conscience and enlist its sup- 
port via his pulpit makes him rather skeptical of the vaunted 
phrase, "the freedom of the pulpit." Here come trooping with 
a moral fervor calculated to inspire shame if they are denied 
the Red Cross, the Community Chest, the USO, Labor Day, 
Armistice Day, Mother's Day and Father's Day (backed by 
every god-fearing merchant in the nation), Education Week, 
the 4H Club and a multitude more. What shall the poor 
preacher do who is in the midst of a series of sermons on the 
Lord's Prayer or the Ten Commandments? Shall these worthy 
causes be construed as "the unsearchable riches of God?" 

Often the advocates of these causes come loaded with 
sermon material, and in some cases with the sermon itself, to 
assist the less resourceful and imaginative preacher. Recently 
the commanding officer of a naval base mailed to the pastors in 
a nearby community a letter reminding them of the approach- 
ing Navy Day which happened this year to fall on Sunday. 
"I, therefore, am taking this opportunity of requesting you," 
he wrote, "if possible, to build your Sunday sermon and 
service for this coming Sunday around the fact that this day 
should be a day of remembrance for those who gave their 
lives in service, and further that this day should be a day of 
dedication to the ideals for which our Navy fought so gallant- 
ly in the war just finished, a day in ivhich to avow to maintain 
a Navy adequate to insure the peace which ivas won by 
tremendous sacrifice, for only by maintaining such a force will 

316 Christian Frontiers 

we be able to adequately guarantee that peace shall remain on 
earth. If I can be of any help in furnishing information for the 
preparation of your sermon or service please feel free to call 
upon me." (Italics ours. No comment.) 

If once a man has made up his mind to preach the fulness 
of the gospel and to receive, as one indignant pastor put it, 
his "instructions from a higher Source," he will leave to the 
newspaper and radio the task of selling drives and causes to 
the public. The pulpit is for the proclamation of the Christian 
message, and to accept any substitutes is a forfeiture of its 
divinest heritage. 

One modest word of practical suggestion: In order to 
avoid the compromises of the secular calendar the pastor 
might well place before him a church-year calendar. Here 
will he find not only a safeguard against contemporary secular 
slavishness, but he will find himself preaching in balance and 
fulness the whole of Christian-revealed truth and so avoid 
the pitfalls of hobby and pet-subject preaching. 

Of Like Faith and Order 

PERHAPS THERE is no church of 100 or more 
members in our convention whose every family is 
undividedly Baptist, Many families whose membership is 
split between two or more denominations elect to come as a 
body to one church while retaining their membership in the 
churches of the separate denominations. Pastors, too, are 
willing to perform "mixed" weddings in their own churches 
and, if needs be, in the church of a different denomination. 
No member is thought less of for marrying across denomina- 
tional lines. Ministers meet and have genuine fellowship with 
all of the ministers of the community in their non-Roman 
Monday conferences. Here they plan and enter into coop- 
erative endeavors the success of which depends upon the 
support of all of the churches. Students of one denomination 
find a hearty welcome into a church-supported school of 
another denomination. No Baptist hospital would refuse a 
patient, no Baptist orphanage would deny a child because he 
happened to be a Methodist or a Mennonite. In all this there 
is a fine silent conspiracy of Christian brotherhood across 
all denominational barriers. 

"Like A Mighty Army" 317 

But the fellowship ceases and the brotherhood vanishes 
when the matter of granting church letters is brought up. You 
can attend a Presbyterian college, marry a Lutheran girl, get 
religion in a Methodist church and join a Baptist church, all 
with impunity. But if you choose out of conviction or ex- 
pediency to move your membership to one of these denomina- 
tions your Baptist church refuses to grant you a letter. And 
when you seek an explanation you are confronted imperturb- 
ably with the phrase, "of like faith and order." Martin Luther 
did not cling more tenaciously to hunc est corpus raeura than 
do we to this all-powerful phrase. Its magic is such as to ex- 
plain and excuse not only our undeniable inconsistency but 
also what many of us suspect is denominational pride. This 
is not an easy thing to say but it needs desperately to be said. 
In a time when the great bodies of American Protestantism 
are reaching a deeper understanding and a more meaningful 
fellowship we cannot be content for our Baptist churches to 
go on refusing to acknowledge the spiritual equality and 
validity of other communions by the negative gesture of re- 
fusing letters except to churches "of like faith and order." 

"Like A Mighty Army" 

FREDA KIRCHWEY, editor of The Nation, expressed 
a hope in a recent lead editorial that the United 
Nations "will find measures of accommodation sufficient at 
least to tide over the period of reorganization and recon- 
struction that lies ahead, and allow time for more profound 
solutions to be reached under conditions of relative stability." 
And then to the delegates at Flushing Meadows she added, 
"I commend to their close attention the remarkable state- 
ment on relations with Russia issued last Saturday in New 
York by the Federal Council of Churches, a body which 
represents, not the prejudices or interests of a few but the 
desires of some 28,000,000 Protestants and unaccounted mil- 
lions of other Americans." 

Here again is an example of the truth that the only organ 
through which American Protestantism can effectively voice 
its mind and judgment is the Federal Council. Without the 
Council our Protestant churches, for all their latent strength 

318 Christian Frontiers 

and resource, are in national and international considerations 
for all practical purposes powerless and mute. And here 
again is an example of the respectful and even enthusiastic 
hearing the churches receive when thus they unitedly speak. 
More and more the conscience of many Southern Baptist 
leaders is demanding that we join our voices with those of 
our brethren when the clear, incontrovertible Christian word 
is spoken with power. And more and more the hearts of these 
men are shamed that in a day when men must draw spiritual- 
ly closer together or perish American Protestantism spoke 
the prophetic word 28,000,000 strong when we might have 
made it 34,000,000. 

Visitation Evangelism 

STUDENTS of the Christian faith are doing some pretty 
deep thinking on evangelism. Perhaps the latest book 
on the subject is Dr. Arthur C. Archibald's New Testament 
Evangelism — How It Works Today, which is published by 
the Judson Press. No one, however fervid and sincere his 
desire to bring to others a saving knowledge of our Lord, can 
deny that the business of saving souls has fallen into decline 
and discredit. Dr. Archibald would take us back to "the New 
Testament days and methods" of evangelism. The Methodist 
denomination, under the expert leadership of Dr. Guy B. 
Black, has for some time been guiding its churches in pro- 
grams of visitation evangelism. This plan is regarded by many 
to be the recognized successor to the annual August "meet- 
ing" which patently does not have the results it once enjoyed. 
Many of us in pastorates have looked with admiration on the 
effectiveness of these campaigns and, though mindful of the 
just criticisms that have been levelled at visitation evangel- 
ism, have found it essentially like the Master's plan of send- 
ing out the seventy. God still moves in His mysterious ways 
and He can still endow His evangelists with the pentecostal 
power to win their thousands. Nonetheless everything seems 
to indicate that the day of mass saving of souls is past. Jesus 
Himself failed in it. He was successful only as a visitation 
evangelist and in this He was greatest. It is wonderful spirit- 
ual tonic to be brought back to His attitude and methods in 
a day when, as Dr. Archibald would agree, the world is ripe 
for Christian evangelization. 

Why Christian Missions? 319 

Why Christian Missions ? 

Theron D. Price 

THE STRONGEST contributing factor to the making 
of the western world has been the Christian church. 
The most striking aspect of the church and churches has been 
a vitality which expresses itself in expansion. It is becoming 
inescapable that we cannot understand our world's history, 
much less its destiny, without a proper understanding of and 
appreciation for the genius of the Christian faith. 

In attempting to answer the question, "Why Christian 
Missions?," we shall here ignore the numerous specific crit- 
icisms which have been leveled at the missionary enterprise. 
The nature of this article is expository, not apologetic. Rather, 
effort shall be made to penetrate to ultimate, basic issues, 
more usually assumed than explicated. For example, in lieu 
of trying to prove certain inadequacies in the non-Christian 
religions, or portray the nobility of character in a majority 
of missionaries, or show the contributions of missions to the 
uplift of the race, or even to defend the purely religious nature 
of the missionary enterprise — we shall consider the ground 
of missions, the motive of missions, and the aim of missions. 

The Ground of Missions 1 

The Being and Goodness of God is the ultimate ground of 
the Christian missionary enterprise. We cannot be consistent 
monotheists and be non-missionary. If there is only one God, 
he must then be the God of all. The heart's desire of this Liv- 
ing God must be taken seriously and personally by all of us 
who would take God Himself seriously and personally. Fur- 
ther, we who are the recipients of his unmerited, perfect 
goodness can only humbly share it with others. 

The higher elements of the Hebrew tradition, and God's 
self-disclosure in Jesus Christ reveal what is His heart's de- 

i Some references to this topic well worth looking up are: Hocking, Living 
Religions and a World Faith, pp. 231f; Baker, Christian Missions and a New 
World Culture, pp. 259-279; Carver, The Course of Christian Missions, pp. 9-15; 
Carver, Missions in the Plan of the Ages, pp. 11-26. An old, general work, 
relevant to all the topics treated here is Warneck, Evangelische Missionslehre, 
3 vols, in 2, passim. 

320 Christian Frontiers 

sire. The record of these things is the substance of the Old 
and New Testaments. 

In making a new beginning in Abraham, God's purpose 
is said to be "in him and his seed, a blessing of all the families 
of the earth." 2 This overarching hope of God is reiterated at 
least twice 3 to Abraham himself and in turn to Isaac and 
Jacob. 4 

This beginning so portentously inaugurated through 
Abraham is continued through the calling of Moses and the 
election of Israel to be "mine own possession from all people, 
for all the earth is mine: and ye shall be unto me a royal 
priesthood and a holy nation. " s 

The missionary theme is repeatedly introduced by the 
prophets as any cursory examination of Amos, Jonah, Jere- 
miah and almost any chapter of Isaiah will show. 6 The more 
evangelical Psalmists rise to herald the same ruling God of a 
world-wide realm. 7 

The New Testament presents God as Father, so loving the 
world that He gave even His all that the world might be 
saved. 8 It relates the good news of the redemptive activity of 
Him who before had spoken only in various ways and incom- 
plete portions through patriarchs and prophets, but who now 
announced and bestowed the gift of a superlative salvation 
through a unique Son. 9 

The God revealed to the world in Jesus Christ is a God 
concerned for all manner of men as men. The Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ is no respecter of rank and position. He is 
not concerned for orthodox shibboleths full of the air of sound 
doctrine and empty of the simplest human charities. He is 
color-blind. No one is an orphan in His sight. No Hindu, 
Buddhist, Moslem, Taoist, Shintoist, Parsi, Confucianist, Sikh, 

2 Genesis 12: 1-3. 

3 Genesis 18: 17-18 and 22: 15-18. 
a Genesis 26: 1-5 and 28: 12-17. 

s Exodus 19: 3-6. 

e Amos 1:3; 2:8; all of the book of Jonah; Jeremiah 10: 1-16; and the entire 
section of Isaiah 40-66. 

7 cf. Psalms 47; 67; 96; 110; and others. 
a John 3: 16-17. 
9 Hebrews 1: 1-2. 

Why Christian Missions? 321 

Jain, Jew, animist, agnostic, or atheist lives outside the sphere 
of God's interest and loving care. Why, not even Catholics, 
Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Disciples, Lutherans, and 
Methodists are entirely shut out! Brown, yellow, and black 
men stand in the same rank with white men, before the God 
of inexhaustible love and terrible justice, who sees not the 
color of one's skin, but the integrity of his mind and heart 
and will. The human race is one; and together we stand or 
fall. All, singly and together, are the objects of the love of 
God and the invitation of the Gospel. 

This doctrine of the love of God is the simplest and yet 
profoundest truth of the Gospel. It even explains the Incar- 
nation and the Atonement, which are the central features of 
our faith. Yet we stumble upon it. It is too marvelous to grasp. 
It is all but unbelievable and quite indescribable. It runs out 
beyond the vanishing point of man's comprehension in all 
directions. Now if God so loves this world, then of the world 
we cannot ultimately despair. If God loves all this world, we 
can only go against the grain of His holy will when we respect 
rank over spiritual integrity or regard color over character. 

At this point we have all sinned. Not all have been large 
in our sympathies nor faithful in our callings. But our Christ- 
ian consciences are the goad of our correction. The Church is 
never so truly the church as when acknowledging and re- 
penting her own faults, and studying and amending her own 
failures. The church is not the ground, but is rather the im- 
perfect means of a universal evangelization. "The Ground of 
Christian Missions," as Professor W. 0. Carver has summarily 
put it,'° "is in the nature of the religion, in the programme of 
the Christ, in the need of humanity, in the eternal power of 

The Motive of Missions" 

From the missionary ground we turn to the missionary 

Throughout the history of the missionary enterprise it is 

10 Carver, The Course of Christian Missions, p. 15. 

11 A variety of statements on the missionary motive are made in: The Lay- 
men's Inquiry, Rethinking Missions, pp. 6-12; White, A Theology for Christian 
Missions, pp. 70-93; Baker, Christian Missions and a New World Culture, 
pp. 315-318; Brown, The Why and How of Foreign Missions, pp. 6-22; and in 
any of the Reports of the great missionary conferences. 

322 Christian Frontiers 

noticeable, and on second thought reassuring, that, in prin- 
ciple, men have dedicated themselves to the cause of an ex- 
panding Gospel for kindred reasons. The temporary and 
accidental details attending Christian decisions of any sort 
must vary with time and circumstance. Yet these variations 
may but testify that God works in this world, through com- 
mon means and ordinary situations. 

The permanent, constantly recurring theme of Christian 
missionary motivation, the leitmotiv historically considered, 
has been a loyalty to God's will in Jesus Christ. Other inten- 
tions and attendant ideas seem to branch out from this central 
stock. We shall look at these motives as (1) vertical — in 
which classification our thought will center on the nature 
and content of the motivation as issuing from the Revelation 
of God, and (2) horizontal — as prompted by the need of the 
world and the inspiration of man. 

The Christian motive arising out of the Revelation of God 
to man is fundamental, timeless, continuous, and everywhere 
equally obligatory. Indeed, the central affirmations of the 
Christian faith, far from being mere building materials for 
theological systems, are full of the freshness of life abundant 
and portend a universal kingdom of brotherhood because all 
men are seen to be sons of the King. 

Take the Incarnation for example. In the birth of Jesus 
Christ and in his matchless life we have a revelation of the 
being and nature of God. Jesus shows us a God with heart 
large enough to encompass men of every tongue and tribe 
and nation.' 2 Christ reveals God who loves men not only when 
they are lovable, but when they do mean, cruel, or heartless 
things or even turn against Him altogether. It is easy to love 
the lovable, but "God commendeth his love toward us in that 
while we were yet enemies, Christ died for us." 13 

Christ was not only born, He died. Beyond Bethlehem 
loomed Calvary. Whatever may be the most acceptable theory 
of the nature of Christ's atoning work, this much is certain: 
the moral grandeur there displayed, and the salvatory work 
there effected do not strike us with proper force so long as 

12 cf. Revelation 7:9. 

13 cf. R omans 5: 6-11. 

Why Christian Missions? 323 

we view the cross as an object of academic debate. Somehow 
in manner divine and in measure beyond human capacity to 
grasp, God at Calvary took effective action for the redemption 
of sinful man in Christ's free offering of Himself. It is when 
men of any faith and clime come in hour of personal need to 
seek God's healing balm, that the cross becomes their central 
hope, and the solemn mystery of Christ's death their grateful 
theme. Surely, if anywhere, at Calvary the love of Christ will 
constrain us.' 4 

Christ was crucified, dead, buried. But this was the be- 
ginning, not the end. For on the third day he was raised and 
appeared convincingly to Cephas, to the twelve, and to above 
five hundred.' 5 If the Incarnation is the revelation of the 
nature of God, and the Cross the revelation of the purpose of 
God, then the Resurrection is the revelation of the power of 
God. Through this revealing, redeeming, risen Christ, God 
offers mercy, grace, and peace to the entire world of men. It 
is through disciples with kindred spirits that this divine 
benediction will reach and bless the world. 

The Christian motive arising out of one's response to his 
horizontal environment — the love he bears toward his fellow- 
men or his response to the need of the world — is derivative, 
conditioned by time and circumstance and, in one sense, not 
everywhere equally obligatory. The Gospel never changes. 
No one can ever alter the facts of Jesus' birth, life, death, and 
resurrection. But the world does change. Old thought pat- 
terns fade and new ones replace them. Words change their 
meanings, and symbols once pregnant with thought and feel- 
ing become the sterile receptacles of desiccated phrases. Be- 
cause the truth never runs parallel with the formulae which 
carry it — e.g. an "orthodox" man may be evil and a "heretic" 
be good — we would seek and claim our brethren on the basis 
of spiritual kinship rather than of intellectual conformity. 

Men of all denominations, from every type of school, from 
all sections of the country have been drawn into ministries of 
missionary service to the world. 

Some have spiritually sensed the fundamental unity of 

14 cf. II Corinthians 5: 14-19. 
is cf. I Corinthians 15:3-6. 

324 Christian Frontiers 

the human race, and have gone out to their brothers of other 
lands and tongues. Without cant, sham, superiority complex, 
or even a bilious type of piety, a Christian can feel a respon- 
sibility for the world because he has found the answer to the 
need of the world. The full implications of the answer are 
ever to dawn in deeper significance on both sender and 

Many sensitive souls have been moved by the appalling 
depravity of man to invest their lives among those alien to 
the hearing of the gospel. There need is greater and guilt is 

The appeal from physical debilities, disease, and ignorance 
of sanitary habits has led many, for the sake of Christ, to go 
and minister to them. To those who live in the western world, 
the poverty, filth, and disease of large sections of the Orient 
and Africa are all but unimaginable. 

As the Church has become more firmly entrenched in the 
life of a people, increasing numbers have heeded the call of 
a growing church and have sought to make their lives con- 
tribute to its effective indigeneity. Perhaps we look for a day 
when our Chinese, Japanese, Indian, or African brothers will 
come in Christ's stead to us, rebuking us for our secularism, 
materialism, racial antagonisms, our bondage to numbers and 
size, our over-activism, our stultifying pride, to point us the 
way of a more chaste faith and more modest life. 

The imperishable dream of a Kingdom of God and an 
ancient yearning for its coming have carried multiplied 
hundreds out to meet it. The invisible, intangible, unknow- 
able, have been seen and touched and known. The Kingdom 
of God in experiential reality has moved men to attempt its 
further coming in universal plentitude. 

However we classify men's missionary motives, or what- 
ever lists of them we tabulate, they gather around three 
central principles which can be put together in a single 
clause: a loyal response to the will of God in Christ which 
leads us both to see the immense proportions of human need 
and to respond in compassion to it. 1G This comprehensive 

16 cf. Clarke, A Study of Christian Missions, p. 49. 

Why Christian Missions? 325 

motive, which, historically, has controlled the missionary 
thought of Christ's disciples, is adequate yet. But it is a 
spiritual motive and must be spiritually discerned. 

The Aim of Missions 17 

To state the aim of missions is, in one sense, simply to 
objectify our motives. Assuming that God is actively interest- 
ed in the world and takes the initiative for its redemption; 18 
assuming that His grace is adequate for man as man and 
that the highest end of man is the knowledge of God; 19 what 
then is man safe in attempting and justified in achieving? 
For what ends would we serve the world in the name of 

We here consider the missionary aim in its proximate and 
its ultimate aspects. Proximately, the aim of missions is to 
originate and sustain a Christian movement. First of all, the 
gospel of Jesus Christ is to be presented in such way that all 
men can and some will accept Him as Savior and Lord. 20 
This calls for the presentation of the gospel with life as well 
as with lip. One can hardly bring people nearer to God than 
he himself has come. 

This initial declaration must be followed up and sustained. 
In a much used analysis, we still say that missionaries are to 
work in the creation of and home churches to give in the 
support of programs which shall issue in self -propagating, 
self-governing, and self-supporting churches. 21 At long last 
any country will be won by its own people. The gospel must 
be established in the native idiom so thoroughly that it 
penetrates the very air they breathe. 

The ultimate missionary aims are the objectives of 

17 On this general topic see: The Laymen's Report, Rethinking Missions, 
pp. 58f; Baker, Christian Missions and a New World Culture, pp. 293-297; Zwemer, 
Into All the World, pp. 131-142; Speer, Missionary Principles and Practice, 
pp. 34-42; Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three 
Centuries, vol. 1, pp. 101-124, 147-198; Brown, The Why and How of Foreign 
Missions, pp. 22-25; and Hartenstein, Die Mission als theologisches Problem, 
pp. 32-39. 

is cf. Romans, 5: 10-11. 

19 cf. Aurelius Augustinus, Confessions, 1.1. 

20 cf . Brown, The Foreign Missionary, p. 29. 
2i Brown, The Foreign Missionary, p. 33. 

326 Christian Frontiers 

Christianity itself. Dr. Hugh Vernon White, Secretary, The 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 
lists these objectives as three. 22 In the measure that these 
represent the true missionary aims, they represent as well the 
content of the intention of God in history. They are Christian 
truth, Christian personality, and Christian community. 

It is because Christianity represents itself as the purveyor 
of truth that it must construe its program within a universal 
frame of reference. Custom and culture are products of time 
and place. Truth is universal and timeless. Any religion which 
takes itself seriously in the moral and intellectual sense must 
claim universality and thus be missionary. Only Buddhism 
and Islam have taken themselves with such radical serious- 
ness. It is not accidental that they alone are missionary. Islam 
claims validity on the basis of the finality of its truth 
miraculously revealed by Allah to Mohammed. Buddhism 
offers men as its truth the ultimate unreality of the human 
soul, the end of which shadowy existence is complete absorp- 
tion, if not annihilation, in Nirvana. Jesus Christ offers men 
the truth in the growing fulness of his own divine-human 
life and in the gift of the freedom and life-abundance of 
divine sonship. 

The concepts of personality and its worth, are deeply 
inbedded in the Christian faith. Supremely in Christ does the 
individual become the moral unit. The meaning of personality 
finds its fullest exemplification and most explicit application 
in his teaching. He affirmed that what was deepest in man 
was realest in God. God's universal, moral laws were written 
in those tables of flesh, the hearts of men. Man's worth was 
intrinsic and also derived. Part of the individual's meaning 
and worth derived from his relationship to the social whole, 
and from the fact of his being a means of glorifying God in 
the earth. 

The finest personality is revealed only in relations with 
kindred personalities. We need not only freedom which is 
individual; we need fellowship which is social. Christian 
community is thus the final goal. The Christian prays not 

22 White, A Working Faith for the World, pp. 141-207. In this concluding 
section I am heavily endebted to the materials contained in this reference. 

Why Christian Missions? 327 

only for a new birth from above, for a personal justification 
in God's sight and for stronger individual character — he 
prays as well for God's name to be hallowed, God's will to be 
done, God's kingdom to come, on earth as in Heaven. 

Attempt has been made to answer the question, "Why 

We believe in Christian missions because God is what He 
is, because Christ did and does what is most significant for 
all men, because we are what we are — brothers. 

We go as missionaries or support the mission in every way 
because we seek to be loyal to the will of God in Christ, be- 
cause of love for our fellow men, because of the overwhelming 
need of the world. 

Through missions, in the broadest and finest sense, we 
look for the realization of much of God's dream for humanity: 
man walking uprightly in truth, man living forthrightly in 
divine sonship, man dealing outrightly with his fellows in a 
community of brotherhood and fellowship which shall ulti- 
mately merge with the Kingdom of God. 

328 Christian Frontiers 

Patterns of Facism — Southern Style 

Raven McDavid 

THE BATTLE for human rights is as old as humanity 
itself, and it will go on until the overthrow of the 
last barrier setting man against man. It did not begin with 
the Declaration of Independence or Magna Carta, and it did 
not end with the military defeat of Germany and Japan. It 
is still present, in attempts of economic vested interests to 
dominate political, economic, social, and intellectual life by 
deliberately encouraging hatred and distrust. This is what 
we mean by fascism. 

Fascism is not an ideological monopoly of any European 
country. John Strachey defined it roughly as the maintenance 
of capitalism by violence — and as such it can arise in any 
industrialized society. Huey Long once remarked that we 
would have fascism in America — but would probably call it 
democracy. Names then mean little; one can be sure that 
leaders of a fascist movement will always pick a name with 
a strong emotional appeal to the prejudices of their audience. 
What is invariable is the pattern of fascist tactics in keeping 
potential adversaries divided, so as to conquer them one at a 
time. Almost invariably, fascism seeks roots in a mass group 
with a sense of privation or persecution; invariably it seeks 
to concentrate hatred on a minority scapegoat; invariably it 
tries to crush organized labor — the strongest group with a 
direct interest in extending the economic and political basis 
of democracy — and to keep the intellectuals intimidated, per- 
plexed, or silent until those who might furnish the articulate 
leadership against tyranny are confronted with the ugly fact 
of entrenched fascism. That is the way it happened in Ger- 
many, Spain, Italy, and Hungary; and that is the way it is 
now happening in the South. And, as usual, the spread of 
reaction in the South is so steady that those on the scene have 
generally not noticed it. 

By Southern fascism, I do not mean merely the spectacular 
antics of hate-spewing demagogues. The South has had too 
many of those — from Ben Tillman and Tom Watson, through 
Vardaman, Huey Long, and Blease, down to Bilbo and Rankin 

Patteens of Fascism — Southern Style 329 

and Talmadge. Their tactics are indefensible, and many 
Southerners — even conservatives — are willing to fight these 
men personally. But as a rule Southerners are not willing to 
go far enough and fight the basic evil of which these men are 
the superficial symptom. Like syphilitic sores, the Southern 
demagogues are but the external manifestation of a deeply 
rooted ill. It does no good to vote down a Cole Blease and 
leave the forces of hate and reaction dominant, directed by 
suaver personalities without the Blease mannerisms that 
antagonized' so many South Carolinians. 

Psychologically, the South is ripe for fascism. 1 The average 
white Southerner's thinking is regional, particularistic. He 
tends to rationalize all the shortcomings of the South by the 
fact that the South lost the Civil War — to most Southerners 
still the war, regardless of the events of the past seven years. 
There is a tendency to live in the past and romanticize it, 
with the social ideal (even of the underprivileged) paternal- 
istic chattel slavery and government by a plantation ol- 
igarchy. There are evidences that the South has not had its 
just share of the nation's wealth and opportunities — absentee 
ownership of factories, lower wages, higher freight rates, 
"basing point" price formulas, 2 inferior schools and health 
facilities. But instead of frankly recognizing these faults and 
trying to eliminate them — seeking the help of other sections 
when necessary — the average white Southerner does little 
more than grumble to himself and resent anyone from out- 
side who dares to point out these defects or suggest remedies 
for them. 

The chief minority scapegoat in the South is still the 
Negro — by now an actual numerical minority in every 
Southern state. Almost everywhere the Negro is economically 
a second-class citizen, concentrated in unskilled low-wage 
occupations. His economic gains under the New Deal and war- 
time full employment were only a fraction of what is needed 

i W. J. Cash, The Mind of the South, Knopf, 1941; Myrdal, An American 
Dilemma, Harper, 1942. 

2 The "Pittsburgh plus" formula of the steel industry required the purchaser 
of steel to pay the price at Pittsburgh, plus the freight from Pittsburgh to the 
point of consignment, regardless of the place of manufacture. As a result, the 
mills at Birmingham were never given a chance to exploit their geographical 
advantages in supplying Southern industry. 

330 Christian Frontiers 

to raise his standard of living — and that of the whole South — 
to something like parity with the rest of the country. There 
is little hope for much improvement during the postwar 
period, even if there is no depression which would automatic- 
ally put every minority at a disadvantage. For few white 
Southerners have come to realize that Negro prosperity is a 
necessary part of Southern prosperity — just as many Amer- 
icans in other sections have not come to realize that Southern 
prosperity is a necessary part of national prosperity. Even 
the war failed to shake the traditional Southern attitude to- 
ward the Negro. Racial segregation in the services, military 
task-discrimination against Negroes, and the economic and 
educational handicaps under which Negroes entered the 
service kept the white Southerner in uniform from appreciat- 
ing what the Negro soldier could accomplish with decent 
opportunities and intelligent leadership. The white South- 
erner who stayed at home grew meanwhile increasingly re- 
sentful over the scarcity of servants and the necessity of 
paying higher wages to those available. 3 

Since the surrender of Japan, the forces of hate and re- 
action in the South have been at work to keep the Negro 
from making further economic or political gains, and from 
making full use of those he has made. So far there have been 
only two spectacular outbreaks of violence — the looting of 
the Negro section of Columbia, Tennessee, under the sponsor- 
ship of state patrolmen, and the mass lynching of four Ne- 
groes near Monroe, Georgia; but there have been many 
intimidations and threats, and several reported floggings by 
masked bands. Southern senators have taken advantage of 
their right of unlimited debate to filibuster the FEPC out of 
existence and to postpone indefinitely the proposed 65-cents- 
an-hour minimum wage law. State and party officials have 
done their utmost to nullify Supreme Court decisions against 

3 During the war, It was common to hear Southerners condemn their former 
servants for "deserting" during the war, and threaten to "show them who's 
boss" when anticipated post-war unemployment sent the Negroes back "begging 
for their jobs." 

Patterns of Fascism — Southern Style 331 

racial discrimination in the primaries. 4 Demagogues — notably 
Bilbo and Rankin and Talmadge — have dragged out "white 
supremacy" and fear of Negro rule as campaign issues. 5 Less 
spectacular, but possibly far more ominous, like the gathering 
of clouds before the storm, is the whispering campaign of hate 
and fear that oozes its way through every conversation at 
the dinner table or in the locker-room or at the bar. The 
basis of this campaign is the defensively blatant assertion 
that the Negro is naturally inferior, and has made his only 
advancements toward civilization through his contact with 
the Southern white man. 6 The industrialist, defending job 
discrimination, asserts that Negroes cannot be trusted with 
animals or machinery, 7 or attacks unions as "communist" 
devices for helping Negroes to gang up and force their way 
into Southern factories and work alongside Southern white 
women and cheat Southern white men out of their jobs. 
Housewives, resenting their inability to secure docile Negro 
servants at low wages, openly resent the new "independence" 
of the Negroes and spread the rumors of mythical "Eleanor 
Clubs," "disappointment clubs," and "push clubs." 8 The focus 
of this resentment is the Negro's alleged desire for "social 
equality," the traditional Southern euphemism for "forced 

4 Governor Olin D. Johnston of South Carolina called a special session of the 
state legislature in 1944, which repealed all the state laws regulating primaries 
and ostensibly allowed the white primary subterfuge to continue on the grounds 
that the Democratic Party is a private organization with the right to pick its 
own members. 

s "Cotton Ed" Smith was defeated for renomination to the Senate in the 
South Carolina primary of 1944, but only after Gov. Johnston, his successful 
opponent, had come out for "white supremacy" as strongly as Smith. Bilbo and 
Rankin made the "Negro threat" their chief issue in their successful 1946 cam- 
paigns in the Mississippi primaries. In 1946 four of the eleven candidates for 
Governor in the South Carolina primaries appealed in their speeches to the 
anti-Negro prejudices of their audiences; a fifth made his stand for racial 
discrimination a part of his campaign literature. 

6 The theory of the beneficent influence of slavery on a naturally inferior 
race was generally used by the slave-owners to justify the institution from 
1830 to the Civil War. 

7 Industrialists, of course, have no scruples about employing Negro labor 
when white labor is unavailable. In several Georgia mills, during wartime 
strikes, Negroes were imported as strikebreakers and are still employed. 

8 The "disappointment club" myth circulated freely among Middle Tennessee 
housewives in 1943. The Charleston News and Courier, March 22, 1946, carried 
a story of a Negro in Florence, S. C, being sent to prison for belonging to a 
"push club." 

332 Christian Frontiers 

intermarriage," the non sequitur almost always dragged out to 
close a discussion of economic or political discrimination. 9 

Nor are the Negroes the only scapegoat. One of the 
economic and social consequences of slavery and of the caste 
system perpetuating its pattern was the fact that immigrant 
farmers and laborers usually found fairer economic oppor- 
tunities in other sections. As a result, except in the seaports, 
foreign-born whites are few and mostly concentrated in 
mercantile and catering occupations. This situation easily 
gives rise to a hatred rooted in ignorance, by which "foreign 
agitators" and "European riffraff" are blamed for all labor 
troubles and other forms of social unrest.' It is still easy to 
make political capital over the Civil War and Reconstruction, 
and to inveigh against national social legislation as attempts 
of the Yankees to interfere with the rights of the South." 
Anti-Catholic feeling is still latent, capable of being fanned 
by unscrupulous politicians: in most Southern communities 
Catholics are socially segregated and find it difficult to obtain 
public office or teaching positions in the public schools; more- 
over, the greater racial tolerance of the Catholic Church is 
used by Protestant agitators to spread anti-Catholic propa- 
ganda.' 2 Anti-Semitism, too, has grown in recent years; more- 
over, if there are greater and less degrees of such a basic 
evil, it is a particularly nauseous kind of anti-Semitism. It 
is not anti-Semitism arising from daily contact and economic 
competition — the Southern Jews are much less than one per 
cent of the population, often of pre-Revolutionary stock, and 
generally very well assimilated.' 3 In fact, it is hardly directed 
at the Southern Jews at all, except by implication; it is 

9 Myrdal points out that the right to intermarriage is not even an ultimate 
objective of most Negro leaders. 

to A stock criticism leveled at white Southerners who returned from the 
war with their racial attitudes changed is that they have been contaminated 
by associating with "Jews, Communists, and foreigners." 

1 1 The cry of "states' rights" is most loudly raised by Southern senators 
during their repeated filibusters against anti-lynching, anti-poll tax, FEPC, and 
minimum wage legislation. 

12 Anti-Catholic feeling of this nature was recently noticed even among 
upper-class white families in Charleston, S. C, where the parochial schools 
had made an effort to provide equal instructional facilities for both races. 

13 The Southern colonies generally had fewer restrictions against Jews than 
either the New England or Middle Atlantic colonies; South Carolina had none 
at all. 

Patterns of Fascism — Southern Style 333 

normally directed at the alleged "Jewish domination" of 
banking or industry or entertainment, or at the migration of 
Jewish tourists to Southern resorts. Its manifestations are 
mysterious anonymous slanders directed at Jews as a group, 
on subjects about which there is difficulty of rebuttal without 
a thorough analysis of the evidence — in short, the Hitler 
technique. 14 That such fostered resentment often spills over 
and hurts the old-stock Southern Jew is inevitable. 1 s 


If the prevalence of attacks on minorities points to a rise 
of fascism in the South, so does the accepted attitude towards 
organized labor. Unions are weaker in the South than in other 
sections; in South Carolina only 15 per cent of the 125,000 
textile operatives belong to a union.' 6 There are many reasons 
for this backwardness, some inherent in the nature of the 
Southern social context, others deliberately fostered by man- 
agement. Unionization lags behind industrialization, which 
came late to the South. The over-populated rural areas have 
always furnished a labor-surplus to whom industrial wages 
and working conditions, however poor, were far better than 
what they could hope for on the farm. 

The Southern worker is poorly educated and even more 
poorly read, and therefore inclined to trust the owner or 
manager as a recognized spokesman for the community. 
And — a long-recognized part of the Southern paradox' 7 — the 
intense individualism of the white Southerner, of whatever 
class, and his generations-long-fostered resentment of inter- 
ference from outsiders have made it difficult for him to 
appreciate the value of concerted action. Nor has manage- 

14 A typical slander is the allegation that there was no black market in 
shoes during the war because there were no Jews prominent in the shoe 

is Solomon Blatt of Barnwell has been Speaker of the South Carolina House 
of Representatives since 1935. During the war, when a member of the House 
cast slurs on the patriotism of Jews, Mr. Blatt tendered his resignation but 
was re-elected by acclamation. 

16 In Greenville County, S. C, with approximately 16,000 textile workers 
there was only one local union, with about 800 members, before the start of 
the CIO organizing drive. 

1 7 The coexistence of intense individualism and equally intense devotion to 
leaders is a recurrent theme in W. J. Cash, The Mind of the South. See, for 
example, pp. 31-44, 161-85, 191-6. 

334 Christian Frontiers 

ment missed many opportunities to keep the worker con- 
fused and dependent. The low-rent company villages, slightly 
better than the cabins the operative had lived in, perpetuated 
the pattern of the Negro "quarters" of the plantation econ- 
omy, keeping the workers near the mill and dependent on it 
for housing. 18 Local management (local superintendents even 
if the mill is but one unit in a Northern-owned chain) follows 
the traditional paternalistic pattern by speaking the dialect 
of the workers, calling them by their first names, inquiring 
after the health of their relatives, and presiding at fish-fries, 
church suppers, and political meetings. The company finally 
secures the domination of the social life of the mill village 
by building and controlling recreation halls, schools (in many 
industrial communities in the South, the mill-children are 
educationally segregated from the children of other economic 
backgrounds),' 9 and even the churches. 20 

Against these odds the progress of organizing has been 
painfully slow. Perhaps a majority of the locals organized in 
the South have been very short-lived. They usually start 
from intense resentment of a wage-cut or some new innova- 
tion in working conditions (the Bedeaux stretch-out touched 
off the first large-scale Southern textile strikes in 1929) with 
the sudden fervor of a Baptist camp-meeting, flare up into 
premature strikes, 21 and — even if the strike is not broken — 
gradually lapse into inactivity. Even if the local keeps enough 
membership to retain its charter and its contract with the 
mill, interest is seldom very strong; attendance at meetings 
is poor unless there is some outright grievance to fight 

is Company houses and company stores are more common in the Southern 
textile industry than in any other American industry; only coal-mining favors 
these practices on even a comparable scale. 

is In Greenville, S. C, there is a separate school district, the Parker District, 
supported and controlled by the mills for the workers' children. Actually, 
under the so-called luxury taxes, the workers themselves pay a large share 
of the cost. 

20 The management of the Hamrick Mills in Gaffney, S. C., has boasted of 
its success in using ministers to keep the workers "satisfied." The Rev. Howard 
Wilson, of Dunean Mill Baptist Church, has repeatedly spoken from his pulpit 
against the CIO drive in Dunean Mill. 

21 Francis Gorman, Southern director of the National Textile Workers' Union 
(AFL), admitted that the great strikes of 1934 were called prematurely, but 
pointed out that the local unions would have walked out even if the national 
office had forbidden it. 

Patterns of Fascism — Southern Style 335 

against, and active educational programs are almost non- 
existent. Even among the organizers and business agents 
there are many who have failed to grasp the meaning of the 
unions' program of economic democracy, and who not only 
echo the old racial hatreds of the community but assist in 
fanning them. 22 This is the situation confronting the CIO 
and AFL in their current drives to organize the South. 

The national labor organizations are now running head-on 
into a concerted campaign by management to prevent union- 
ization of unorganized plants and to break unions already 
established. Trade organs, such as Manufacturers Record and 
the Textile Bulletin, openly campaign for the abolition of the 
Wagner Act and the National Labor Board, expressing their 
hope that the death of President Roosevelt means "a more 
normal type" of Federal labor policy. During the big strikes 
in the steel, automobile, and electrical industries, the cor- 
porations generously sowed their propaganda ads in Southern 
newspapers, with probably greater success than elsewhere, 
for their ads represented a larger percentage of newspaper- 
income and were almost never answered by union advertis- 
ing. 23 Even the better newspapers in the South almost 
unanimously condemned the arguments of Philip Murray and 
Walter Reuther, and the smaller papers, particularly small- 
town weeklies, have spread violent anti-union propaganda — 
emphasizing communism, foreign influences, and the auto- 
cratic policies of such labor leaders as Lewis and Petrillo. 24 
That swindles exist in big business, that companies have 
repeatedly interfered with union meetings by direct brutal- 
ity or indirect pressure, is almost never mentioned. And at 
the same time extra-legal organizations are being formed to 

22 John D. Long, candidate for governor in the S. C. primaries of 1946, 
appealed to the prejudices of the textile worker against the industrialists and 
bankers, but was the most outspoken of the candidates in appealing to anti- 
Negro prejudice. In June of the same year, M. L. Wood, business agent of a 
CIO textile local in Columbia, S. C, refused the use of his hall to a meeting 
of the Southern organizing staff of the CIO textile union because a Negro 
delegate was to attend. 

23 It is not known whether the unions attempted to place advertising in 
Southern newspapers. None appeared in the South Carolina papers. 

24 A typical weekly is the Greenville (S. C) Observer. Its editorials are all 
anti-labor; it publishes hate-advertisements; its columnists, secular and religious, 
and its excerpts from other papers are consistently anti-labor, anti-New Deal, 
anti-Russian, and anti-OPA. 

336 Christian Frontiers 

spread hostility to organized labor in the cities and rural 
areas, so that every organizing drive may expect to meet a 
counter-drive of intimidation. 23 

In addition to their propaganda campaign to turn the rest 
of the community against organized labor, management has 
several well-established techniques for fighting the establish- 
ment of new locals and for weakening those already establish- 
ed. All of these techniques have been observed in the textile 
industry this year. Hardly had the CIO organizing campaign 
opened when the management of the unorganized mills 
announced wage increases, somewhat short of the union 
goal, but calculated to be enough to weaken the desire of the 
workers to organize. In more than one mill where union 
contracts existed, management offered wage increases on 
condition the check-off provision of the contract was rescind- 
ed, and stalled negotiations, threatening lockout unless the 
union came to terms; only the union's ultimatum of "check- 
off or strike" induced management to renew the old con- 
tract. 26 Often even this ultimatum is of no avail, and the 
workers are forced into protracted strikes, poorly publicized 
and with the community mobilized against them. 27 On one 
occasion, in Gaffney, South Carolina, the management sold 
part of the mill machinery and shipped it away, so that there 
would be fewer jobs for the workers to return to. There is no 
evidence that management will become less obdurate until 
the majority of the large plants are organized — if then. 

25 The Glavis reports on KKK activities in the 1920's showed that many 
Southern industrialists were active contributors. A revival of Klan activities 
has been reported from almost every Southern community in which the CIO 
has opened its organizing campaign. A Southern fascist organization, the 
Farmers States Rights Association, Incorporated, with headquarters in Rock 
Hill, S. C, has been actively planting its hate-propaganda in Southern news- 
papers. It appeals to anti-Negro and anti-foreign prejudice in building up 
resentment against the CIO. 

26 The management of Woodside Mills, Greenville, S. C, prolonged the 1946 
contract negotiations for three months, six weeks beyond the expiration of 
the old contract, before agreeing to continue the checkoff provision the union 
had had since 1941. 

27 In the 1945-6 strike of the Food, Tobacco, and Agricultural Workers (CIO) 
at the American Tobacco Company's Charleston plant, the only organized sup- 
port for the strikers came from the National Maritime Union. The News and 
Courier ran repeated anti-picketing editorials and invariably slanted its news 
coverage against the strikers. Protestant ministers condemned the strike; one 
rabbi and a few Roman Catholic priests supported the strikers, but not from 
the pulpit. 

Patterns of Fascism — Southern Style 337 


Against these reactionary forces, Southern intellectuals 
are offering little palpable resistance. Intellectuals as such 
are not numerous in the South, and the atmosphere in which 
they develop does little to foster a liberal attitude. Southern 
colleges and universities like Southern school systems, are 
notoriously inferior, as a group, to those of other sections. 
This inferiority is manifested in poorer laboratory and 
library facilities, but above all in the inability of Southern 
colleges to build up first-rate faculties. Academic salaries 
are lower, teaching loads heavier, working conditions less 
satisfactory, and tenure more precarious than elsewhere. 28 
Worse than all these handicaps are the restrictions of acad- 
emic freedom and personal liberty; there is almost always 
some fanatic in the state legislature leading periodic witch- 
hunts among the faculties of state institutions, and branding 
the professionally-minded educator as a "trouble-maker," or 
worse. 29 The tradition of military glory has set its stamp 
upon the organization and administration of the Southern 
college — in the large proportion of ROTC units, in the pattern 
of military preparatory schools and military colleges (the 
latter a type of institution virtually unknown outside the 
South), in a tendency to bring in retired generals and ad- 
mirals as college presidents 30 — with the consequent tendency 
to concentrate complete control of curriculum, teaching 
practices, and tenure in the hands of the president and his 

28 Of the thirteen "censured administrations" listed by the American Asso- 
ciation of University Professors in the 1946 summer issue of its Bulletin, nine 
were in Southern or border states. 

29 During the 1942 investigation of Winthrop College (Rock Hill, S. C.) for 
violating established principles of academic freedom and tenure, it was cus- 
tomary for the administration and its partisans in the state legislature to attack 
the reputations of the two women, Miss Helen Macdonald and Miss Elizabeth 
Harris, who had requested the investigation. In July, 1946, Dr. Ruth Stokes, 
for twelve years head of the mathematics department at Winthrop, was dis- 
missed during the summer session on ten days' notice, on insinuations of 
disloyalty because she had informed the associations that conditions on the 
campus had not been remedied. 

30 For example, Rear Admiral Smith at the University of South Carolina, 
General Summerall at the Citadel, General Hodges at LSU, and General 
Lejeune at VMI. Of these four, Lejeune alone refused to interfere with academic 
practices as being the proper concern of the faculty; the others have interfered 
in various degrees with schedules, budget, curricula, appointments, and college 

338 Christian Frontiers 

administrative staff, and to discourage all attempts at de- 
mocratizing college government. 31 

Nor is the tone of private colleges a great deal better than 
that of the public ones. Most of them were founded by the 
evangelical Protestant sects, and still remain under denom- 
inational control. Even the official position of the Southern 
denominations has lagged in accepting the findings of modern 
science and the necessity of building education around the 
scientific spirit of free inquiry; and each denomination has a 
fanatically fundamentalist wing, zealous in purging the de- 
nominational institutions of all intellectually disturbing in- 
fluences. 32 Even the few colleges with independent endow- 
ment do little to impress students with the necessity of social 
change — partly because wealth is conservative, partly be- 
cause attacks on community tabus would focus upon them 
the resentment of the more vocal factions in both state and 
church. In only three Southern universities of consequence — 
privately endowed Duke, and the state universities of Virginia 
and North Carolina 33 — is there an approximation of real 
academic freedom, and only North Carolina has come to grips 
with the basic problems in the social sciences. Even North 
Carolina has been financially hamstrung by a parsimonious 
state legislature, and is perpetually harassed by fundamental- 

31 Even so conservative an organization as the American Association of 
University Professors is frowned on by most Southern administrators and 
labeled the "college CIO." Faculty members active in AAUP frequently find 
themselves passed over for important committee assignments or for department 

32 Furman University, in Greenville, S. C, is one of the better Baptist 
colleges, with many distinguished names among its alumni and faculty, and 
with at least one outstanding liberal, the late Dr. E. M. Poteat, as a president. 
Yet within a period of thirteen years — in 1926, 1932, 1938, and 1939 — there 
were four inquisitions sponsored by the fundamentalist wing of the state 
Baptist convention. 

33 Duke, with its tremendous endowment from the estate of the late power 
magnate James B. Duke, has ironically pleased the liberals and disappointed 
the economic reactionaries who had hoped it would prove a counterpoise to 
the "dangerous radicalism" emanating from Chapel Hill. To attract the 
top-grade faculty needed to build a good university, it was necessary not only 
to pay good salaries but to leave teaching and research unhampered. As a 
result, Professor N. I. White of the Duke English Department could openly 
manage Norman Thomas' North Carolina campaign in 1932 without imperiling 
his job. 

Patterns of Fascism — Southern Style 339 

ist preachers and reactionary industrialists. 34 Elsewhere in 
the South the social sciences are to be handled gingerly: in 
so large an institution as the University of Texas, an able and 
popular president could find himself dismissed for attempting 
to protect his faculty from inquisitions by the O'Daniel polit- 
ical machine and the industrial lobbies. 35 

Except for the larger cities and the better universities 
(and none too many there), few Southern intellectuals are 
really committed to the liberal viewpoint. The weakness of 
Southern liberalism is shown in the paucity of legal aid 
clinics, in the virtual absence of branches of the American 
Civil Liberties Union, in the few intellectuals affiliated with 
the PAC, and in coolness toward the Southern Regional 
Council and the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 
Many self-characterized liberals will admit in principle the 
legitimacy of labor unions or the injustice of racial discrim- 
ination, but they hesitate to commit themselves on any spe- 
cific liberal proposal. Few Southern lawyers will handle cases 
for labor unions. 36 Fewer politicians will openly fight against 
racial discrimination. 37 Almost no teachers will advocate 
unionization of their profession. In short, racial segregation, 
ghettoization of industrial workers, and the tradition of white- 
collar work as something essentially more respectable than 
manual labor have succeeded in concealing the common 
interest of the white-collar, farm, and factory workers in pre- 
venting the manipulation of the community by a dominant 
few to the economic and social impoverishment of the rest. 

As the battle-lines are being drawn in the South, the pros- 
pect is enough to alarm liberals everywhere. The romantic 
myth of the Old South and the deeply ingrained sectional 

34 David Clark, editor of the Textile Bulletin, has repeatedly attacked the 
alleged radicalism of the University of North Carolina, and his diatribes have 
been echoed by most of the regional trade journals. In June, 1946, the maga- 
zine Dyestuff published a bitter attack on the attitudes and policies of the 

35 For a full report of the Texas incident, see the Bulletin of the American 
Association of University Professors, vol. 32 (1946), pp. 374-85. 

36 In the 1945-46 Charleston strike, the CIO was unable to get a single local 
lawyer to represent its members in court. 

37 In South Carolina, where the patterns of discrimination are most firmly 
established, not a single candidate for any office made any suggestion in the 
1946 primaries that the pattern should be modified. 

340 Christian Frontiers 

inferiority complex offer ready ammunition for the dema- 
gogues. Racial and religious prejudice are a centuries-old part 
of the social context, and seem growing rather than lessen- 
ing. Organized labor is weak, and publicly suspect; and few 
Southerners have the training or desire to furnish the intel- 
lectual and political leadership against reaction. Yet such 
leadership must be found if the forces of reaction are to be 
defeated; external pressure — national legislation sponsored 
by liberals from other sections, and the fearless exposure of 
undemocratic conditions by the liberal press everywhere — 
will help alleviate specific conditions, but for a true change 
in orientation, the leadership must be found in the South it- 
self. Otherwise, external pressure can be turned by the South- 
ern reactionaries, as it was turned by the Nazis, into ammuni- 
tion for their own cause — into evidence of "encirclement," of 
"conspiracy against Southern rights and Southern inter- 
ests." 38 The lack of training in democracy is so long-establish- 
ed in the South that even those able democratic leaders that 
arise have difficulty in keeping the support of the voters. 39 
It is only by mobilizing all the liberal forces — of labor and 
school and church — behind these few, and by the relentless 
determination of the liberals to pursue a long-time policy of 
education regardless of specific setbacks, that there is any 
hope of keeping the Southern fascists, by whatever name 
they may call themselves, from complete domination of their 

38 "Yankee interference in Southern affairs" was used as campaign propa- 
ganda by Talmadge, Bilbo, and Rankin in 1946. 

39 Ellis Amall is conceded to be one of the best governors any Southern 
state has ever had. Yet his endorsement and active support was not enough to 
swing the 1946 Georgia primary to Carmichael. In Alabama, Luther Patrick, 
one of the abler liberals in Congress, was defeated for renomination by a 
comparative unknown. 


Three Faiths issue Joint Statement on 
Cooperation for Economic Justice 

New York (RNS) — Organized 
cooperation of economic groups 
for the common good and subor- 
dination of the profit motive to 
the dictates of social justice were 
urged in a joint statement issued 
here by 122 Protestant, Roman 
Catholic, and Jewish leaders. 

The "Declaration of Economic 
Justice" said the moral law must 
govern economic life, with social 
justice as the goal and the com- 
mon good as the underlying 

It was stressed that the com- 
mon good requires the organiza- 
tion of men into free associations 
of their own choosing, that these 
groups must cooperate with gov- 
ernment, and that the state must 
intervene in economic life when- 
ever necessary to protect the 
rights of individuals and groups 
and aid in the advancement of 
the general economic welfare. 
International economic life, it 
was maintained, is likewise sub- 
ject to the moral law. 

The declaration was made pub- 
lic jointly by the Federal Coun- 
cil of Churches, the Social Action 
Department of the National Cath- 
olic Welfare Conference, and the 
Synagogue Council of America. 

Explaining the purpose of the 
statement, the three agencies de- 
clared it aimed to "demonstrate 
to the nation that a vast number 
of people of religious faiths hold 

a common concern in economic 
justice and well-being." 

Also, said the agencies, the 
declaration affirms "principles 
based upon a belief in God and 
His moral law which religious 
people hold must be applied to 
concrete issues and decisions in 
economic life." 

The joint declaration is the 
first to appear since before the 
war, others having been issued 
in 1938 and 1940. It originated 
at a two-day conference held last 
February and attended by an 
equal number of Protestant, 
Catholic, and Jewish representa- 

Each group prefaced the dec- 
laration with a special introduc- 
tion setting forth the nature of 
the statement and the special 
reasons for issuing it. The sign- 
ers comprised 39 leaders in Prot- 
estant communions and national 
organizations; 43 Catholic priests, 
religious and laymen; and 40 
representative rabbis and Jewish 

Major excerpts from the dec- 
laration follow: 

Moral Law: "Economic prob- 
lems are admittedly technical 
problems, but they are also the- 
ological and ethical . Ultimately 
they depend for their solution 
upon our concept of the nature 
of man — his origin and his des- 
tiny, his rights and his duties, 


Christian Frontiers 

his relationship to God and to 
his fellowmen." 

Material Resources: "The right 
to private property is limited by 
moral obligations and is subject 
to social restrictions for the 
common good. Certain types of 
property, because of their im- 
portance to the community, 
ought properly to be under state 
or other forms of public owner- 
ship. But in general the aim of 
economic life should be the 
widest possible diffusion of pro- 
ductive and consumptive prop- 
erty among the great masses of 
the people." 

Social Justice: "Stable and full 
employment cannot be achieved 
without a proper balance among 
prices, profits, wages and incomes 
generally. Wages must be main- 
tained at that level which will 
most effectively contribute to full 
employment. In many cases this 
will mean that wages must be 
raised above a standard family 
living wage, which is only the 
minimum requirement of justice. 
The common good further re- 
quires that special efforts be 
made to raise the earnings of 
sub-standard income groups, not 
only in justice to them, but also 
in the interest of continuous 

Profit Motive: "To make the 
profit motive the guiding prin- 
ciple in economic life is to violate 
the order which God Himself 
has established. The profit mo- 
tive, while useful within reason- 
able limits, must be subordinated 
to the motive of the service of 

human needs and the dictates of 
social justice." 

Free Association: "It is the 
duty of the free organizations of 
workers, farmers, employers, and 
professional people to govern 
themselves democratically and to 
assume their full responsibility 
for the ethical conduct of their 
own industry or profession and 
for the economic welfare of the 
community and all its parts. It 
is also their moral duty to admit 
to their membership all qualified 
persons without regard to race, 
creed, color, or national origin." 

Organized Cooperation: "Eco- 
nomic life is meant to be an 
organized and democratic part- 
nership for the general welfare 
rather than a competitive strug- 
gle for individual or group 
advantage. Accordingly, the in- 
dustries, agriculture and the pro- 
fessions must voluntarily enter 
into an organized system of co- 
operation among themselves and 
with the government to establish 
a rational and a moral economic 
order. The only alternatives to 
this are competitive economic 
individualism, private monopoly 
or excessive governmental inter- 
vention, all of which are unac- 
ceptable under the moral law." 

International Economic Life: 
"Organized international eco- 
nomic collaboration of groups 
and national governments to as- 
sist all states to provide an ade- 
quate standard of living for their 
citizens must replace the present 
economic monopoly and exploita- 
tion of natural resources by priv- 
ileged groups and states." 




New York (RNS) — The Fed- 
eral Council of Churches is con- 
cerned over the fact that no 
arrests have been made in the 
three-month-old "mob murder" 
of four Georgia Negroes. 

A resolution adopted here by 
the Council's executive commit- 
tee stressed that perpetrators of 
the crime have not been brought 
to justice despite the fact that 
Georgia's governor promised un- 
relenting action against the 

The committee commended 
several church groups in Georgia 
for demanding legal action in the 
case, specifically mentioning the 
Georgia Council of Church Wom- 
en, the Atlanta Methodist Min- 
isters Association, the First 
Methodist Church in Monroe, 
Ga., the Episcopal ministers in 
Atlanta, and the Georgia Synod 
of the Presbyterian Church in 
the U.S. (Southern). 




Amesbury, Mass. (RNS) — Ra- 
cial discrimination in a South 
African church may have been 
the deciding factor in preventing 
Mahatma Gandhi from becoming 
a Christian, Dr. Eddy Asirva- 
tham of Boston University de- 
clared here. 

Dr. Asirvatham, who is in this 
country on leave as head of the 
department of political science 

and public administration of the 
University of Madras, India, said 
Gandhi, while a young man in 
Africa, tried to enter a church 
there to hear a famous English 

He was refused admission, 
however, and was told that the 
church was for white people only, 
Dr. Asirvatham said. Because of 
that treatment, he continued, the 
Mahatma never again entered a 
Christian church. 


Johnstown, Pa. (RNS) — Racial 
segregation within the Protes- 
tant churches has become so 
completely accepted as a daily 
pattern of living that it is "al- 
most impossible" for white and 
Negro Christians to mingle in 
"common fellowship," Dr. Mark 
A. Dawber, executive secretary 
of the Home Missions Council 
of North America, charged here 
at the closing session of the tri- 
ennial convention of the Wom- 
en's Missionary Society of the 
United Lutheran Church. 

Negro hospitals, schools, and 
other institutions have been 
established by the churches on 
a rigid separatist policy directly 
repudiating New Testament 
teachings which hold that seg- 
regation is a "denial of the teach- 
ings of Jesus about the brother- 
hood of man," he declared. 

While viewing the future with 
optimism since more and more 
Protestant churches are "de- 
nouncing racial pride and race 
antagonism as sin," Dr. Dawber 
pointed out that the Roman 


Christian Frontiers 

Catholic Church "has been much 
more truly Christian in its atti- 
tude on race — and that is why it 
is getting the Negroes." 


New York (RNS)— The Protes- 
tant press in this country stands 
today as the champion of narrow 
denominationalism at a time 
when the rest of the world is 
progressing toward unity, ac- 
cording to an article in the 
autumn issue of Christendom, 
quarterly magazine published 
here by the American Commit- 
tee for the World Council of 

Written by R. E. Wolseley, 
Methodist layman and associate 
professor of journalism at Syra- 
cuse University, the article, 
entitled "The Church Press: Bul- 
wark of Denominational Sover- 
eignty," is based on a study of 
184 issues of 64 different papers 
and periodicals representing 21 
Protestant denominations. 


Greensboro, N. C. (RNS)— Two 
Negro groups — the Baptist Gen- 
eral Convention of North Caro- 
lina and the North Carolina Con- 
ference of the Methodist Central 
Jurisdiction — were admitted to 
membership in the North Caro- 
lina Council of Churches at its 
annual meeting here. Their ad- 
mittance brings to some 60 per 

cent the council's representation 
of total Protestant membership 
in the state. 

The council also approved a 
recommendation that a commit- 
tee be created to give further 
study to the need for spiritual 
ministry in public institutions. 
The committee was asked to 
assign local and state-wide re- 
sponsibility in the matter to in- 
dividual church groups. 


""Detroit (RNS)— Skills and ef- 
fectiveness that achieved the 
atomic age should be "at our dis- 
posal in helping to meet the 
world's need," the Midwest Re- 
gional Conference of Congrega- 
tional Churches declared here in' 
a statement of findings. 

Calling on Americans to "have 
peace among ourselves," the 350 
delegates from several states de- 
clared that shipments of food, 
clothing, and other supplies over- 
seas should carry the messages: 
"Let's Rebuild Together," and 
"Let's Make All Men Free." 

"The establishing of decent 
standards of life for all should 
be the aim of every economy," 
the findings declared. 

The delegates also pledged sup- 
port to the World Council of 
Churches, which "can be a 
mighty force moving toward one 
world when given the whole- 
hearted support of Christians